Apollo 11 Lunar Surface
        Journal

 

Lunar Surface Flown Apollo 11 Artifacts
From the Neil Armstrong Estate
on loan to the
Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum, Washington D.C. 

Assembled by Eric Jones, Ulli Lotzmann, Ken Glover, and Allan Needell.
Except where noted, photos were taken by Lisa Young of the National Air and Space Museum Conservation Unit
in November-December 2014.  Additional images were taken on April 14, 2014 by Ulli Lotzmann at the
Paul E. Garber Facility, Suitland, Maryland, with special thanks to Allan Needell and Jennifer Levasseur.
Thanks, also, to Mike Blaney, Paul Fjeld, John Fongheiser, Fred Karst, Brian McInall, Gary Neff, J.L. Pickering, and Thomas Schwagmeier.
First released 7 February 2015. Last revised 6 January 2016.
Neil in the LM Cabin after
          the EVA

A smiling Neil Armstrong in the LM cabin after the EVA.
(Click on the image for a larger version.)



Apollo 11 Purse and Contents

After Neil Armstrong's death (25 August 2012), his widow, Carol, discovered a white, (beta)cloth bag in a closet, containing what were obviously either flight or space related artifacts. She contacted Allan Needell, curator of the Apollo collection at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum, and provided photographs of the items.  Needell, who immediately realized that the bag - known to the astronauts as the Purse - and its contents could be hardware from the Apollo 11 mission, asked the authors for support in identifying and documenting the flight history and purpose of these artifacts. After some research it became apparent that the purse and its contents were lunar surface equipment carried in the Lunar Module Eagle during the epic journey of Apollo 11. These artifacts are among the very few Apollo 11 flown items brought back from Tranquility Base and, thus, are of priceless historical value. Of utmost importance is the 16mm movie camera with its 10mm lens. The camera  was mounted behind the right forward window of the lunar module and was used  to film the final phase of the descent to the lunar surface, the landing, as well as Neil Armstrong‘s and Buzz Aldrin‘s activities on the lunar surface including taking the first samples of lunar soil and planting the US flag.  Thanks to the Neil Armstrong family, the Apollo 11 purse and its contents are now on loan at the National Air and Space Museum for preservation, research and eventual public display.
 

Armstrong
          Purse Contents


The photo above was provided to Allan Needell by Carol Armstrong and shows the bag and its contents after their discovery. Used with permission. (Click on the image for a larger version.)

Clickable Collection Map

Armstrong Purse_finalnumbers-sm
#18 #12 #12a #12b #17 #7 #8 #14 #13 #9 #6 #11 #5 #10 #4 #3 #16 #15 #2 #1

In this version of the photograph, 20 individual items are numbered.  The numbers can be clicked on the image or in the table for access to further information about each item.  The right-angle bracket (numbered 12a in the table) and the 10-mm lens (12b) are attached to the DAC.


Table: Part and Serial Numbers

(Click on the item number to go to a discussion of the item)

Item Number
Name
Part Number
Serial Number
1 Temporary Stowage Bag (aka 'Purse')
LDW340-53444-1
0014
2
Power Cable for DAC (item 12)
LDW340-52689
0004
3
Utility Light with Power Cable
LDW340-53053-3-3
0002
4
Utility Light
LDW340-53053-3-3 0001
5
Utility Bracket Assembly (aka Utility Clamp)
LDW-340M11566-11; LDW340-52040-1-1; LD-340-53051-3
Inspection stamp 651
6
Utility Bracket Assembly (aka Utility Clamp) LDW-340M11566-11; LDW340-52040-1-1; LD-340-53051-3  Inspection stamp 738
7
Crewman Optical Alignment Sight (COAS)
ME331-0018-0021
06359-0741 BKA
8
Filter (Snap-on for COAS)
ME331-0018-0023 06359-1285BKA
9
Light Bulb Assembly (Spare for COAS)
B50258-1
152
10
Waist Tether (aka EVA Tether)
SEB33100192-305; SEB33100221-303 (large snaphook); SEB331100200-303 (small snaphook)
1033; 2001; 2005
11
Helmet Tie Down Strap (2)
SEB33100016-302 1101; 1102
12
Data Acquisition Camera (DAC -16mm movie) SEB33100100-206
1035
12a
Right-Angle Bracket Adapter (for DAC)
SEB331 00277-303
1008
12b
10-mm lens (for DAC)
SEB331-00010-302
1016
13
Lens Shade (Teflon; for 10mm lens on DAC)
N/A
N/A
14
Eyeguard Assembly (for AOT)
6011834-011; 6011104A
KIC 22; KIC 29
15
Mirror (Metal)
LDW340-52035-3-2
NA
16
Tool B - Emergency Wrench
V36-601400-21
0632 AAH 6103
17
Waste Management Cover
LDW340-55335-7

18
Netting
LDW340-54348-31
0001


The purse and its contents were mentioned by the crew on three occasions after Neil and Buzz rejoined Mike Collins in lunar orbit.

(1) After Neil and Buzz pass the rock boxes and the contingency sample across to Mike, about an hour after they get the hatches of the two docked spacecraft open and about 50 minutes before they jettison the LM, Neil says to Mike, almost certainly while passing the purse across:
129:14:53 CDR: You know, that - that one's just a bunch of trash that we want to take back - LM parts, odds and ends, and it won't stay closed by itself. We'll have to figure something out for it.
(2) Nearly 24 hours after the Trans-Earth Injection burn, Mike tells CapCom Charlie Duke:
156:17:10 CMP: What we'll do Charlie, tomorrow, is go through and reconfigure our stowage as closely as possible to nominal. Some things that will not be nominal are as follows: the EVA visors were brought back into the Command Module, and we have not yet found a home for them. We'll let you know where they go. In addition, there's about 5 pounds of miscellaneous weight from the LM in compartment A-8, and it's taking the place of the LCGs which we moved from A-8 into the suit bag. We got rid of one miscellaneous trash bag, mostly old food wrapping and also old underwear and that helmet protective visor of the CMP's. We left all that with Eagle. And those are about the only off-nominals we have.

(3) About a half hour before the crew's final rest period before re-entry and splashdown, Mike is reviewing the Entry Checklist with Charlie Duke:
181:38:04 CMP: And compartment A8, delete two LCG's, add one PPK (Personal Preference Kit), making a total of four, and add 10 pounds of LM miscellaneous equipment. We told you five the other day. We think ten is probably closer.

These transmissions clearly indicate that the purse was stowed in CM compartment A-8 from at least 156:17:10 onward.
As for the estimated weights Mike mentioned, the following are A11 stowage list weights for the large items that came back in the purse:

DAC, 1.7 lb; COAS, 1.5; Mirror, 0.2; Utility Lights (2), 3.0 lb includes cords, clamps, and brackets.
Total, these items, 6.4 lb.


Temporary Stowage Bag (TSB or Purse)


Detail from
          AS11-36-5397


Mission photograph AS-36-5397 shows Buzz Aldrin holding the TSB during a LM inspection at about 55 hours 41 minutes into the mission on the way out to the Moon.
(Click on the image for a larger version.)


The TSB was also called the McDivitt Purse - or just the Purse. During training for Apollo 9, Commander Jim McDivitt, recognized the need for a stowage bag that could be positioned at the front of the spacecraft to hold items, such as the purge valves, which might otherwise fall to the cabin floor while they were preparing for EVAs.  The TSB resembles a woman's purse that opens at the top and, when closed, has a triangular cross section. Hence the name. 


TSB with top open


Apollo 11 Purse with top open. The pin at the upper left and a second pin at the other end of the same bar were inserted in matching holes on the edge of Panel 5, in front of the Commander's station to the left of the hatch. The purse attachment points in the Apollo 12 LM are shown in a labeled detail from a photo taken during cabin close-out shortly before the launch.  See, also, a discussion and photographs of the flown Apollo 12 purse, including a 16-mm movie frame showing the Apollo 17 purse attached to the edge of Panel 5. Lotzmann photo.




Detail of
          back surface

At 109:16:49, while Neil was getting lined up to go out the hatch for the EVA, Buzz told him, "Your back is up against the purse."  This suggests that, when Neil re-entered the cabin with his suit covered with dust that rained down on him while he was using the Lunar Equipment Conveyor (LEC), some of the dust may have adhered to the back surface of the purse. Brian McInall notes that, given the amount of dust they brought in on the suits, there could well be be lunar dust on the surface facing into the cabin. Allan Needell calls attention to the serial number, S/N 0014, faintly visible above center in this Lotzmann image. Ulli has provided an enhancement and notes that the Apollo 12 Purse is S/N 0015. (Click on the image for a larger version.)

Additional Lotzmann Photos

(Click on the images for larger versions)

Back
                  surface Left end
Front side, facing
                  into the cabin right side
Back side, closest to forward bulkhead and hatch
Left end, with top closed
Front side, facing into the cabin
Right end, facing toward Aldrin's side of the cabin

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Utility Lights with Power Cables

Utility Lights in LM Simulator


Detail from Apollo 11 training photo S69-38678 showing Neil in a LM simulator.  One of the two utility lights is attached to the yellow Upper PLSS Mounting Station Pin recessed in the ceiling above his head. The other is out of the field-of-view to the right.  A labeled version of AS11-36-5390 shows one of the utility lights sticking out of the Interim Stowage Assembly (ISA) which was attached to the Alignment Optical Telescope during the trip out from Earth.


Utility Light S/N 0001

Lotzmann photo Utility Light S/N 0001
LY photo Utility Light S/N/0001
LY photo Utility Light S/N/0001
LY photo Utility Light S/N/0001


S/N 0001 is the Utility Light which, when removed from the Purse at the Armstrong home, had a Utility Bracket Assembly (sometimes called a Utility Clamp) attached. Photo used with permission. The Velcro patches on the top surface of the light would have allowed placement in locations where there were no good attachment points for the bracket.  During the launch from Earth, the utility lights, cords, and brackets were stowed in the Interim Stowage Assembly (ISA) in the LM cabin. Lotzmann photograph at upper left; others National Air and Space Museum Conservation Photographs.  A labeled detail from AS11-36-5399 shows part of one of the utility light power cords sticking out of the ISA.
(Click on the images for larger versions.)


Utility Light S/N 0002

LY
                  Conservation photo Utility lamp SN 0002
Lisa Young photo Utility Light S/N/0002
Lisa Young Photo Utility Light S/N 0002
Lisa Young image Utility Light S/N/ 0002


Utility Light S/N 0002. National Air and Space Museum Conservation Photographs.
(Click on the images for larger versions.)


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Utility Bracket Assembly


There were two bracket assemblies available for use with the DAC or the Utility Lights.  During the trip out from Earth, they were stowed in the Interim Stowage Assembly (ISA) attached to the Alignment Optical Telescope Guard at the front of the cabin above the main instrument panels.  The ISA was later moved when the crew prepared for undocking from the Command Module. As labeled in the Apollo 12 training photo below, each Bracket Assembly had a clamp at one end which could be loosened or tightened with a thumbscrew.  At the other end was a female bracket - rather like shoe-type brackets used to attached flash units to cameras - which could be fitted to a male fitting on a Utility Light or on the Data Acquisition Camera (DAC).


Detail from 69-H-1676


Detail from a posed training picture, ap12-69-H-1676, showing Alan Bean in a LM simulator on 21 October 1969.  The two Utility Lights are clamped to the AOT (Alignment Optical Telescope) guard.


Utility Clamp (L)DW-340M11545-11 / Bracket LD-340-53051-3 / Inspection Stamp 651


Utily Clamp attached to Light S/N
          0001


This Utility Bracket Assembly was attached to Utility Light S/N 0001 when photographed in the Armstrong home. It can be distinguished from the other Bracket Assembly because (1) the vertical portion of the "L" in part number LDW340M11545-11 on the clamp jaw is missing and (2) the clamp is clearly marked with a '651' inspection stamp. Photo courtesy Carol Armstrong and Allan Needell and used with permission. (Click on the image for a larger version.)


NASM Conservation Photographs

Lisa Young image of Utility bracket '561'
Lisa Young image of Utility bracket '561'
Lisa Young image of Utility bracket '561'
Lisa Young image of Utility bracket '561'
Lisa Young image of Utility bracket '561'
Lisa Young image of Utility bracket '561'


In the images in the top row and middle row right, the upper thumbscrew is used to tighten or release the clamp jaws.  Note the grip pads on the inner surfaces of both clamp jaws.  The lower thumbscrew is used to loosen or secure the mechanism that allows the relative orientation of the clamp and bracket to be chosen. The bracket at the bottom is used to mate the Assembly to either the DAC or one of the Utility Lights. Operation of the bracket is described in a section below.
(Click on the images for larger versions)



Utility Clamp LDW-340M11545-11 / Bracket LD-340-53051-3 / Inspection Stamp 738

NASM Conservation Photographs

Lisa Young Photo of Bracket Assembly '738'
Lisa Young Photo of Bracket Assembly '738'
Lisa Young Photo of Bracket Assembly '738'
Lisa Young Photo of Bracket Assembly '738'
Lisa Young Photo of Bracket Assembly '738'
Lisa Young Photo of Bracket Assembly '738'


Utility Bracket Assembly with Inspection stamp '738'.  A comparison between the LDW340 stamp on this bracket, on the one with inspection stamp 651, and a detail from AS11-36-5397 indicate that '738' is the bracket Buzz attached to the crash bar for filming the descent and landing, primarily because the LDW340 portion of '738' is next to the bracket, was well inked, and was firmly pressed. In contrast, the stamp on '651' is relatively faint and inverted, putting the LDW340 portion farthest from the bracket.
(Click on the images for larger versions.)


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Yellow Paint Particles on the Utility Clamps

In training photos, the Utility Clamps are often seen attached to the Alignment Optical Telescope Guard (AOT).  The guard is painted yellow and, during close examination of the Apollo 11 Bracket Assemblies, Lisa Young at the National Air and Space Museum Conservation Unit noted what are probably particles of yellow paint in the well of the clamp body of both Utility Bracket Assemblies. Lisa writes "Most of the paint residue I saw was sort of spread throughout the entire screw mechanism and seemed to be loose, i.e. not all of it was adhered to the screw threads."

NASM Conservation Photographs

Detail of yellow paint in clamp well
Detail of clamp well
Detail of clamp well
Detail of clamp well


The top two images are details showing numerous yellow paint particles in the well of the clamp with inspection stamp  '651'.  The bottom two images show two clearly visible yellow paint particles in the well of the clamp with inspection stamp '738'. Note the differences in the red markings on each clamp and the presence of a teflon washer resting diagonally across the tightening screw in the bottom two images.  (Click on the images for larger versions.)


Fred Karst, Director of Service Engineering at Gulfstream Aerospace (a corporate descendant of Grumman, the company that manufactured the Lunar Modules), provides the following information about Zinc Chromate Primer, which is very likely to be the coating on the AOT Guard:

"For the LM, they would need corrosion protection as the vehicle would be in storage waiting for its flight. In Florida with its a very humid and salt laden air environment, protection would even be needed in a clean room. In aerospace, the vehicle is typically manufactured up to the primer coat. It is that primer coat that would be that yellow color, as that is the natural color of the chromates."

Karst provided a photo of S-IVB stages being assembled, with yellow primer much in evidence.

Fred adds "If the yellow material of the AOT guard is, in fact, the yellow epoxy paint that Grumman used - and for that matter we still do at Gulfstream, with our Grumman heritage - it tends to be brittle and will chip or flake off. The marks of yellow on the (snap)hook really do look like primer marks."

The particles of yellow paint were probably scratched off the AOT guard when the clamps were either fastened to or removed from the AOT guard.  The paint particles currently in the wells may not have been scraped off the guard during the mission but, rather, during Crew Compartment Fit and Function sessions done prior to the mission. See a discussion by Jack Schmitt.  The following image is an enlarged detail from a photo taken during the Apollo 15 LM close-out at the Cape a day or two before launch.  Similar photos from Apollos 12, 16, and 17 show scratches on each of the AOT guards.


Detail of AOT guard damage


Detail from an Apollo 15 LM close-out photo showing damage to the yellow paint on the AOT guard done by the clamps.

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Utility Bracket Operation

Lotzmann Photos

(The item shown is not in the Smithsonian collection nor among the Armstrong material)

front view engaged
side view engaged
front view, disengaged
side view disengaged


(Top Left) Front view of the bottom of the utility bracket in its engaged position; (Top Right) Side view of the bracket in its engaged configuration; (Bottom row) Upward pressure on the front of the rocker arm, pulls a locking bar downward out of the way so that the male fitting on a utility light or the DAC can be inserted from left to right as seen in the side views. (Click on the images for larger versions.)


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Crewman Optical Alignment Sight (COAS)



COAS from the side
          knobs at back

Crewman Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) which was installed above Armstrong's window. Adjustment wheels on the side away from the camera. Lotzmann photo.
(Click on the image for a larger version)


Detail from
          As11-36-5398

Detail from AS11-36-5398, showing the COAS mounted above Armstrong's window.  Photo taken by Armstrong during the initial LM imspection during the trip out from Earth. Note that the combiner end is down.  (Click on the image for a larger version.)  The COAS can also be seen in a labeled version of AS11-37-5527, and in AS11-37-5529, both of which were taken after the EVA. See, also, a photo taken on 18 March 1969, of a COAS mounted in the Neil's window the day before a run in the Altitude chamber; and a labeled version of AS11-36-5390.



From the Apollo News Reference, pp. CPE10-11):

The COAS provides the Commander with gross range cues and closing rate cues during the docking maneuver. The closing operation, from 150 feet to contact, is an ocular, kinesthetic (eye, hand) coordination that requires control with minimal use of fuel and time. The COAS provides the Commander with a fixed line-of-sight attitude reference image, which appears to be the same distance away as the target.

The COAS is a collimating instrument. It weighs approximately 1.5 pounds, is 8 inches long, and operates from a 28-volt d-c power source. The COAS consists of a lamp with an intensity control, a reticle, a barrel-shaped housing and mounting track, and a combiner (the angled piece of glass) and power receptacle. The reticle has vertical and horizontal 10-degree gradations in a 10-degree segment of the circular combiner glass, on an elevation scale (right side) of -10 degrees to +31.5 degrees. The COAS is capped and secured to its mount above the left window (position No. 1). To use the COAS, it is moved from position No. 1 to its mount on the overhead docking window frame (position No. 2) and the panel switch is set from OFF to OVHD. The intensity control is turned clockwise until the reticle appears on the combiner glass; it is adjusted for required brightness.

The docking target permits docking to be accomplished on a three-dimensional alignment basis. The target consists of an inner circle and a standoff cross of black with self-illuminating disks within an outer circumference of white. The target-base diameter is 17.68 inches. The standoff cross is centered 15 inches higher than the base and, as seen at the intercept, is parallel to the X-axis and perpendicular to the Y-axis and the Z-axis.






LM News Reference page CPE-11

Page CPE-11 in the Grumman Lunar Module News Reference.


Lotzmann Photos

side view
                  with adjustment wheel toward camera
DSC06949
DSC06951
DSC06952
Side view with adjustment wheels toward camera.  The combiner is on the left and the light-source cap is on the right. Mounting track facing upward.
View along mounting track with filter (combiner)-end closest to the camera.  Note that the black/yellow wires seem to connect with electrical contacts at the far end of the bracket.
View of the light-source cap.  The box on the left may be a mechanism for adjusting the light source intensity.
View through the combiner.

The text from the LM News Reference uses the words "Mounting track".  The two photos on the left indicate that electrical contact with the dc power source is made at the top of the track (farthest from the diagonally mounted combiner) and that current flows through the yellow and black wires into the adjacent, side-mounted box.
(Click on the images for larger versions)


HD video frame
                    of COAS
HD video frame
                    of COAS


The upper end of the COAS could be rotated to any of three detents.  These detents put the reticle in orientations suitable for the COAS being mounted in the CDR's window (LW = Left Window), the Rendezvous window (OW = Overhead Window), or the LMP's window (RW = Right Window. Lotzmann high-definition video frames. (Click on the images for larger versions.)


NASM Conservation Photographs

LY NASM Conservation COAS photos
LY NASM Conservation COAS photos
LY NASM Conservation COAS photos
LY NASM Conservation COAS photos
LY NASM Conservation COAS photos
LY NASM Conservation COAS photos


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COAS Filter with Casing

NASM Conservation Photographs

LY NASM Conservation photo - COAS filter
LY NASM Conservation photo - COAS filter
LY NASM Conservation photo - COAS filter
LY NASM Conservation photo - COAS filter
LY NASM Conservation photo - COAS filter
LY NASM Conservation photo - COAS filter


COAS filter. Note the spring clips, one on each side, in the righthand images in the top two rows.
 
(Click on the images for larger versions.)

COAS with Filter Installed

NASM Conservation Photographs

NASM
                  Conservation Photo COAS with Filter
NASM
                  Conservation Photo COAS with Filter
NASM
                  Conservation Photo COAS with Filter
NASM
                  Conservation Photo COAS with Filter


Apollo 11 COAS with filter installed.
(Click on the images for larger versions)

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Crewman Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) Spare Light Bulb Assembly


Lotmann photo
          Spare COAS bulb


COAS light bulb assembly (spare). An identical assembly was on the end of the COAS closest to the cabin overhead. This spare was stowed in the Right-Hand-Side Stowage Compartment (RHSSC) next to Buzz's flight station. Images of the Apollo 12 and Apollo 15 flown items are available from external sources.  See, also, a description from Dave Scott of the flown Apollo 15 item. Lotzmann photograph. (Click on the image for a larger version.)


NASM Conservation Photographs


NASM Conservation photo LY COAS Light Source
                  (spare)
NASM Conservation photo LY COAS Light Source
                  (spare)
NASM Conservation photo LY COAS Light Source
                  (spare)
NASM Conservation photo LY COAS Light Source
                  (spare)
NASM Conservation photo LY COAS Light Source
                  (spare)
NASM Conservation photo LY COAS Light Source
                  (spare)

(Click on the images for larger versions.)

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Waist Tether (EVA)

NASM Conservation Photograph

Apollo
            11 Waist Tether


There were two waist tethers (also known as EVA tethers) in the LEC-Waist Tether Kit. This one was returned to Earth.  The other, presumably, was left behind in the LM ascent stage.
(Click on the image for a larger version.)


NASM Conservation Photographs

LY
                  NASM Conservation Photo Waist Tether
LY
                  NASM Conservation Photo Waist Tether
LY
                  NASM Conservation Photo Waist Tether
LY
                  NASM Conservation Photo Waist Tether
LY
                  NASM Conservation Photo Waist Tether
LY
                  NASM Conservation Photo Waist Tether


The Waist Tether has a snaphook at each end, one considerably larger than the other. Each hook has a gate which allows easy attachment to a ring attached to a suit or piece of equipment or to the porch rail.  The overall length of the tether - from hook tip to hook tip - is 50 inches (127 cm); the strap width is 1 inch (2.5 cm); the large hook is 7.5 inches (19 cm) long and has a maximum width of 2.25 inches (5.7 cm); the small hook is 5 inches (12.7 cm) by 1.5 inches (3.8 cm). As can be seen in the two photos in the middle row, each hook has a push-button lock.  Note that one side of the large hook (middle left image) shows the locking button in its open position, an engraved marking 'Push to Lock', and a stamped assembly number and serial number.  The other side (bottom left) has a large engraved letter 'L' and a stamped part number on the gate. The gray scale card seen in the upper left and lower right images has a length scale marked in mm and cm.
(Click on the images for  larger versions.)

Lotzmann Close-up Photos

Lotzmann
                  Large Tether Hook
Lotazmann with
                  large hook open
Lotzmann
                  snap hook close-ups
Lotzmann/Garber small hook


Lotzmann close-ups of the large snaphook (top row) and the small snaphook (bottom row).  The small hook shows scratches on both sides, particular in the full resolution versions.
(Click on the images for larger versions.)


The tethers were primarily intended for use during an EVA transfer to the CM, should one be necessary after rendezvous. Tethers were first developed for use during an EVA transfer by Apollo 9 LMP Rusty Schweikart.

During the Apollo 11 lunar surface EVA, Buzz took one outside and attached it to the base of porch rail on his left, in case it was needed for raising or lowering gear between the porch and the surface.  It wasn't needed during the EVA.  At the end of the EVA, either Buzz or Neil took it back inside the cabin in case they might need it when they returned to lunar orbit.

During the rest period, Neil used one of the tethers to suspend his legs while he lay on the ascent engine cover, trying to rest. The evidence presented below clearly indicates that the tether that Neil brought back to Earth was (1) the one he used during the rest period; and (2) was not the one Buzz took outside and hooked to the porch railing for the duration of the EVA.


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Evidence that the waist tether Buzz hooked to the porch railing was not the one Neil brought back to Earth

During preparations for the EVA, just prior to PLSS and OPS donning, the list of steps on LM Lunar Surface Checklist page 26  had the crew remove the 80mm Hasselblad from the Right Hand Side Stowage Compartment (RHSSC), attach a magazine, check operation of the camera, and then put the camera back in the RHSSC.  The 80mm Hasselblad did not have a reflective silver-colored finish and was not intended for use out on the surface.  Next, the crew were to take the Lunar Equipment Conveyor (LEC) and one of the Waist Tethers from the LEC/TTHR package and, five lines up from the bottom of the page, attach the waist tether to the 80mm Hasselblad, which they apparently left in the RHSSC while they donned the PLSSs. The next mention of the 80mm Hasselblad in the procedures is on page 44 of the Final Lunar Surface Procedures, just before Buzz leaves the cabin:  "Place spare Hasselblad camera on floor at left side of +Z hatch. Check EVA tether attached."  Clearly, Buzz did not leave the tether attached to the spare Hasselblad but, rather, took it outside and attached it to the porch railing.  Had they needed the spare Hasselblad, it would have been easy for Buzz to climb the ladder, reach in to get the camera from the cabin floor, and attach it to the small snaphook for lowering. This minor change in procedures may have come up late in training, too late for changes to be made in the printed procedures now available.  Indeed, a check of the Apollo 11 Crew Training documentation, shows that Buzz did a 1/6-g training session in the KC-135 on 10 July 1969, and a photo from that session shows Buzz attaching the large snaphook of what is almost certainly a waist tether to the rail on his left, just as he did at Tranquility.

Training photo of a waist tether hooked to the porch rail

det from S69-31188

Detail from Apollo 11 photo S69-31188, taken at a training session on 15 April 1969 at the Cape.  It shows a waist tether hanging from the left porch rail with a black, non-EVA Hasselblad hanging from the small snaphook at the bottom. The Descent stage is 323 cm tall; the tether is 127 cm from hook tip to hook tip. (Click on the image for a larger version.)


Apollo 11 mission photo of a waist tether attached to the porch rail


Waist Tether labeled in 5868 detail

Labeled detail for AS11-40-5868, one of Neil's shots of Buzz coming down the ladder, showing a waist tether hooked to the porch rail. A more complete detail also shows the Lunar Equipment Conveyor (LEC) that they used to transfer the surface Hasselblad down from the cabin, including one of the two LEC snaphooks and a large snaphook hanging at the bottom of Buzz's PGA tiedown strap.


Enlarged enhanced deta 5868 Large Hook


Enhanced detail of the large snaphook attached to the porch rail.  Note that, although the top of the hook is toward the hatch, the strap comes around from the base of the hook on the far side, then up onto the porch, passes around the porch rail above the porch surface and hangs downward on the far side.  The 'lock' button is on the side nearest the camera, with something engraved below the button.


Journal Contributor Brian McInall has examined this picture and others and shows that the Waist Tether Buzz attached to the porch rail is not the one Neil brought back to Earth.  The hypothesis depends on mirror symmetries between the two flown tether straps and snaphooks.  Although we don't have relevant pre-flight images of the large hooks, we do have an image showing differences between the small hooks and the part of the tether straps attached to them.


Waist tethers in LEC outer bag


This detail from S69-37997 shows the two waist tether in the bottom of the outer bag that held the LEC, the waist tethers, and the large snaphooks that the crew would attach to the PGA tiedowns below their RCUs before the EVA. The small hooks are facing each other with the "Push-to-Lock" engraving up on the near hook and the "Push-to-Lock" engraving down on the far hook.  Note that there is a white reinforcement patch facing up on each of the straps, just to the left of the strap attachment to the buckles. Note that this photo does not show the flown tethers.  However, it was taken on 23 June 1969 and almost certainly shows tethers identical to those flown on Apollo 11.


Returned Tether
Returned tether inverse


The pair of images of the Returned Tether shows there is a white reinforcement patch only on one side of the strap near the small snaphook; and one white reinforcement patch at the end of the strap near the large hook and a longer, Part/Serial number tag close to the buckle on the bottom of the large hook. Because the white reinforcement patch near the small snaphook faces down when the "Push-to-Lock" engraving is up, we conclude that, in the photo of the two tethers in the LEC outer bag, the one at the back is an identical twin of the Returned Tether.



Before we reconsider details from AS11-40-5868, which was taken about 5 meters southwest of the porch, the next figure features AS11-40-5872, which Neil took from about 15 meters north and 8 meters west from the porch, giving us a view of the side of the large hook hidden in 5868.


Detail from 5872 showing back of large hook


This detail from AS11-40-5872 shows the ladder at center right. The highlighted magnification at the lower right shows the front edge of the porch slanting slightly down to the right from the circle center and the left porch rail running diagonally up and slightly to the left from the circle center.  Hanging down below the left edge of the porch is the distinctive pattern of the white reinforcement patch and, above it, the longer Part No./Serial No. tag.  The white object the lower right in the magnification is a spacecraft part in the
background.


5868 compared with Returned Tether


Left image: enhanced, labeled detail from 5868. Center image: Large hook on the Returned Tether with the back 'flat' of the hook latch, the buckle, and the hook gate in the same relative positions as the hook in 5868. Right image: Large hook on the Returned Tether turned 180 degrees around its long axis.


In a comparison between the left and center images above, the most important detail is that both the short, adjustment portion of the strap (the portion that includes the reinforcement patch and the Part/Serial No. label) and the main portion of the strap leave the buckle on the hidden, back side of the hook attached to the porch rail (left image) while they leave the buckle on the visible side of the buckle on the Returned Tether (center image). Another telling detail is that, on the hook attached to the porch rail (left image), the short, adjustment portion of the strap shows only an edge of the reinforcement patch.  As we know from 5872, both the patch and label are clearly visible from locations north of the ladder.  In the center image, the patch and label are facing the viewer. In the right image, only an edge of the patch is visible, but only because the Returned Tether is rotated 180 degrees around its long axis.  This illustrates the mirror symmetries the two tethers in a set.

As noted previously, the main portion of the strap seen in 5868 leaves the back of the buckle, comes up an over the top of the hook in front of the back 'flat', then goes around the base of the porch rail and hangs down from there.  The right image shows how the strap emergence would look from the 5872 location, ignoring the fact that the hook itself is rotated around its long axis.


The evidence Brian McInall presents convincingly shows that the waist tether Buzz hooked to the porch rail is not the one Neil returned to Earth.




KSC photo Two Tether Pairs


John Fongheiser calls attention to this 1969 KSC photo showing two pairs of Waist Tethers with one large hook with an engraved "L" and another with an "R". The two hooks show the same mirrored symmetry noted for the flown Apollo 11 tethers.  This photo demonstrates that the hook Buzz attached to the porch rail had an 'R' engraved on the side facing the camera in AS11-40-5868.

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Yellow paint on the inside of the large hook


Yellow Paint Large hook comparison

The photo at the top is one in a series taken of the inside of the large hook at the suggestion of an agent for the Armstrong family during discussions with the authors. The blue arrow on the left points to yellow paint in the side of the hook.  The blue arrow on the right points to a distinct scratch on the side of the hook. We were all looking for signs of wear that might have resulted from attachment to the porch rail. The traces of yellow paint were a welcome surprise. The photo at the bottom was taken by Lisa Young (National Air and Space Museum Conservation) and shows the same distribution of yellow paint at the same location. Agent's image used with permission.


High resolution detail Appraiser Yellow Paint


Full resolution detail from the agent's photograph.

Agent's photographs of the Small Hook

appraiser's photo
                  small hook
appraiser's photo
                  small hook
appraiser's photo
                  small hook


The image on the left shows the Lock button with what appears to be a fragment of yellow-brown material.  Although no comparison has yet been made of the color of this fragment with the color of the AOT particles found in the clamp 'wells', this fragment could be a chip off the brown ring near the combiner on the Crewman Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), perhaps acquired while both were in the Purse.  Images used with permission. (Click on the images for larger versions.)


Additional Agent's photographs of the Large Hook

Appraiser's
                  close-up large hook
Appraiser's
                  close-up large hook
Appraiser's
                  close-up large hook
Appraiser's
                  close-up large hook
Appraiser's
                  close-up large hook
Appraiser's
                  close-up large hook


Images used with permission. (Click on the images for larger versions.)


The  presence of yellow paint in the inside of the large hook is conclusive evidence that the Returned Tether is the one Neil used to fashion the 'hammock' he created to keep his legs elevated during the rest period.

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Use during the Rest Period

After the EVA, Neil and Buzz doffed the PLSSs and OPSs, stowed the rock boxes, jettisoned equipment they would no longer need, had something to eat and, starting about three hours fifteen minutes after the end of the EVA, tried to get some rest. They wore their helmets and IVA gloves, but did not have the suits pressurized.

The following is the wake-up call from CapCom Ron Evans:

121:40:36 Evans: Tranquility Base, Tranquility Base, Houston. Over.

121:40:45 Armstrong: Good morning, Houston. Tranquility Base. Over.

121:40:49 Evans: Roger. Loud and clear. And how is the resting standing up there? Did you get a chance to curl up on the engine can?

121:41:02 Aldrin: Roger. Neil has rigged himself a really good hammock with a waist tether, and he's been lying on the ascent engine cover, and I curled up on the floor (at the front of the cabin). Over.

After they got home to Earth, Neil elaborated on his sleeping arrangements during the Crew Technical Debriefing (p 10-79):

"I didn't mind sleeping on the ascent-engine cover.  I didn't find it that bad.  I made a hammock out of a waist tether - which I attached to some of the structure handholds - to hold my feet up in the air and in the middle of the cockpit.  This kept my feet up about level with - of a little higher - than my torso."

Next, during a mission review done for the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal done in 1991, we had the following discussion:

[Armstrong - "I think it was my position (that) was bothered by the noise more than yours, because you were on the floor - right? - and I was on the engine cover with a loop that'd I rigged up of some kind to hold my legs, hanging from something up there. And my head was back to the rear of the cabin and there was a glycol pump or a water pump or something very close to where my head was. But the temperature control was probably the most troublesome."]

[I (E.J.) speculated that the back of the cabin was small enough that Neil's legs would have hung over the front, then we found Buzz's statement at 121:41:02 indicating that Neil had used one of the waist tethers to keep his legs suspended.]

[Armstrong - "Yeah, I suspended them. I rigged up a loop to hold my legs. And the other thing was (that) the Earth was coming through the AOT (Alignment Optical Telescope). (Chuckling) We had blinds over the windows and so on, but the Earth was coming through the AOT. We were all settled down and we realized that we still had a light source coming from something. We rigged up something to hang something over the top of the AOT to cut that out."]

On page 239 in his 1973 book Return to Earth, Buzz writes:

"We had a seven-hour rest period before beginning the final lift-off procedures and settled down for our fitful rest. I eased myself onto the small amount of available floor space while Neil leaned against the rear of the cabin and placed his feet in a small strap. We didn't sleep much at all. Among other things we were elated-and also cold. Neil looked quite comfortable, found that his line of vision was directly into the telescope pointed at the Earth, whose brightness made it difficult to sleep."

And, finally, on page 532 in James Hansen's authorized Armstrong biography, First Man, we have from Neil:

"The only other place to rest was the engine cover, which was a circular table some two and a half feet in diameter. To support my legs we configured a sling from one of our waist tethers. We attached that to a pipe structure that was hanging down. It was a good structure to hang a sling from, so I stuck my legs in there and kept the center part of my body on the engine cover. That kept my legs suspended. Behind the cover there was a flat shelf where I could sort of rest my head. It was a jerry-rigged operation and not very comfortable."

The available evidence is somewhat contradictory.  One way around the difficulty is to assume that Neil started by sitting on the engine cover with his head against the back wall of the cabin but, because he was bothered by light from Earth coming through the AOT, he devised a way to support his legs while he lay with his back on the engine cover.  The following scenario seems consistent with most of the available evidence, especially the presence of yellow paint on the inside of the large hook and the fact that the opening of the small hook is too small to fit around the tubing that comprises the guard. However, it may not represent what Neil actually did.  We will never know.



Cain Sketch from side LM-10 handbook and previous


Side view of the cabin with the Ascent Engine cover 60 cm in diameter with 33 cm of midstep forward of it. The cabin floor from the midstep to the hatch is 91 cm.  Note that the diagram does not specifically refer to the Apollo 11 LM.  In particular, we don't have any specific information about the configuration of the 'shelf' Neil mentioned. Based on measurements made by suit manufacturer ILC, he was 179 cm tall; his crotch height was 85 cm; his mid-shoulder height was 152 cm; and the distance from his mid-shoulder to the top of his helmet was 29 cm, where we have added 2 cm to represent clearance above the top of his head. The heavy blue line represents Neil's back from his crotch to mid-shoulder. We have positioned the blue line so that the front edge of the engine cover is about midway between his crotch and waist, which would have provided some buttock support. This puts his mid-shoulder behind the cover and we assume that, with his helmet supported by the 'shelf' he mentions, his neck is adequately supported.


As shown in the next figure, one of us (K.G.) devised a way to rig the Waist Tether on the AOT guard that provides a loop about 38 centimeters deep. With Neil's torso positioned as indicated by the heavy blue line, he could have supported his legs by putting his boot heels in the loop as indicated.



Lotzmann Sketch Hammock rigged on AOT


Lotzmann visualization of a loop formed from an EVA tether attached to the AOT guard, with the large hook clipped to the guard on one side, the loop formed below the guard, and small hook passed around the horizontal part of the guard on the other side before being attached to the strap.  The tether is 127 cm long from hook tip to hook tip.   The small hook is  12.7 cm long and, by wrapping the strap around the AOT guard as indicated, the effective length is reduced to roughly 100 cm.  Neil's shoe size was 9 1/2, indicating a length of 10.5 inches (26.7 cm and a width of 4.2 inches (10.7 cm). Both feet would have fit side-by-side on the loop with the ankles resting on the bottom of the loop. The length of strap supporting Neil's ankles would be, say 24 cm, the back of Neil's ankles would be about 38 cm below the AOT guard, enough to provide clearance for the length of his boots. (Click on the image for a larger version.)


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Helmet Tie-Down Straps (2)


S/N
                  1101
S/N
                  1102



Helmet Tie-down Straps (2).  Part Number SEB 33100016-302: S/N 1101 (top) S/N 1102 (bottom). For launch from the Cape, these were stowed in the Right Hand Side Stowage Compartment (RHSSC) next to the LMP's flight station. The LM crew transferred their helmets over from the Command Module before undocking. We have been unable to find any references to the tie-down straps being used during LM operations.  Each of the straps is 39.5 inches (100 cm) long and 0.75 inches (1.9 cm) wide. (Click on the images for larger versions)

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Data Acquisition Camera (16-mm movie)


  Lotzmann
          photo DAC at Garber


View of what would be the right side when view from the back of the camera. The DAC was mounted on brackets at either of two locations for views through the LMP's window of the final approach to landing, Neil's climb down the ladder, EVA activities in the camera field-of-view, and the ascent. A labeled version of Apollo 11 photo AS11-36-5389 shows the camera as mounted on the crash bar where Buzz placed it during the initial LM inspection.  This is the location from which the descent and landing would be filmed.  Before any filming, a magazine was attached to the left side, which is hidden from view in the photo above. There is no magazine attached in any of this series of images. The large, flat, black button on the front surface below the lens starts and stops filming. The black, L-shaped fitting (with a silver-color tightening knob) on the camera's right side is the right angle bracket. A portion of the vertical piece folded unto the bottom mates with a Utility Bracket Assembly for filming out the LMP window during the descent. Lotzmann photograph. (Click on the image for a larger version)


Additional Lotzmann Photos

(Click on the images for larger versions)

Lotzmann lens
                close-up
Lotzmann Mauer
                tag close-up
Close-up of the lens barrel and procedures decal.  An exposure selector is above the decal. Close-up of procedures decal and mode switch.
Mauer tag
Lotzmann Mauer
                lens
Close-up of J. R. Maurer tag Close-up of lens barrel



NASM Conservation Photographs


NASM Conservation photo DAC
NASM Conservation photo DAC
NASM Conservation photo DAC
NASM Conservation photo DAC
NASM Conservation photo DAC
NASM Conservation photo DAC





Note that the Teflon Lens Shade had been removed sometime before these photos were taken.  Detailed descriptions of the DAC and its components can be found in an excerpt from the Handbook of Pilot Operational Equipment (NASA Johnson 1973).


Lotzmann Photos of the Lens


10mm DAC lens
                  with shade
10 mm
                  DAC lens
10mm DAC lens


The illustration in the center shows the configuration of the lens as flown - without the shade. "Sturdy tabs are provided on the aperture and focus rings to assist in setting and in lens installation and removal (when wearing gloves)." When the camera was returned to Earth, the focus tab was missing.  One possible explanation is that, while filming Neil's egress, Buzz had to change the setting for the aperture.  While doing this, he accidentally touched the tab of the focus ring, with the result that the rest of the footage on this magazine was blurred.  Later, he may have removed the focus tab to prevent a recurrence.  Ulli notes that, when examining the camera at the Garber facility, "I saw no sign that the missing tab had broken off." (Click on the images for larger versions.)


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Right-Angle Bracket

(Photos of an item not in the Smithsonian collection nor among the Armstrong material)


Flown Apollo 12 Right-angle bracket
A12 flown right-angle bracket, left-right
                  reversed

(Left) Flown Apollo 12 Right-Angle Bracket with silver-colored thumbscrew; (Right) bracket left-right reversed.  With  the button on the top in it's current 'out' position, the bracket would be secured to the camera after installation. (Click on the images for larger versions.)



DAC fitting on back of right-angle bracket
DAC fitting on right angle bracket with button
                  depressed

(Left) Prepared to depress button; (Right) button depressed and securing catch moved out of female fitting. (Click on the images for larger versions.)

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Mating Right-Angle Bracket with DAC

(Photos of  items not in the Smithsonian Collection)


90-deg bracket mated DAC 1
90-deg bracket mated DAC 2
90-deg bracket mated DAC 3
90-deg bracket mated DAC 4


In this set of four frames, the right-angle bracket is mated to a broken, Gemini-era DAC which, among other faults, does not have a lens which would be on the right of a complete DAC.  (Upper left) Right-angle bracket positioned on right end of the male fitting on the DAC. (Upper right) With the disengagement button depressed, the bracket is moved aft. (Lower left) Bracket in final location. (Lower right) Tightening knob turned.  During installation on board the LM, the right-angle bracket would already be mated with a Utility Bracket which, in turn, was already clamped onto the crash bar across the LMP window.  With the right angle bracket in a fixed position, the front end of the male fitting on the DAC would have been positioned on the aft end of the female fitting on the right-angle bracket and, with the disengagement button depressed, the camera body would have been moved forward, toward the window. (Click on the images for larger versions.)

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Mating Right-Angle Bracket with a Utility Bracket

(Photos of  items not in the Smithsonian Collection)


90deg-to-Utility 1
90deg-to-Utility 2
90deg-to-Utility 3
90deg-to-Utility 4


Fitting a Utility bracket to the portion of the Right-Angle Bracket on the Bottom of the camera below the lens. (Upper left) Utility bracket with rocker in the engaged position.  Note that fixed stopper plate is above the installer's forefinger. The stopper plate ensures that the two fixtures at the correct relative locations so that release of the rocker arm will result in a firm connection between the brackets.  (Upper right) the two brackets are in the right relative positions.  Rocker arm has not been pushed up to lower the engagement plate. (Lower left) Rocker arm has been pushed up to the disengagement position so the two brackets can be pushed together. (Lower right) Mating nearly complete although the rocker arm has not been released. (Click on the images for larger versions.)


DAC / Right Angle Bracket / Utility Bracket Assembled

(Click on the image for a larger version.)

DAC and brackets assembled

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Buzz Installs Brackets for two DAC locations


During the initial LM inspection during the trip out from Earth, Buzz installed Utility Brackets at two locations where the DAC would be mounted for filming (1) Neil's climb down the ladder and initial familiarization with moving in lunar gravity; and (2) filming the final approach and landing. Neil used the on-board TV to capture Buzz's activities for transmission to Earth.

In the first (44 Mb) of two video clips related to the Utility brackets, Buzz is attaching the clamp end of a bracket at the upper right corner of the LMP window.  Once he has the clamp in place and tightened, he loosens the tightening wheel at the bracket end enough that he can properly position the bracket. Once that is oriented, he makes sure both wheels are tight. Next, he gets the DAC from off-camera to the left for attachment to the bracket.  He checks that he has the front of the male fitting on the right side of the DAC properly aligned with the female fitting on the bracket.  He is holding the camera with his left hand and uses his right hand to help get the mating started and to move the rocker arm to disengage.  After some initial difficulty with the alignment, the camera moves forward as the male fitting slides into the female fitting.  He then makes fine adjustments of the camera pointing, which he checks by sighting along the camera.  He would have done this procedure at least a few times during training.

The second clip (32 Mb) starts with Buzz getting the second Utility Bracket out of the Interim Stowage Assembly, which is attached to the Alignment Optical Telescope (AOT) near the ceiling at the front of the cabin.  Before Buzz went to the ISA, he had rotated the crash bar up from its stowed position along the right side of the LMP window to its horizontal orientation across the window, latching it on the left side.  Returning with the second Utility Bracket, he opened its clamp, fit it around the crash bar and started tightening the thumbscrew. He quickly realized that he needed to turn the bracket assembly 180 degrees.  Once he had it attached, he went to the LHSSC (Left Hand Side Stowage Compartments) on the wall next to Neil's station, searching for the right-angle bracket, mostly by feel through the cloth bags.  We have removed about 2 minutes 40 seconds from the middle of the clip and start again just before Buzz finds the right-angle bracket. He goes back to to the LMP window and attaches the right-angle bracket to the utility bracket with his right index finger on the disengage button. He has no trouble getting that done and then removes the DAC from the bracket at the upper-right corner of the window. He uses his left fingers to disengage the camera with the rocker arm.  The camera slides out easily and then attaches to the right angle bracket without trouble.

Labeled details from AS11-37-5531 and 5534, both taken after the EVA, show the DAC in a third location above the upper left corner of the window and, at the upper right corner of the window, the utility bracket Buzz installed for filming Neil's ladder descent.

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DAC Power Cable


DAC during LM inspection

Detail from AS11-36-5389, taken during the initial LM inspection during the trip out from Earth.  The orange-colored electrical cable is connect to the bottom surface near the back. (Click on the image for a larger version.)

NASM Conservation Photographs


LY NASM Conservation DAC power cable
LY NASM Conservation DAC power cable
LY NASM Conservation DAC power cable
LY
                  NASM Conservation DAC power cable


DAC power cable and its connector. The connector was plugged into the forward receptacle - labelled "POWER" - on the bottom of the camera.
(Click on the images for larger versions.)

Lotzmann Photographs

Lotzmann/Garber DAC Power Cable Connector
Lotzmann DAC power connector close-up


DAC power cable connector close-ups.  (Click on the images for larger versions.)

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Lens Shade (Teflon) for DAC 10-mm Lens

NASM Conservation Photographs
Lotzmann Photo at Lower Right

LY NASM Conservation photo
LY NASM Conservation photo
LY NASM Conservation photo
Ulli removing
                lens shade


As indicated in a table in an excerpt from the Handbook of Pilot Operational Equipment (NASA Johnson 1973), only 10-mm lens intended for use in the LM cabin was provided with this lens shade.  The Command Module and Lunar Surface (EVA) 10-mm lens were not. The shade may have been flown to protect the LM window while the camera was being mounted near the window.  The image at the lower right shows Lotzmann removing the lens shade from the DAC. (Click on the images for larger versions.)

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AOT Eyeguard Assembly


AOT Eyeguard

The assembly consisted of a threaded base which screwed on to AOT barrel and a soft, rubber-like eyeguard. A detail from Apollo 12 training photograph 69-H-1679 shows a training unit in a LM simulator.  A frame from the TV Neil shot during the initial LM inspection shows the assembly after Buzz attached it to the AOT. During the flight out from Earth, the Eyeguard Assembly was stowed in the RHSSC (Right-Hand-Side Stowage Compartment) next to Buzz's flight station.


Lotzmann Photo

Eyeguard Assembly


Apollo 11 AOT Eyeguard Assembly.  Part number 6011104 A KIC 29 refers to the rubber eyeguard.  KIC stands for Kollmans Instrument Corporation, which was responsible for design and manufacture under technical supervision from MIT Instrumentation Lab. Lotzmann photo.


NASM Conservation Photographs

(Click on the images for larger versions)

LY/NASM photo AOT eyeguard
LY/NASM Conservation Photographs
LY/NASM Conservation Photographs
LY/NASM Conservation Photographs
LY/NASM Conservation Photographs
LY/NASM Conservation Photographs


Apollo 11 Eyeguard Assembly. The view at the lower right shows the threaded end that screws onto the AOT.  Note that there are no optical elements in the assembly.  Part number 6011834-011 KIC 22 applies to the solid base of the assembly. (Click on the images for larger versions.)


Eyeguard threaded end


Lotzmann photograph of threaded end, taken at the Garber Facility.
(Click on the image for a larger version.)

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Mirror (Metal)


Detail from 69H134 with mirror mount labeled


Detail from January photo 69-H-134 showing a training mirror mounted over the left side of the CDR window in a LM simulator.  During the flight out from Earth, the mirror was stowed as indicated in the RHSSC under the panels to the right of his flight station.
(Click on the image for the full photo.)


The mirror was positioned to give the CDR a view of the COAS when the latter was mounted in the Rendezvous window during approach and docking. Without the mirror he would have had to lean back a long way.


Lotzmann photos

LM Mirror
          DSC06928

MIrror back and mounting hardware (DSC06928)
Additional images: DSC06927, mirror back; DSC06932, side view; DSC06933, opposite side view. (Click on the image for a larger version)


LM mirror front

Mirror front, with reflection of the photographer (DSC06931).
Additional images: DSC06929, mirror angled down; DSC06930.
(Click on the image for a larger version)

NASM Conservation Photographs

LY NASM Conservation photo
LY NASM Conservation photo
LY NASM Conservation photo
LY NASM Conservation photo
LY NASM Conservation photo
LY NASM Conservation photo


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Emergency Wrench - Tool B

Lotzmann photos

Tool B
                  7828
Tool B
                  7829
Tool B
                  7830


(Click on the images for larger versions.)


NASM Conservation Photographs

LY NASM Conservation photo
LY NASM Conservation photo


(Click on the images for larger versions.)



From page 166 in Scott Sullivan's Virtual LM, we have "Tool B (emergency wrench) was a modified Allen-head L-wrench. It was 6.25 inches long and had a 4.25-inch long drive shaft with a 7/16-inch drive.  The wrench could apply a torque of 4175 inch-pounds; it had a ball-lock device to lock the head of the drive shaft.  The wrench was used as a contingency for use with the docking probe and drogue, and for opening the Command Module's hatch from the outside."

In addition, it could be used to open a recalcitrant LM forward hatch prior to a Contingency Transfer of the LM crew to the Command Module if a docking problem precluded a normal transfer via the overhead hatch.  The following comes from Section 4, ORBITAL CONTINGENCY EVA PROCEDURES, in Apollo 11 Final EVA Procedures:

Page 4-8 from A11 Final EVA Procedures


Tool B
          prior to Altitude Chamber run 18 March 1969

This photo is from a series documenting stowage in the LM the day before an Altitude Chamber run on 19 March 1969. Tool B is labeled.
(Click on the image for a larger version.)

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Waste Management Cover

LM-5 Interior Aft view Waste Management Cover



This diagram, from the Apollo 11 LM Operations Handbook, gives a view aft of the cabin and shows the Waste Management Cover location behind the CDR station. The photo inset shows the Apollo 11 cover.

NASM Conservation Photographs
Lotzmann photo at bottom left

LY NASM Conservation photo
LY NASM Conservation photo
LY NASM Conservation photo
LY NASM Conservation photo
Lotzmann photo
                  waste management cover
LY NASM Conservation photo


(Click on images for larger versions.)


Apollo Experience Report TN D-6737 (6 Mb), "Crew Provisions and Equipment Subsystem", p11-12:

"Lunar module waste-management system. - To prevent contamination on the lunar surface, the LM waste-management system uses a pressure-operated urine-collection system. In accordance with the use of this system, a prime urine-transfer design constraint for the LM was that the crewmen would be protected at all times from pressure differentials. The system uses a direct dump, from the UCTA ( Urine Collection and Transfer Assembly) inside the suit, through the suit wall by way of a quick-disconnect fitting, and then to a pressure sensitive shutoff valve mounted on the +Z27 bulkhead behind the commander. The urine then passes through another short section of line to a 7-liter collapsible bag. The driving force for transfer of fluid is the inside-outside pressure differential of the PGA. Normally, the pressure differential would be present in a cabin-evacuated condition. However, it can be obtained by pressurizing the PGA from the LM ECS in a cabin-pressurized condition."

As detailed in an extract from the Apollo Operations Handbook for LM-5 (Eagle), there were options for emptying the UCTA's which involved attaching a urine line from the suit to the opening immediately above the "OPEN" decal on the cover. An National Air and Space Museum photo of an Apollo 11 CM urine transfer tube may include fittings that were also on the LM version.






LM-2 Interior Looking Aft

View looking aft, undoubtedly taken through the forward hatch into the cabin of LM-2, displayed at the National Air and Space Museum. The Waste Management Cover is in the same location shown in the Apollo 11 diagram above. Photo courtesy Northrop Grumman History Center.


TN D-6737, p12 (continued):

"Difficulties with valve chatter in the pressure- sensitive part of the shutoff valve were encountered from the outset. This part of the valve was designed to prevent the crewmen from experiencing a vacuum or a reduced pressure on the inside of the UCTA. Although the valve action was much improved, hysteresis was never fully eliminated with the use of the pressure-sensitive part of the shutoff valve. An oxygen-bleed valve was added to the UCTA to provide a pressure-protection function, and the pressure-sensitive part was removed. The shutoff valve now functions properly.

The one-bag urine-collection system was replaced on the Apollo 12 mission (LM-6) by six small 900-cubic-centimeter urine bags designed to connect directly to a PGA by means of a quick-disconnect fitting. Although the transfer valve, the large, 7-liter bag, and the drain lines were provided on the Apollo 11 mission (LM-5), the crewmen chose to use small urine-collection assemblies. The change to the use of six small bags was made to achieve lower weight and higher reliability.

Although the small bags have been adequate for the initial LM missions, this design will not be adequate for 2- to 3-day lunar missions. Accordingly, the urine-collection system to be used on the Apollo 15 mission (LM-10) and on subsequent missions will incorporate a large vented tank in the descent stage, into which both urine and portable life support system (PLSS) condensate will be transferred. The use of a tank rather than many small bags provides a weight saving for extended missions. The LM urine-collection system has performed satisfactorily, with all bag sizes and quantities."


The J-mission crews (Apollo 15, 16, and 17) removed their pressure suits so they could sleep more comfortably during post-EVA rest periods.  Before they doffed the suits, they emptied the UCTA's into the descent stage tank. Once out of the suits, as needed they could urinate into a funnel connected to the tank.  The funnel and associated hoses and fittings can be seen in a photo of a LM Simulator at the Cradle of Aviation of Museum. Some of the urine hoses can be seen in an Apollo 17 close-out photo.

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Netting

Lotzmann photos

Lotzmann
                  photo Netting
Netting
netting

Netting was placed in various locations in the LM cabin to protect pipes, conduits, and other gear on the rear walls from flying objects.  Mission photo AS11-37-5528 shows an example behind Neil at the upper left. Other examples can be found in sets of pre-launch, close-out photos of the Apollo 12, 15, 16, and 17 cabins. (Click on the images for larger versions)


NASM Conservation Photographs

LY NASM photo Netting
LY NASM photo Netting


The shape of this piece of netting and the placement of the snaps identify this as the netting that was positioned vertical, immediately after of the RHSSC (Right Hand Side Stowage Compartment) on the wall next to Buzz's flight station.  The end on the left in the lower image was nearest the cabin floor.  Discoloration of that portion indicates that, sometime after the EVA but before Buzz removed his EVA boots, he stepped on this piece of netting. There is also discoloration on the reverse of the same location, seen on the right in the upper image. (Click on the images for larger versions.)


Netting
          comparison

A comparison of the Armstrong netting (center) with a photo of the same netting taken in the LM cabin the day before a run in the Altitude Chamber shows many similarities.  The photo on the right shows the corresponding piece of netting in LM-9, which was to have been flown on Apollo 15 when it was an H-mission flight.  Photo courtesy Randy Attwood. When Apollo 16 was upgraded to H-mission status, LM-9 was put aside and in now displayed at the Kennedy Space Center.  Although there are obvious differences, there are also similarities such as the cut-out at location 23. (Click on the image for a larger version.)

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