This section is a summary of the Apollo 14 medical findings based on a preliminary analysis of the biomedical data. A comprehensive evaluation will be published in a separate report. The three crewmen accumulated a total of 650 man-hours of space flight experience.
The crewmen remained in excellent health throughout the mission and their performance was excellent despite an alteration of their normal work/rest cycle. All physiological parameters obtained from the crew remained within the expected ranges during the flight. No adverse effects which could be attributed to the lunar surface exposure have been observed.
10.1 BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA
Problems with the Commander's biomedical instrumentation harness began prior to lift-off when the sternal electrocardiogram signal became unreadable 3 minutes after spacecraft ingress. A waiver was made to the launch mission rule requiring a readable electrocardiogram on all crewmen. During the first orbit, the Commander's sternal electrocardiogram signal returned to normal.
At about 57 1/2 hours, the Commander noted that his lower sternal sensor had leaked electrode paste around the sealing tape. This situation was corrected by applying fresh electrode paste and tape.
When the Commander transferred to the portable life support system in preparation for the extravehicular activity, his electrocardiogram was so noisy on two occasions that the cardiotachometer outputs in the Mission Control Center were unusable and manual counting of the heart rate for metabolic rate assessment became necessary. A good electrocardiogram signal on the Commander was reacquired after completion of the extravehicular activity and return to the lunar module. The threads on the top connector of the signal conditioner were accidentally stripped. However, the electrocardiogram signal was restored for the remainder of the flight by tightening this connector.
The quality of the Lunar Module Pilot's electrocardiogram was excellent from spacecraft ingress until approximately three days into the mission. At that time, intermittent noise transmissions typical of a loose sensor were received. The lower sternal sensor was reserviced with fresh paste and tape. This happened two additional times. No attempt was made to correct the situation on the last occurrence.
The Lunar Module Pilot also lost his impedance pneumogram after the eighth day of flight. Postflight examination showed that the signal conditioner had failed.
Physiological measurements were within expected ranges throughout the mission. The average crew heart rates for work and sleep in the command module and lunax module are listed in the following table.
|Activity||Average heart rates, beats/min|
|Surface activity||Start time,
|Environmental familiarization, modular equipment transporter (MET)
unloading, and television deployment
|S-band antenna deployment||114:12||10||1052||175||642|
|Transferal of expendables||114:22||19||717||227||869|
|U.S. flag deployment and photography||114:41||6||726||73||942|
|Lunar module and site inspection||114:47||18||587||176||1118|
|TV transfer to scientific equipment bay||115:05||3||868||43||1161|
|Experiment package offloading||115:08||13||690||149||1310|
|Traverse to experiment package deployment site||115:46||15||984||246||1850|
|Experiment package system interconnect, passive seismic off-loading, laser ranging retro-reflector deployment||116:04||26||794||344||2228|
|Charged particle lunar environment experiment deployment||116:30||5||496||41||2269|
|Deployment of experiment package antenna, passive seismic experiment, and laser ranging retro-reflector; and sample
|3783 (b)||3783 (b)|
|Lunar Module Pilot|
|Environmental familiarization, contingency sample collection||113:57||15||901||225||373|
|Deployment of solar wind composition experiment||114:12||2||1045||35||408|
|Laser ranging retro-reflector unloading||114:14||9||1061||159||567|
|S-band antenna switching||114:25||12||1195||239||848|
|U.S. flag deployment and photography||114:43||4||948||63||1000|
|Traverse to television||114:47||3||747||37||1037|
|Experiment package offloading||115:08||38||1038||657||1896|
|Traverse to experiment package deployment site||115:46||15||1098||275||2171|
|Experiment package systen interconnect, thumper and geophone unloading||116:03||23||786||301||2498|
|Suprathermal ion detector experiment unloading and deployment||116:34||11||905||156||2768|
|Mortar pack arming||117:37||4||695||46||3484|
|Extravehicular activity closeout||117:54||21||1111||389||4093|
|Extravehicular activity termination||118:18||5||1248||104||4259|
|a - An 8-minute loss of the biomedical data occurred at the begining of the EVA
b - The total metabolic production for the entire 4 hour 48 minute period, including the first 8 minutes, was 3840 for the Commander.
|Surace Activity||Starting time,
|Cumulative metabolic production, Btu|
|Familiarization and transferal of equipment transfer bag||131:20||8||423||56||184|
|Modular equipment transporter loading||131:28||10||410||68||252|
|Lunar portable magnetometer offloading||131:38||5||465||39||291|
|Evaluation of modular equipment transporter (MET) track||131:43||5||423||35||326|
|Lunar module to A traverse||131:48||6||562||56||382|
|Station A activity||131:54||32||509||271||653|
|A to B traverse||132:26||8||761||101||754|
|Station B activity||132:34||5||772||64||818|
|B to Delta traverse||132:39||3||844||42||860|
|Station Delta activity||132:42||3||928||46||906|
|Delta to Bl traverse||132:45||3||1068||53||959|
|Station Bl activity||132:48||4||1228||82||1041|
|Bl to B2 traverse||132:52||5||1362||113||1154|
|Station B2 activity||132:57||3||1455||73||1227|
|B2 to B3 traverse||133:00||14||1492||348||1575|
|Station B3 activity||133:14||2||1655||55||1630|
|B3 to C' traverse||133:16||6||1810||181||1811|
|Station C' activity||133:22||16||1020||272||2083|
|C' to C1 traverse||133:38||2||97O||32||2115|
|Station Cl activity||133:40||6||1272||127||2242|
|Cl to C2 traverse||133:46||6||945||95||2337|
|Station C2 activity||133:52||2||896||30||2367|
|C2 to E traverse||133:54||6||1244||124||2491|
|Station E activity||134:00||2||1128||38||2529|
|E to F traverse||134:02||4||1281||85||2634|
|Station F activity||134:06||3||940||47||2661|
|F to G traverse||134:09||2||1118||37||2698|
|Station G activity||134:11||36||779||467||3165|
|G to G1 traverse||134:47||2||1065||35||3200|
|Station Gl activity||134:49||3||935||47||3247|
|Gl to lunar module||134:52||3||1209||60||3307|
|Post-extravehicular activity operations and cabin repressurization||135:41||2||1180||20||4156|
|Lunar Module Pilot|
|Modular equipment transporter preparation||131:21||18||633||190||283|
|Lunar portable magnetometer offloading||131:39||5||756||63||346|
|Lunar portable magnetometer operation||131:44||2||921||31||377|
|Lunar module to A traverse||131:46||8||829||111||488|
|Station A activity||131:54||32||606||323||811|
|A to B traverse||132:26||8||840||112||923|
|Station B activity||132:34||5||555||46||969|
|B to Delta traverse||132:39||3||893||45||1014|
|Station Delta activity||132:42||2||1013||34||1048|
|Delta to Bl traverse||132:44||4||1272||85||1133|
|Station Bl activity||132:48||4||824||55||1188|
|Bl to B2 traverse||132:52||5||1154||96||1284|
|Station B2 activity||132:57||3||1336||67||1351|
|B2 to B3 traverse||133:00||14||1251||292||1643|
|Station B3 activity||133:14||2||1973||66||1709|
|B3 to C' traverse||133:16||6||2064||206||1917|
|Station C' activity||133:22||16||1142||304||2237|
|C' to C1 traverse||133:38||2||1283||43||2257|
|Station Cl activity||133:40||6||1160||116||2373|
|Cl to C2 traverse||133:46||6||1057||106||2479|
|Station C2 activity||133:52||2||1177||39||2518|
|C2 to E traverse||133:54||6||1337||134||2652|
|Station E activity||134:00||2||1341||45||2697|
|E to F traverse||134:02||4||1463||97||2794|
|Station F activity||134:06||3||1640||82||2876|
|F to G traverse||134:09||2||1551||52||2928|
|Station G activity||134:11||36||993||596||3524|
|G to G1 traverse||134:47||2||1504||50||3574|
|Station Gl activity||134:49||3||1260||63||3637|
|G1 to lunar module||134:52||3||1558||78||3715|
|Post-extravehicular activity operations and cabin repressurization||135:35||8||996||116||4567|
10.2.1 Adaptation to Weightlessness
Adaptation to the weightless state was readily accomplished. Shortly after orbital insertion, each crewman experienced the typical fullnessof-the-head sensation that has been reported by previous flight crews. No nausea, vomiting, vertigo, or disorientation occurred during the mission, and the crew did not observe distortion of facial features, such as rounding of the face due to lack of gravity, as reported by some previous crewmen.
During the first two days of flight, the crew reported discomfort and soreness of the laver back mil cles as has been noted on previous missions. The discomfort was sufficient in magnitude to interfere with sleep during the first day of the mission, and was attributed to changes in posture during weightlessness. Inflight exercise provided relief.
10.2.2 Visual Phenomenon
Each crewman reported seeing the streaks, points, and flashes of light that have been noted by previous Apollo crews. The frequency of the light flashes averaged about once every 2 minutes for each crewman. The visual phenomenon was observed with the eyes both open and closed, and the crew was more aware of the phenomenon immediately upon awakening than upon retiring. In a special observation period set aside during the transearth coast phase, the Command Module Pilot determined that dark adaptation was not a prerequisite for seeing the phenomenon if the level of spacecraft illumination was low. Furthermore, several of the light flashes were apparently seen by two of the crewmen simultaneously. Coincidence of light flashes for two crewmen, if a true coincidence, would substantiate that the flashes originated from an external radiation source and would indicate that they were generated by extremely-high-energy particles, presumably of cosmic origin. Low-energy highly-ionizing particles would not have the range through tissue to have reached both crewmen.
No medications other than nose drops, to relieve nasal stuffiness caused by spacecraft atmosphere, were used during the mission. On the third day of flight, the Commander and the Lunar Module Pilot used one drop in each nostril. Relief was prompt and lasted for approximately 12 hours. The Command Module Pilot used the nose drops 3 hours prior to entry.
On this mission, the nasal spray bottles in the inflight medical kit were replaced by dropper bottles because previous crews had reported difficulties in obtaining medication from spray bottles in zero-g. The crew reported no problems associated with the dropper bottle.
The shift of the crew's normal terrestrial sleep cycle during the first four days of flight was the largest experienced so far in the Apollo series. The displacement ranged from 7 hours on the first mission day to 11-1/2 hours on the fourth. The crew reported some difficulty sleeping in the zero-g environment, particularly during the first two sleep periods. They attributed the problem principally to a lack of kinesthetic sensations and to muscle soreness in the legs and lower back. Throughout the mission, sleep was intermittent; i.e., never more than 2 to 3 hours of deep and continuous sleep.
The lunar module crewmen received little, if any, sleep between their two extravehicular activity periods. The lack of an adequate place to rest the head, discomfort of the pressure suit, and the 7-degree starboard list of the lunar module caused by the lunar terrain were believed responsible for this insomnia. The crewmen looked out the window several times during the sleep period for reassurance that the lunar module was not staxting to tip over.
Following transearth injection, the crew slept better than they had previously. The lunar module crewmen required one additional sleep period to make up the sleep deficit that was incurred while on the lunar surface.
The crevmen reported during postflight discussions that they were definitely operating on their physiological reserves because of inadequate sleep. This lack of sleep caused them some concern; however, all tasks were performed satisfactorily.
The Lunar Module Pilot's personal radiation dosimeter failed to integrate the dosage properly after the first 24 hours of flight. To ensure that each lunar module crewman had a functional dosimeter while on the lunar surface, the Command Module Pilot transferred his unit to the Lunar Module Pilot on the fourth day of the mission. The final readings from the personal radiation dosimeters yielded net integrated (uncorrected) values of 640 and 630 millirads for the Commander and the Command Module Pilot, respectively. No value can be determined for the Lunar Module Pilot. The total radiation dose for each crewman was approximately 1.15 rads to the skin and 0.6 rad at a 5centimeter tissue depth. These doses are the largest observed on any Apollo mission; however, they are well below the threshold of detectable medical effects. The magnitudes of the radiation doses were apparently the result of two factors: (1) The translunar injection trajectory lay closer to the plane of the geomagnetic equator than that of previous flights and, therefore, the spacecraft traveled through the heart of the trapped radiation belts. (2) The space radiation background was greater than previously experienced. Whole-body gamma spectroscopy was also performed postflight on the crew and indicated no cosmic ray induced radioactivity.
The crew reported that the taste of the drinking water in both the command module and the lunar module was excellent. All eight scheduled inflight chlorinations of the command module water system were accomplished. Preflight testing of the lunar module potable water system shaved that the iodine level in both water tanks was adequate for bacterial protection throughout the flight.
The inflight food was similar to that of previous Apollo missions. Six new foods were included in the menu:
a. Lobster bisque (freeze dehydrated)The latter three items were packaged in aluminum cans with easy-open, full-panel, pull-out lids. The crew did not report any difficulties either with removing the pull-out lids or eating the food contained in these cans with a spoon.
b. Peach ambrosia (freeze dehydrated)
c. Beef jerky (ready-to-eat bite-sized)
d. Diced peaches (thermostabilized)
e. Mixed fruit (thermostabilized)
f. Pudding (thermostabilized)
Prior to the mission, each crewman evaluated the available food items and selected his individual flight menu. These menus provided approximately 2100 calories per man per day. During most of the flight, the crew maintained a food consumption log. The Commander and the Lunar Module Pilot ate all the food planned for each meal, but the Command Module Pilot was satisfied with less.
Recovery-day physical examinations revealed that the Commander and the Lunar Module Pilot had maintained their approximate preflight weight, while the Command Module Pilot lost nearly 10 pounds. The Command Module Pilot stated that he would have preferred a greater quantity of food items requiring little or no preparation time.
10.3 PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS
Each crewman received a comprehensive physical examination at 27, 15, and 6 days prior to launch, with brief examinations conducted daily during the last 5 days before launch.
Shortly after landing, a comprehensive physical examination showed that the crew was in good health. Both the Commander and the Command Module Pilot had a small amount of clear, bubbly fluid in the left middleear cavity and slight reddening of the eardrums. These findings disappeared in 24 hours without treatment. The Lunar Module Pilot had moderate eyelid irritation in addition to slight redness of the eardrums. All crewmen showed a mild temporary reaction to the micropore tape covering their biomedical sensors. This reaction subsided within 24 hours.
10.4 FLIGHT CREW HEALTH STABILIZATION
During previous Apollo missions, crew illnesses were responsible for numerous medical and operational difficulties. Three days before the Apollo 7 launch, the crew developed an upper respiratory infection which subsided before lift-off, but recurred inflight. Early on the Apollo 8 mission, one crewman developed symptoms of a 24-hour viral gastroenteritis which was epidemic in the Cape Kennedy area around launch time. About two days prior to the Apollo 9 flight, the crew developed common colds which necessitated a delay of the launch for three days. Nine days before the Apollo 13 launch, the backup Lunar Module Pilot developed German measles (rubella) and inadvertently exposed the prime Command Module Pilot. The day before launch, the prime Command Module Pilot was replaced by his backup counterpart because laboratory tests indicated that the prime crewman was not immune to this highly communicable disease with an incubation period of approximately two weeks.
In an attempt to protect the prime and backup flight crew members from exposure to communicable disease during the critical prelaunch and flight periods, such as experienced on previous flight, a flight crew health stabilization program was implemented. This program consisted of the following phases:
a. Identification, examination, and immunization of all primary contacts (personnel who required direct contact with the prime or backup crew during the last three weeks prior to flight).The flight crew health stabilization program was a complete success. No illnesses occurred during the preflight period in any of the prime or backup crew members. This result is of particular significance because the incidence of infectious disease within the local community was near a seasonal high during the prelaunch period.
b. Health and epidemiological surveillance of the crew members and the primary contacts, their families, and the community.
c. Certain modifications to facilities used for training and housing the crew, such as the installation of biological filters in all air conditioning systems.
d. Housing of both the prime and backup crew members in the crew quarters at the Kennedy Space Center from 21 days before flight until launch.
No change in quarantine procedures were made on this mission, except as follows:
a. Two mobile quarantine facilities were used.The new procedures were implemented to return the crew to the Lunar Receiving Laboratory five days earlier than on previous lunar landing missions.
b. Two helicopter transfers of the crew and support personnel were performed.
The crew and 14 medical support personnel were isolated behind the microbiological barrier in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at Houston, Texas, on February 12, 1971. Daily medical examinations and periodic laboratory examinations showed no signs of illness related to lunar material exposure. No significant trends were noted in any biochemical, immunological, or hematological parameters in either the crew or the medical support personnel. On February 27, 1971, after 20 days of isolation within the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, the flight crew and the medical support personnel were released from quarantine. Quarantine for the spacecraft and samples of lunar material was terminated April 4, 1971.
|Chapter 11 - Mission Support Performance||Table of Contents||Apollo 14 Journal Index|