12.0 ASSESSMENT OF MISSION OBJECTIVES.

The four primary objectives (ref. 7) assigned to the Apollo 14 mission were as follows:

a. Perform selenological inspection, survey, and sampling of materials in a preselected region of the Fra Mauro formation.

b. Deploy and activate the Apollo lunar surface experiments package.

c. Develop man's capability to work in the lunar environment.

d. Obtain photographs of candidate exploration sites.

Eleven detailed objectives (derived from primary objectives) and sixteen experiments (listed in table 12-1 and described in ref. 8) were assigned to the mission. All detailed objectives, with the following exceptions, were successfully completed:
a. Photographs of a candidate exploration site

b. Visibility at high sun angles

c. Command and service module orbital science photography

d. Transearth lunar photography

On the basis of preflight planning data, these four objectives were only partially satisfied.


Table 12-I - Detailed Objectives and Experiments

Description Completed
Detailed objectives
Contingency sample collection Yes
Photographs of a candidate exploration site Partial
Visibility at high sun angles (a) Partial
Modular equipment transporter evaluation Yes
Selenodetic reference point update Yes
Command and service module orbital science photography Partial
Assessment of extravehicular activity operation limits Yes
Command and service module oxygen flow rate Yes
Transearth lunar photography  
Thermal coating degradation Yes
Dim-light photography Yes
(a) Preliminary analysis indicates that sufficient data were collected to verify that the visibility analytical model can be used for Apollo planning purposes.
Experiments
Apollo lunar surface experiments package:

M-515 Lunar dust detector
S-031 Lunar passive seismology
S-033 Lunar active seismology
S-036 Suprathermal ion detector
S-058 Cold cathode gauge
S-038 Chaxged particle lunar environment


Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
S-059 Lunar geology investigation Yes
S-078 Laser ranging retro-reflector Yes
S-200 Soil mechanics Yes
S-198 Portable magnetometer Yes
S-170 Bistatic radar Yes
S-080 Solar wind composition Yes
S-178 Gegenschein from lunar orbit Yes
S-164 S-band transponder Yes
S-176 Apollo window meteroid Yes
M-078 Bone mineral measurement Yes



Two detailed objectives were added and were performed during translunar coast: S-IVB photography and command and service module water-dump photography. The S-IVB could not be identified on the film during postflight analysis and, although some particles were seen on photographs of the water dump, there was no indication of the "snow storm" described by the crew.

In addition to the spacecraft and lunar surface objectives, the following two launch vehicle objectives were assigned and completed:

a. Impact the expended S-IVB/instrumentation unit on the lunar surface under nominal flight profile conditions.

b. Make a postflight determination of the S-IVB /instrument at ion unit point of impact within 5 kilometers and the time of impact within one second.

The impact of the S-IVB was detected by the Apollo 12 passive seismic experiment. The impact of the spent lunar module ascent stage was detected by bath the Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 passive seismic experiments.

12.1 PARTIALLY COMPLETED OBJECTIVES

12.1.1 Photographs of a Candidate Exploration Site

Four photographic passes to obtain Descartes landing data were scheduled: one high-resolution sequence with the lunar topographic camera at low altitude, two high-resolution sequences with the lunar topographic camera at high altitude and one stereo strip with the Hasselblad electric data camera at high altitude. On the low altitude (revolution 4) lunar topographic camera pass, the camera malfunctioned and, although 192 frames were obtained of an area east of Descartes, no usable photography was obtained of Descartes. On the subsequent high-altitude photographic passes, the electric Hasselblad camera with the 500-mm lens was used instead of the lunar topographic camera. Excellent Descartes photography was obtained during three orbits, but the resolution was considerably lower than that possible with the lunar topographic camera. Another problem was encountered during the stereo strip photographic pass. Because the command and service module S-band high-gain antenna did not operate properly, no usable high-bit-rate telemetry, and consequently, no camera shutter-open data were obtained for postflight data reduction.

12.1.2 Visibility at High Sun Angles

Four sets of zero-phase observations by the Command Module Pilot were scheduled in order to obtain data on lunar surface visibility at high sun elevation angles. The last set, scheduled for revolution 30, vas deleted to provide another opportunity to photograph the Descartes area. Good data were obtained from the first three sets.

12.1.3 Command and Service Module Orbital Science Photography

All objectives were completed with the exception of those that specified use of the lunar topographic camera. The Apollo 13 S-IVB impact crater area was photographed using the electric Hasselblad 70-mm camera with the 500-mm lens as a substitute for the inoperable lunax topographic camera.

12.1.4 Transearth Lunar Photography

Excellent photography of the lunar surface with the electric Hasselblad data camera using the 80-mm lens was obtained. No lunar topographic camera photography was obtained because of the camera malfunction.

12.2 INFLIGHT DEMONSTRATIONS

In addition to detailed objectives and experiments, four zero-gravity inflight demonstrations were conducted. They were performed on a noninterference basis at the crew's option. The four inflight demonstrations and responsible NASA centers were:

a. Electrophoretic separation - Marshall Space Flight Center

b. Heat flow and convection - Marshall Space Flight Center

c. Liquid transfer - Lewis Research Center

d. Composite casting - Marshall Space Flight Center.

12.3 APPROVED OPERATIONAL TESTS

The Manned Spacecraft Center participated in two of eight approved operational tests. Operational tests are not required to meet the objectives of the mission, do not affect the nominal timeline, and add no payload weight. The two operational tests were: lunar gravity measurement (using the lunar module primary guidance system) and a hydrogen maser test (a Network and unified S-band investigation sponsored by the Goddard Spaceflight Center). Both tests were completed, and the results of the hydrogen maser test are given in reference 9.

The other six tests were performed for the Department of Defense and the Kennedy Space Center. These tests are designated as follows.

a. Chapel Bell (classified Department of Defense test)

b. Radar Skin Tracking

c. Ionospheric Disturbance from Missiles

d. Acoustic Measurement of Missile Exhaust Noise

e. Army Acoustic Test

f. Long-Focal-Length Optical System.

Chapter 13 - Launch Phase Summary Table of Contents Apollo 14 Journal Index