Janet Kovacevich and Joey Kuhlman of the NASA Johnson History Office introduced me to their collection of Apollo material even before Jack Schmitt and I began the Apollo 17 review in 1989. Janet and Joey and, in later years, David Portree, Glen Swanson, and University of Houston-Clear Lake archivist Shelly Kelly provided answers to numerous - and often obscure - questions.
Judy Allton, who works for the Lunar Sample Curator at NASA Johnson, provided essential information on the Apollo tools. Her catalog (which I always think of as "Judy's Tool Book") is a key resource and, as well, the day we spent at Johnson looking at tools and crawling around the publicly-displayed Rover was a great help. Joe Kosmo, also at NASA Johnson, provided access to a cut-away version of an Apollo backpack and also gave me an opportunity to make a close inspection of John Young's Apollo 10 suit while it was being refurbished for public display. Joe and self-described Crash-Test Dummy, Dean Eppler, continue to provide insightsAmanda Young, Early Manned Spaceflight/Astronaut Equipment curator (now retired) at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum and Bill Ayrey at ILC Coporation answered numerous questions and made it possible for Journal Contributors Ulli Lotzmann and Ken Glover to photograph in great detail the flown Apollo suits and other artifacts held at the Smithsonian's Garber Facility. Allan Needell, Curator, Space History Division at Air and Space has been a great help with photographs and other information on Apollo artifacts in the museum's collection.
Independent of the Journal project, Larry Haskin of Washington University undertook the monumental task of producing VHS copies of the Apollo video tapes and it was my great good fortune that Larry completed his work just about the time that the Journal was getting underway. Later, Mark Gray produced high-quality digitizations of the video and film records in the collections of the US National Archives. Mark's work has been critical to development of the Journal. Diana Ryan of the NASA Johnson Audio Office prepared a set of Apollo audio tapes for use in this review; and Carolyn Ng and the people of the photo group at the National Space Science Data Center at the NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center were of great help in assembling a collection of Apollo photographs. In about 2004, NASA Johnson began a project to scan the original Apollo film which, since the first set of duplicates were made shortly after the missions, has been carefully protected in cold storage. Kipp Teague has worked with JSC personnel to secure full-resolution copies of the scans for his Project Apollo Image Gallery, the ALSJ and the AFJ. Kipp has also done all appropriate post-processing of the digital files and has created the 300-DPI (OF300) linked from the various ALSJ Image Libraries. Except for pictures taken during training, most of the original photographs used in the Journal were, of course, taken by the astronauts. The Team Leader for Apollo photography was Dr. Frederick J. Doyle. Paul Coan, Gary Seloff, and Kevin Marsh at Johnson released on the World Wide Web digital versions of the PAO collection of Apollo photographs. Mike Gentry and the staff of Media Services at NASA Johnson have been of great help in researching various issues related to the mission photographs.
Apollo veterans and NASA personnel who provided information were Joe Allen; Max Ary; Dave Ballard; Mike Brzezinski; Ed Brisson; David Carrier; Bob Craddock; Jerry Croley; MIke Dinn; Tony England; Jim Faller; Ed Fendell; Colin Fries; Gordon Fullerton; Fred Haise; Olin Graham; Fred Hörz; Stan Lebar; Bill Kimsey; Stan Lebar; T.K. Mattingly; Chuck Meyer; Bill Muehlberger, Terry Neal; Bob Parker; Walt Rivera; Al Rochford; Lee Saegesser; John Saxon; Gerald Schaber; Lee Silver; Stephen Tellier; George Ulrich; Tex Ward; and John Young. Claire Johnson, who is Gene Cernan's able assistant, contributed both encouragement and the vital information in her phone files. Dick Bull, a former test pilot, helped me puzzle out the checklists during the early stages of my education.
Ron Shelton of the South Carolina State Museum, Columbia, South Carolina, provided photographic copies of the EVA-1 Cuff Checklist that Charlie Duke wore on the Moon.
Dave Vaniman, one of the editors of the invaluable Lunar Sourcebook loaned me his personal copies of the Apollo Preliminary Science Reports. I could not have proceeded without them.
Gerry Griffin, who served as Flight Director during many of the Apollo EVAs, read a final draft of the annotated Apollo 17 transcript and helped correct a number of errors. Jack Schmitt read both the introduction and the Apollo 17 text and contributed numerous corrections and additions. Neil Armstrong and Ed Mitchell read the portions of the manuscript related to their respective missions and help me clear up a number of errors and lingering issues. Dave Scott read the final Apollo 15 draft and contributed numerous additional insights. Dorothy Uherka read an early draft of the introductory chapters and made some valuable and much appreciated suggestions.
I would appreciate hearing from any of the Journal Contributors listed below who have not yet provided a photo and bio material.
Collectively, the community of Journal Contributors has made possible numerous improvements to the ALSJ. Their enthusiasm, encouragement, and interest in getting it right is a continuing source of inspriration. Thanks to:
Thomas Frieling, Gert-Jan Bartelds, Gary Schroeder, David Woods, Paul Fjeld, Kay Nute, Dave Griffith, Todd Vierling, Jerry Matulka, Phil Karn, Greg Sippel, Curtis Roos, Joe Nastasi, Jim Sherman, Thomas Spickermann, Tom Mosher, Olivier Devuns, David Craig, David Toomey, Dean Huffman, John Pfannerstill, Steve Mayo, William Bianco, Dave Hardin, Marv Hein, Martin Keenan, Charles Rolston, John Callender, Frank O'Brien, Chris Duhon, Brian Rhodes, Garry Kennedy, Richard Wielgosz, Ken Glover, Kipp Teague, Julian Jacobson, Ken MacTaggart, Carey Peck, Ron Rosano, Dean Davidson, Jørgen Bak, Roland Speth, Jack Kozak, "Dr. Dudley Eigenvalue", Jim Kingdon, Rob Bailey, Cathy James, Bertrand Ouellet, Dan DeMars, Dan Todd, Ed Suda, Betty Niver, Mary Zornio, Brian Lawrence, Steve Adams, John Lark, Anthony Haukap, Peter Armstrong, Gordon Roxburgh, Carl Gutekunst, Ivan Scheers, Lloyd Brown, Gerald Megason, Greg Scott, George Giusti, Robert LaPorta, David Meier, Ian Bragg, William McEwen, Jim Masocco, Cees van Eijk, Mike Harney, Tom Rowe, Luc Hermans, Chris Moseley, Markus Mehring, John Burton, Bill Little, John Sekol, Bill Baker, Ken Rattee, Bill Goulet, Ron Wells, Shane Johnson, Chuck Parker, Mark Donovan, Ry Alford, David Harland, Tom Parker, Chris Wells, Paolo Dangelo, Jesus Roman, Chris Gamble, Henry Spencer, Thierry Bisiaux, Andrew Beals, Wayne Inglis, Stephen McGinnis, OM, Eric, Mauro Freschi, Roy Mick, Tom McKeever, David Hopkins, Kamran Grasselli, Frank Vaughn, Mark Percival, Max Kohnke, Gary Matylewicz, John Osborn, Tom Neal, Derek Henderson, Michael Trachtenberg, Sven Knudson, Wil Taylor, Simon Atkinson, Bob Fry, Justin Wigg, Neville Kidger, Lennie Waugh, Cedomir Igaly, Damir Lozovina, Karl Dodenhoff, Adam Bootle, Eric Nelson, Gary Neff, Jim Scotti, Tomas Lundberg, Alex Blackwell, Greg Bondar, Ulrich Lotzmann, Simon Meredith, Harald Kucharek, Steve Cybulski, Richard Orloff, Danny Caes, Kim Poor, Mike Poliszuk, Tom Powers, Matt Gibbons, Olivier Dulieu, Ed Hengeveld, Garry Tee, J.L. Pickering, Anders Kyhle, George Green, Ricardo Salamé, Brian McInall, Randy Attwood, Steve Stalos, J. Steven York, Stephanie Hanus, Gary Kitmacher, David Sander, Owen Merrick, Martin Hagmann, Wolfgang Lucht, Bob Gelchion, David Hall, Scot Wilcoxon, Terry Lessly, Joonas Helminen, Phill Parker. Karstein Lomundal, Todd Tucker, Frederic Artner, Craig Lamson, Bob Farwell, Dan Durda, Sanjaya Kumar, Bill Raatz, Carl-Gustaf Edhardt, Thomas Argast, Steve Dart, Mike Constantine, Doug Bennett, Danny Ross Lunsford, Oliver Summa, Dave Byrne, Hamish Lindsay, Paul Candela, Erwin D'Hoore, Alton Hollingsworth, Doug Van Dorn, Michael Saelz, Frank Parker, Matt Kay, Bob Andrepont, Simon Plumpton, Mats Melander, Joe O'Dea, R.S. Wang, Henri Partanen, Anil Sahal, Stephan Klesy, Dean Eppler, Robin Wheeler, Bill Clancey, David Nathan, Tom Callen, Mark Trotter, Erik van Meijgaarden Bill Wood, Colin Mackellar, John Sarkissian Dave Shaffer, Thierry Lombry, Dwight Steven-Boniecki, Rob MacLachlan, Hiroyasu Hayashi, Gary Swearingen, Ian Regan, Thomas Schwagmeier, Ron Creel, Don McMillan, Mike and Jenny Jetzer, Ben Nault, Tom Dahl, Carlos Corso, Dave Michelson, Don Clark, Marco Zambianchi, Ian Graham Clapp, Gary Swearingen, Tahir Rahman, Gavin Stone, Klaus Zeitner, James Hill, Steven Crofoot, Alex Andina, Andrew Collins,, Dave Greer, Dominique Caudron, David Jackson, Dave Bohlmann, Trammell Hudson, Jonathan Cantin, Ken Thomas, John Mason, Scott Cruickshank, Scott Schneeweis, Joel Powell, Diego Cuoghi, Kevin Frank, Rob Godwin, Karsten Rinkema, Paolo Attivissimo, Paolo Amoroso, Roberto Beltramini, Charlie McDonald, Tom Gebbie, Yuri Krasilnikov, Scott Blair, Dick Bolt, Jerry Stone, Dan Buchan, Luigi Pizzimenti, Sherre Boothman, Luigi Morielli, BogdanTyburczy, Wayne Morsfield, Alessandro Gentilini, Hermann Dür, Bob Sorenson, Larry Turoski, Rob Sabel, Francisco Fernández, Jan Dreier, Heiko Küffen, Patrick Tekeli, Larry Jordan, Robert Stroessenreuther, Matt Gleason, Tom Faber, Matt Markham, Hartley Saunders II, Brian Riley (Adrian Apollo), Dmitri Lebedev, Alexandr Turhanov, Larry McGlynn, Maksim Kakitsev, Alan Scalone, Tom Stohlman.
And a fond remembrance of a very special member of the ALSJ Team, Toonseman Glover.
The CD-ROM version of the ALSJ, which presents the Journal as it was in May 1999 - would not exist but for the monumental efforts of Frank O'Brien. Ken Glover oversaw production of the disks and their distribution. Thierry Bisiaux, Brian Lawrence, and Markus Mehring made invaluable contributions during a final frenzy of proofreading both the text and html coding.
The DVD-ROM version of the ALSJ, which presents the Journal as it was in April 2006, was prepared by Ken Glover. Thierry Bisiaux, Derek Henderson, Harald Kucharek, Brian Lawrence, Ulli Lotzmann, Colin Mackellar, Ken MacTaggart, Don McMillan, Frank O'Brien, John Pfannerstill, Jim Scotti, Roland Speth, Kipp Teague, and David Woods did a great job proofreading both the text and html coding and/or reviewing a near-final version of the DVD set.
Permission to reproduce the Joe and Willie cartoon was graciously given by Bill and Chris Mauldin. Jack Schmitt quoted the caption as he crawled into the LM at the end of the first Apollo 17 EVA at 123:58:20.
Various detailed, post-mission traverse maps are taken, with permission, from the Lunar Sourcebook, edited by G.H. Heiken, D.T.Vaniman, and B.M. French, copyright 1991 by Cambridge University Press. The digitized maps were provided by Renee Dotson of the Lunar and Planetary Institute and I thank her and the Sourcebook editors.
The Journal was inspired by the work of New Zealand historian J.C. Beaglehole, who was the Twentieth Century's foremost authority on the European exploration of the Pacific and on the voyages of Captain James Cook. Photographer Lynette Corner graciously gave permission to reproduce her portrait of Prof. Beaglehole. A digital version of the photograph was supplied by Kathleen Coleridge, Special Materials Librarian at the Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
Initial work on the Journal was supported in part by the Los Alamos National Laboratory which is operated by the University of California for the U. S. Department of Energy. Support and encouragement from Sumner Barr, Ruth Demuth, Chick Keller, Tom Weaver, and John Whetten is gratefully acknowledged.
The editing work and preparation for publication on the World Wide Web were supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The help and encouragement of John Rummel, Carl Pilcher, and Mel Averner at NASA Headquarters, Bob Bond at NASA Johnson, Charlie Walker at the McDonnell Douglas Corporation, and, in particular, the late Milton Schwartz - a true friend of the space program and of the Journal - is gratefully acknowledged.
Julian Catalano's efforts on behalf of the Journal were above and beyond the call of duty. Thanks, amigo.
In the initial stages of the project, I simply could not have gotten started without the help of Kay Coen who got the optical scanner up and running and who then got me up to speed with the word processing programs with which the journal has been edited. Her continuing help has been invaluable. Jody Heiken helped Kay and me create a design for the text in the days when we were still thinking in terms of print publication; Yolanda Martinez did much of the optical scanning work; and Helen Smith did some of the interview transcription. Geri Martinez, Janet Harry, and Carol Mahan provided secretarial help with skill and enthusiasm. Mary Ann Olson helped with early paste-ups of the panoramic sequences.
Robert O. Dahl encouraged me to think about the World Wide Web (WWW) as a publication option. Lynn McDonald helped me learn about WWW publication and Calvin Hamilton's Views of the Solar System showed me what a good HTML file looked like.
Since June 1996, NASA HQ Historian Roger Launius, his successors Steven Dick and Bill Barry, and Policy Analyst Steve Garber have provided a home for the Journal. From 1996 to 1999, Woody Smith provided valuable help in maintaining the site.
Andrew Chaikin - who, in the process of researching his superb book, A Man on the Moon, became a fellow aficionado of the detail - spent countless hours on the phone with me swapping experiences and stories and helped me clean up the manuscript. Andy saved me from numerous errors of fact and interpretation.
The success of Apollo was due entirely to the contributions of the thousands and thousands of people who worked on the program. The Apollo astronauts stated repeatedly that they were representatives of all of those people. Indeed, it is only because of the collective efforts of the entire Apollo team that we now know so much about the Moon and about living and working there. In part, the astronauts who participated in the project have devoted an extraordinary amount of time to the Journal because they believe that the long-term value of Apollo will be realized only to the extent that the experiences of the missions are accessible. Twenty-plus years after the fact, we all regret that time to do a journal was not taken long ago, when memories were fresher than they are now. However, we have found that, with the help of documentary material preserved and assembled over the years and with the help of other people who were intimately involved in the conduct of the missions, there are relatively few sequences in the transcript that still defy explanation.
The success of the Journal owes much to the patience that the astronauts showed when confronted with my ignorance. Repeatedly, they pointed out and explained subtleties in the dialog that I had missed. On occasion, when subsequent research showed that they had mis-remembered certain facets of a mission, the astronauts were always willing to re-examine those issues and to make an honest effort to distinguish real memories from after-the-fact hypotheses. In most cases, we were able to resolve discrepancies to our mutual satisfaction and, always, it was their eagerness to thoroughly document the missions that gave us a chance to get it right. Without doubt, errors remain. However, we believe that, on the whole, the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal is an accurate record of the time that the astronauts spent on the Moon. The Journal would have been much less than it is without their support, encouragement, and active participation. I owe particular thanks to Jack Schmitt and Dave Scott; and special thanks to Gene Cernan, Ed Mitchell, and Neil Armstrong.
And, finally, I gratefully acknowledge the loving support of my Beautiful Australian Bride, Di, without whom I would not have had the courage to keep the Journal going.
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