Apollo Lunar Surface Journal Geology Tools Technical Info

Catalog of Apollo Lunar Surface Geological Sampling Tools and Containers

by Judith Haley Allton
Lockheed Engineering and Science Company
NASA Johnson Space Center Document JSC-23454


The individual figures in Judy's Tool Book were scanned by Mick Hyde.
Scans of the complete pages are being added, starting at the end of the document. Where possible, images are being replaced with high-quality scans.
Last revised 14 February 2014.

Table of Contents (252k)

Table of Contents(cont.) (120k)

Foreword by Jim Gooding (0.5 Mb)

Introduction (0.6 Mb)

Part A:  Tools and Containers used to Collect Lunar Rocks and Soil (148k)

Page 6: Contact Soil Sampling Device (0.5 Mb)

Figure 1: Contact Soil Sampling Device (89k)
Top left: CSSD open in the sampling position. Top right: Device closed for stowage after sampling. Bottom left: Device open showing Beta cloth sampler. Bottom right: Device open showing Velvet cloth sampler. NASA photo S72-43792.

Page 7: Contact Soil Sampling Device (cont.) (0.4 Mb)
Figure 2: Beta Cloth Contact Soil Sampling Device (79k)
Beta cloth sampler as received in the laboratory, with dust adhering. NASA photo S72-39186.
Figure 3: Post-flight close-up of Beta cloth sampling pad (108k)
Close-up of Beta cloth sampler containing lunar sample 69003 along the right-hand side of the pad. The small weight of soil collected on this device has not been removed from the pad for analysis. NASA photo S75-20313.
Figure 4: Post-flight close-up of Velvet sampling pad (89k)
Close-up of the Velvet cloth sample pad containing lunar sample 69004. The small weight of soil collected on this device has not been removed from the pad for analysis. NASA photo S75-20266.

Page 8: Contingency Soil Sampler (0.4 Mb)
Figure 5: Contingency Soil Sampler. (101k)
NASA photo S69-31048 shows Neil Armstrong using the contingency sampler during training just prior to the Apollo 11 launch.
Figure 6a: Contingency Sampler (12k)
Sampler in extended configuration. NASA photo S68-54937.
Figure 6b: Contingency Sampler (10k)
Drawing of sampler in extended configuration.

Page 9: Contingency Soil Sampler (cont.) (0.3 Mb)
Figure 7: Contingency Sampler (105k)
Sampler in folded configuration. NASA photo S68-54939.

Page 10: Core Tube (0.6Mb)
Figure 8: 2-cm (diameter) core tube ( 1.2Mb )
Core tube attached to a shorter-style extension handle while being driven into the ground at Bench Crater site by Apollo 12 astronaut Al Bean. Apollo 12 photo AS12-49-7243.

Page 11: Core Tube (cont.) (0.4 Mb)
Figure 9: Components of 2-cm core tube (7k)
The dimensions in this drawing are given in inches.
Figure 10: 2-cm Core Tubes (37k)
This photo shows core tubes with two styles of bits. The upper two tubes have inverted, funnel-shaped bits typical of Apollo 11. These bits, designed for use in fluffy soil, did not work well in the relatively dense lunar soil. The tapered bit on the bottom core tube was used on Apollo 12 and 14. NASA photo S69-31856.
Figure 11: 2-cm Double Core (23k)
Two core tubes have been screwed together and a cap has been attached on the left end. The bottom tube has a chisel bit attached; however, no core tube was ever used as a chisel. NASA photo S69-31858.

Page 12: Core Tube (cont.) (0.5 Mb)
Figure 12: Core Cap Dispenser (70k)
Dispenser with caps and chisel bit for 2-cm-diameter core tubes. NASA photo S69-31845.

Page 13: Core Tube (cont.) (0.5 Mb)
Figure 13: Double core being used on Apollo 15 ( 1.2Mb )
Apollo 15 astronaut Jim Irwin has pushed a double core tube partway into the ground at Station 9a on the rim of Hadley Rille. The top one-third of a lower tube (which has a hardened tip), and entire upper tube, and the bottom portion of an extension handle are visible. Apollo 15 photo AS15-82-11161.
Figure 14: Hole left to drive tube ( 1.1Mb )
Apollo 15 photo AS15-82-11163 shows the hole remaining in the lunar regolith after the drive tube shown in Figure 13 was removed.
Figure 15: "Lower" configuration 4-cm drive tube (45k)
"Lower" configuration of 4-cm-diameter drive tube with top end closure and extension handle adapter (the "plug" at the left) and the bottom end closure "the "cap" at the right) removed. The shiny bit is stainless steel and is permanently attached to the aluminum tube. NASA photo S71-16527.
Figure 16: "Upper" configuration drive tube (40k)
"Upper" configuration of 4-cm drive tube with plug in place. The external threads on the bottom allow this tube to be screwed into a lower configuration tube to lengthen the core barrel. Note that "upper" configuration tubes do not have hardened bits. NASA photo S71-16256.
Figure 17: Cap Dispenser for 4-cm drive tubes(57k)
Cap dispenser with Teflon caps. Translucent caps of the type shown beside the dispenser were used on Apollo 16 and 17.

Page 14: Core Tube (cont.) (0.2 Mb)
Figure 18: Double drive tube (27k)
A double length core made by attaching an "upper" drive tube (left) to a "lower" drive tube (right). The slender rod below is a ramming device which allows the keeper to be pushed down to the surface of the soil to confine it inside the tube. The rammer was inserted through a small hole in the plug (left end). NASA photo S71-16525.

Page 15: Drill (0.5 Mb)
Figure 19: Components of the Apollo Lunar Surface Drill (41k)
This sketch shows the drill is its assembled configuration.

Page 16: Drill (cont.) (0.6 Mb)
Figure 20: Drill being used in training at KSC (154k)
Apollo Lunar Surface Drill being tested by Apollo 13 LMP Fred Haise at the Kennedy Space Center. The handle, battery, power head, and drill stems are visible. The drill stem rack is in the foreground with a set of stem sections on the right and a wrench on the right. Once a stem section has been drilled to full depth, the wrench is attached to the stem in the ground. The astronaut then blocks the wrench with his ankle so that the stem won't turn while he twists the power head off. Haise has a Universal Handling Tool (UHT) attached to his retractable "yo-yo" which, in turn, is attached at his waist. The Vehicle Assembly Building is on the horizon at the right. NASA photo S70-29673.

Page 17: Drill (cont.) (0.4 Mb)
Figure 21: Drill Components (17k)
This sketch shows the various components of the Apollo Lunar Surface Drill and, at the right, the packed configuration for flight.
Figure 22: Drill Bit (48k)
Drill bit with 5 tungsten-carbide tips. The bit is 6.0 cm long, and the narrow end (right) is typical of the threaded joints between the stem sections.

Page 18: Drill (cont.) (0.4 Mb)
Figure 23: Drill Stems and Bit (82k)
The tube on the left is a standard-length tube while the stem in the center is designed to accommodate the bit, which is shown on the right. NASA photo S89-25295.

Page 19: Drill (cont.)     (0.4 Mb)
Figure 24: Treadle and Jack in use during training (153k)
Treadle fitted with a jack to aid in extracting the drill string from the soil. The treadle was so named because its original purpose was to hold the drill down when drilling into rock. In fact, the drill was screwed into the soil by the external flutes and, consequently, the drill string was difficult to remove unless the flutes were completely cleared of cuttings. The jack was added for Apollo 16 and 17 following the extreme difficulties the Apollo 15 crew had in removing their drill string from the ground.
Page 20: Extension Handle ( 532k )
Two styles of extension handles (Figs. 25-30) were used on the moon. The model used on the later maiisions was slightly longer, heavier and more streamlined in appearance.
USE: A single extension handle could be used with a scoop, hammer, rake, core tube, or drive tube, thus, saving the added weight of each tool having a long handle (Fig. 26). when attached to a core tube or a drive tube, the extension handle was pounded with the hammer to drive the tubes into the soil (Fig. 27).

MANUFACTURER: NASA, Johnson Space Center


Weight, 590 g
Dimensions, 61 cm overall length, 15.5 cm width of the 'T' handle.

MATERIALS: The 'T' handle and the main shaft of the extension handle were made from aluminum alloy 6061/62T6. The end pounded by the hammer was reinforced with 303 stainless steel.

APOLLO MISSIONS: This shorter extension handle was used on Apollo 11 and 12.

Weight, 770 g Apollo 14, 820 g Apollo 15, 16, 17;
Dimensions, 67 cm overall length, 15.5 cm width of 'T' handle.

MATERIALS: Tbhe long shaft was alluminum alloy 2024-T3, and the end pounded by the hammer and holding the 'T' handle was 303/316 stainless steel (Fig. 28).

APOLLO MISSIONS: This longer extension handle was used on Apollo 14, 15, 16, and 17 (Figs. 29 and 30).

Figure 25: Shorter style Extension Handle ( 152k )
Used on early Apollo missions. NASA Photo S69-31844.
Figure 26: Hammer, Gnomon, Tongs, Extension Handle, Large Scoop ( 184k )
Tools of the type used on Apollo 11 (L to R): lighter weight hammer, gnomon, shorter tongs, shorter extension handle, box-shaped scoop. The extension handle was designed for use with the hammer, scoop, and drive tubes (see Figure 10). NASA Photo S69-31860.
Figure 27: Hammer and extension handle in use on Apollo 11 ( 1.1Mb )
Shorter style extension handle attached to a single core tube is being driven with a hammer by Buzz Aldrin on Apollo 11. NASA Photo AS11-40-5964.
Page 21: Extension Handle ( 584k )
Figure 28: Longer Style Extension Handle and Adjustable-Angle Scoop ( 128k )
the 76-cm extension handle was flown on Apollo 14 to 17 and the large, adjustable angle scoop was flown on Apollo 16 and 17.
Figure 29: J-Mission Scoop Planted in the Lunar Soil ( 1.3Mb )
Apollo 16 photo AS16-109-17846 shows the longer-style extension handle fitted to a large, adjustable angle scoop. Charlie Duke has planted the scoop in the surface to provide a shadow and a length scale in documentation photos for a sample his was about to collect.
Figure 30: Extension Handle and Thin-walled Core Tube on the Moon ( 1.3Mb )
Apollo 17 photo AS17-146-22291 shows the longer-style extension handle attached to a 4-cm drive tube that Gene Cernan has just driven into the ground and Station 6 on the lower flanks of the North Massif. The right-front wheel of the Lunar Rover is visible in the background.
Page 22: Hammer ( 472k )
Figure 31: Hammer and Gnomon in use during Apollo 15 ( 1.1Mb )
Apollo 15 photo AS15-82-11140 shows Dave Scott using the heavier-weight hammer at Station 9a at the edge of Hadley Rille. The hammer flown on Apollo 11 and 12 had an overall length of 41 cm, a weight of 850 grams, a head length of 16 cm, and a head thickness of 3.8 cm. The hammer flown on the later missions had a length of 39 cm, a weight of 1300 g, and the same head length and thickness. The weight difference was due to a difference in the head dimension parallel to the handle.
Page 23: Hammer ( 524k )
Figure 32: Hammer attached to Extension Handle ( 0.2Mb )
Lighter-weight hammer attached to shorter-style extension handle for use as a hoe. NASA photo S69-31849.
Figure 33: Lighter-weight Hammer ( 252k )
Lighter-weight hammer used on Apollo 11 and 12. In hammering core tubes into the ground, the astronauts needed a large striking surface, which this hammer did not provide. NASA photo S69-31847.
Figure 34: Heavier-weight Hammer after use ( 252k )
This heavier-weight hammer provided both a greater impact force because of its greater weight, but also, when the astronaut held the head parallel to the ground, a broad striking surface. NASA photo S71-22471.
Page 24: LRV Soil Sampler ( 352k )
Figure 35: Apollo 17 Lunar Rover Soil Sampler and UHT ( 0.1Mb )
LRV Sampler with 12 round sample bags is shown attached to a Universal Handling Tool (UHT). The UHT was designed for use in deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) but, on Apollo 17, was adapted for use as a handle for the LRV Sampler. Jack Schmitt can be seen examining the flight Sampler on 9 August 1972 during the final LRV fit check in NASA photo KSC-72PC-411.
Figure 36: LRV Sampler Head ( 144k )
This pre-flight lab photo shows the Apollo 17 LRV Sampler head without sample bags .
Page 25: Rake ( 608k )
Figure 37: Rake in use on the Moon ( 1.1Mb> )
Apollo 16 photo AS16-116-18690 shows Charlie Duke dragging the Apollo rake through the soil at Station 10-Prime near the LM at the end of EVA-3. The tine spacing is 1 cm and the rake was used to collect rocks of this size or larger. The closed, metal side also let the astronauts use the rake to collect a soil sample from the rake site.
Figure 38: Rake ( 204k )
Lunar rake showing the stainless-steel tines, the aluminum sidewalls on the basket, and the adjustable-angle handle. The handle angle was adjusted by squeezing the flat plates just above the pivot, rotating the head, and releasing the plates. The rake weighed 1.6 kg and the basket dimensions were 29.4 by 29.4 by 10.4 cm.
Page 26: Rake ( 416k )
Figure 39: Rake in Use on the Moon ( 760k )
Apollo 17 photo AS17-134-20425 shows Jack Schmitt shaking soil out of the rake after making a swath through the surface at Station 1 near Steno Crater.
Page 27: Scoop ( 456k )
Figure 40: Large, Box-Shaped Scoop and Shorter Extension Handle ( 232k )
Scoops of this type were flown on Apollo 11, 12, and 14. The box dimensions are 15.2 by 9.3 by 15.2 cm. NASA photo S69-31583.
Figure 41: Large, Box Shaped Scoop Head ( 164k )
The scoop was made of aluminum and weighed 400 grams. The overall length was 39 cm. NASA photo S69-31846.
Page 28: Scoop ( 468k )
Figure 42: Large, Box Shaped Scoop in use during training ( 0.6Mb )
NASA photo S69-32243 shows Buzz Aldrin pouring a soil sample into a bag held by Neil Armstrong during an indoor training session in Building 9 (JSC?) on April 22, 1969. Journal Contributor Thomas Schwagmeier notes that the version of S69-32243 that appears on ( page 28 is left-right reversed.
Page 29: Scoop ( 448k )
Figure 43: Small, Non-Adjustable Scoop attached to shorter-style Extension Handle. ( 152k )
This type of scoop was flown on Apollo 12 and 14. The pan is 6.6 cm wide and 3 cm tall and the head weighs 163 grams. NASA photo S69-31850.
Figure 44: Small, Non-Adjustable Scoop in use during Apollo 12 ( 1.2Mb )
Apollo 12 photo AS12-49-7312 shows a small rock Pete Conrad just collected with the scoop near Halo Crater during the second EVA.
Figure 45: Small, Adjustable-Angle Scoop ( 140k )
The angle of the scoop could be adjusted by pressing the tabs in either side of the handle and rotating the head. The pan is 7.3 cm wide, 4.6 cm high, and 12.7 cm long. The tool weight is 516 grams and was flown only on Apollo 15. NASA photo S71-22472.
Page 30: Scoop ( 508k )
Figure 46: Small, Adjustable-Angle Scoop ( 84k )
In this drawing, the tool is attached to a longer-style extension handle.
Figure 47: Large, Adjustable-Angle Scoop in use on Apollo 17 ( 1.4 Mb )
Apollo 17 photo AS17-138-21160 shows the large scoop lying on the rim of Ballet Crater. Note that Jack Schmitt has adjusted the head so it is at right angles to the extension handle. A Sample Collection Bag (SCB) is sitting on the ground at the right side of the picture. This tool weighed 590 grams.
Page 31: Tongs ( 556k )
Figure 48: Shorter-Style Tongs in use during Apollo 12 ( 1.2Mb )
Apollo 12 photo AS12-47-6932 shows Pete Conrad as he prepares to collect a small rock at the ALSEP deployment site. Note the cloud of dirt that he kicked toward us with his right boot. The tongs are 67-cm long and could be used to pick up rocks 6-cm across.]
Page 32: Tongs ( 432k )
Figure 49: Shorter-Style Tongs ( 156k )
NASA photo S69-31855.
Figure 50: 32-Inch Tongs ( 172k )
The tongs flown on the early missions proved to be too short and had too small an opening to be useful. The tongs flown on later mission were 80-cm long. NASA photo S71-22469.
Figure 51: 32-Inch Tongs in use during Apollo 16 ( 1.5Mb )
Apollo 16 photo AS16-116-18712 shows the tongs sticking in the ground near the LM. John Young planted the tongs to provide scale and a shadow in this photo he took prior to collecting the fist-sized rock just to the right of the tongs.
Page 33: Trenching Tool ( 292k )
Figure 52: Trenching Tool with Adjustable Angle Blade (48k)
This tool was flown on Apollo 14. The blade width is 15 cm. NASA photo S71-22470.
Page 34: Document Section Divider ( 92k )

Page 35: Part B Title Page: Tools Used To Support Sample Selection And Documentaiton ( 88k )

Page 36: Brush-Scriber-Lens ( 196k )

Figure 53: Hand-lens, wire brush, scriber ( 128k )
Tools of this type were flown on Apollo 12 and 14 but were never used. The brush could have been used to clean samples and the carbide scriber tip could have been used to mark them. NASA photo S69-31852.
Page 37: Gnomon ( 268k )
Figure 54: Apollo 12/14 Gnomon ( 0.1Mb )
NASA photo S69-53044 shows the gnomon in its folded, stowage configuration. The legs were hinged at the base (left) and, when folded down, formed a tripod. The central rod could pivot freely on the base and provided a vertical reference, a length scale, a shadow for orientation and had a gray scale to guide photo processing.
Figure 55: Apollo 15/16/17 Gnomon ( 0.1Mb )
This drawing shows the type of gnomon used on the later missions. The main difference from the style used on earlier missions was the addition of a color/gray scale to one of the legs.
Figure 56: Gnomon in use on Apollo 17 ( 1.2Mb )
Apollo 17 photo AS17-137-20963 shows the gnomon in use at Station 2 at the foot of the South Massif. The crew has placed the gnomon next to the rock known as Boulder 3. The overall, deployed height of the gnomon is 62 cm.
Page 38: Weight Scale ( 276k )

Figure 57: Spring Scale ( 0.1Mb )
This type of scale was flown on Apollo 11 and 12 and, on the latter flight, fell apart while the crew was in the cabin trying to weigh their remaining feedwater. This scale weighed 500 grams.
Figure 58: Sample Scale ( 0.1Mb )
This lightweight (230 gram) but durable scale was flown on Apollo 14 thru 17. The readings are given in terrestrial pounds.
Page 39: Part C: Tool Carriers ( 92k )

Page 40: (Hand) Tool Carrier ( 372k )

Figure 59: Small Tool Carrier (Hand Tool Carrier) ( 1.0Mb )
Apollo 12 photo AS12-47-6988 shows the Hand Tool Carrier (HTC) on the ground near the Modular Equipment Stowage assembly (MESA) at the end of EVA-1. Pete Conrad is at the MESA packing a rock box. A portion of the erectable S-Band antenna is at the right edge of the picture.
Figure 60: Small Tool Carrier ( 1.1Mb )
Apollo 12 photo AS12-49-7320 shows the Hand Tool Carrier at the southern rim of Surveyor Crater. Pete Conrad is in the background. The scoop has been planted to the left of the HTC and the gnomon is farther left.
Figure 61: Small Tool Carrier mounted on the Apollo 14 Modular Equipment Transporter (MET) ( 1.0Mb )
Apollo 14 photo AS14-68-9405 shows the HTC mounted on the top of the MET at EVA-2 Station A. Al Shepard is manipulating a double core tube and has a hammer in his right hand. He is wearing a pair of tongs attached to a retractable cable assembly (called the "yo-yo") mounted at his left hip. Note the 16-mm camera which is mounted on a staff seated in a socket on the side of the HTC.
Page 41: (Hand) Tool Carrier ( 228k )

Figure 62: Small Tool Carrier ( 0.1Mb )
This drawing from the Apollo 14 Lunar Surface Procedures volume shows the HTC is its fully loaded configuration.
Figure 63: Small Tool Carrier ( 0.2Mb )
NASA photo S69-31867 shows the HTC and associated tools in the lab prior to Apollo 12. The tools, from left to right, are an extension handle, the gnomon, a pair of tongs, a handle of unknown purpose, the camera staff, a hand-lens/wire-brush/scribe tool, a hammer, and a scoop head. Note the sample collection bag attached to the inside of the HTC.
Page 42: Tool Carrier ( 228k )

Figure 64: Large Tool Carrier ( 0.2Mb )
Large Tool Carriers of this type were flown on Apollo 15 and were mounted at the back of the Rover. Two Sample Collection Bags (SCBs) are mounted on the far side of the carrier. In the foreground, left to right, are core tube caps (not used on either mission, documented sample bags, hammer, drive tube caps, two pairs of tongs, adjustable-angle scoop head, and an extension handle. NASA photo S71-22476.
Page 43: Tool Carrier ( 264k )

Figure 65: Large Tool Carrier ( 0.5M )
The carrier shown in Figure 64 as viewed from the other side. The various tools have been mounted on the carrier. The SCB on the right has pockets mounted on the outside. NASA photo S71-22475.
Page 44: Tool Carrier ( 256k )

Figure 66: Large Tool Carrier ( 0.5Mb )
NASA photo S71-22477 shows the side of the carrier which faces the front of the Rover when mounted on the vehicle.
Page 45: Tool Carrier ( 328k )

Figure 67: Large Tool Carrier on the Apollo 15 Rover ( 0.9Mb )
Apollo 15 photo AS15-82-11168 shows the back of the Lunar Roving Vehicle while it is parked at Station 10 at the rim of Hadley Rille. The Large Tool Carrier is visible at the back of the vehicle with one SCB mounted on it. Apollo 15 Commander Dave Scott is carrying a Hasselblad camera equipped with a 500-mm lens. (ALSJ Contributor Frank O'Brien notes "the Hasselblad cameras used what is known as 'medium format' film, which is about 2.25 inches (57 cm) square.")
Figure 68: Large Tool Carrier on the Apollo 16 Rover ( 1.1Mb )
Apollo 16 photo AS16-117-18825 shows the Rover parked at Station 10-Prime. The Large Tool Carrier is hinged at the left rear of the Rover, behind the Commander's seat, to give access to its inner surface and to items stowed behind the seats. Apollo 16 Commander John Young is taking a documentation photo of a rake-sample site.
Page 46: Tool Carrier ( 272k )

Figure 69: Large Tool Carrier on the Apollo 16 Rover ( 1.0Mb )
NASA photo AS16-107-17446 shows the carrier at the back of the Rover at Station 4, which is high up on the side of Stone Mountain. Apollo 16 Lunar Module Pilot Charlie Duke is at the Rover examining the checklist on his left wrist.
Page 47: Part D: Containers Used to Package Rocks, Soil, and other Samples on the Moon ( 116k )

Page 48: Apollo Lunar Sample Return Container ( 344k )

Figure 70: Apollo Sample Return Container, Serial No. 9 ( 0.3Mb )
NASA photo S72-37196 shows a "rock box" that was flown on both Apollo 12 and Apollo 16. Empty, the box weighs 6.7 kg and its outer dimensions are 48 x 30 x 20 cm.
Figure 71: Interior of an Apollo 14 Sample Return Container ( 0.3Mb )
Pre-flight photo S70-29818 showing round documented sample bags (lower left), 2-cm core tubes (upper right), Magnetic Shield Sample Container (lower right), and core-tube caps. Note the mesh padding which covers the core tubes on the right side. The SRCs were packed inside an evacuated chamber so that, when the astronauts opened them on the lunar surface, there was no pressure inside the box to blow the lid open. The SRC vacuum sealing mechanism consisted of a knife edge on the rim of the box lid and a strip of soft indium metal in the rim of the body. O-rings on the outside of both the knife edge and indium strip provided additional sealing. On the trip out to the Moon, the knife edge and the indium strip were kept from making contact by a hard spacer made of Teflon. The Teflon spacer can be seen surrounding the knife edge in this photo.
Page 49: Apollo Lunar Sample Return Container ( 368k )

Figure 72: Post-Apollo 16 photo of SRC Serial No. 10 ( 0.4Mb )
NASA photo S72-36984 was taken moments after SRC No. 10 was opened in a vacuum chamber at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston. The box contains a large rock, several documented sample bags with the fold-over aluminum tabs, and a 4-cm drive tube at the rear. Note the o-ring which has lifted out of its seat at the left.
Page 50: Apollo Lunar Sample Return Container ( 308k )

Figure 73: SRC mounted on MESA table during training 1.2Mb
NASA photo S69-31080 shows Neil Armstrong closing an SRC which he had previously secured in a waist-level work station known as the MESA table. During flight, the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly at the right is folded against the side of the LM Descent Stage and, after climbing out on the porch, the Commander pulled a lanyard to release the MESA so that it would rotate down into this working configuration.
Figure 74: SRC Teflon-Cloth Seal Protector ( 172k )
After opening a rock box on the surface, the astronaut unfolded this seal protector, which was made of Teflon-treated cloth, to help keep the sealing mechanism clean. NASA photo S88-52674.
Figure 75: Fouled SRC Seal ( 0.2Mb )
Close-up vies of the indium seal on Apollo 16 SRC 1009. The rock box is full of documented sample bags and the aluminum tab on one of the bags was entrapped in the knife edge and indium seal; thus, the seal was not good. One of the fluorosilicone o-rings, dark in color, is visible just outward on the indium seal. NASA photo S72-37750.
Page 51: Core Sample Vacuum Container ( 160k )

Figure 76: Core Sample Vacuum Container (CSVC) ( 92k )
The CSVC was designed to provided vacuum protection to a single, 4-cm drive tube. The sealing mechanism was similar to the Special Environment Sample Container (see Figure 93).
Page 52: Documented Sample Bags ( 352k )

Figure 77: Cup-Shaped, Documented Sample Bags ( 1.2Mb )
Apollo 12 photo AS12-49-7243 shows a stack of 35 cup-shaped bags on the corner of the Hand Tool Carrier (HTC) nearest Al Bean's leg. Al has just driven a core tube into the surface at Bench Crater. The empty ring near the bag dispenser was designed to hold a bag while it was being filled. There is no evidence that it was ever used on either Apollo 12 or Apollo 14.
Page 53: Documented Sample Bags ( 292k )

Figure 78: Cup-Shaped, Documented Sample Bags ( 0.3Mb )
NASA photo S70-29816 shows a 35-cup dispenser packed in one of the Apollo 14 rock boxes.
Figure 79: Cup-Shaped dispenser Prototype ( 0.2Mb )
NASA photo S68-54935 shows a prototype of the 35-bag dispenser. Note the aluminum band which re-inforces the top of the bag.
Page 54: Documented Sample Bags ( 268k )

Figure 80: LRV Sampler ( 0.1Mb )
The Apollo 17 Lunar Roving Vehicle Sampler consisted of a head, which contained a stack of cup-shaped sample bags similar to the ones used on Apollo 12 and 14, attached to a Universal Handling Tool (UHT). At intervals along the Rover traverses, Gene Cernan would stop the Rover so that Jack Schmitt could collect a representative sample. The LRV sampler let him do that without getting off the vehicle.
Figure 81: Flat, Rectangular Documented Sample Bags (Early Missions) ( 0.2Mb )
NASA photo S70-52550 shows the flat, rectangular, documented sample bags use on Apollo 12 and 14. They are seen protruding from their cylindrical dispenser in the left side of the rock box. These bags were 15 x 15 cm and their relatively small size caused problems for the crews.
Page 55: Documented Sample Bags ( 252k )

Figure 82: 20-bag dispenser (J missions) ( 0.1Mb )
This sketch shows the 20-bag dispenser for flat, rectangular documented sample bags used on Apollo 15, 16, and 17. These bags were 20 x 19 cm.
Figure 83: J-Mission sample bag ( 0.2Mb )
NASA photo S73-15561 shows an open J-mission sample bag which contains Apollo 17 soil sample 74220, which weighs 1180 grams.
Figure 84: 20-bag Dispensers in an SCB ( 0.3Mb )
NASA photo S88-52669 shows three 20-bag dispensers stowed in an Sample Collection Bag (SCB) prior to a J mission. This photo was taken from Union Carbide photo 143401.
Page 56: Documented Sample Bags ( 0.2Mb )

Figure 85: 20-bag Dispenser ( 1.2Mb )
Apollo 16 photo AS16-116-18649 shows Charlie Duke examining House Rock at Station 11. The attachment on his camera bracket for the 20-bag dispensers has failed and he has hooked a dispenser in the little finger of his right hand. Note the open checklist on his left wrist and the black watchband on his right wrist.
Page 57: Gas Analysis Sample Container ( 0.3Mb )

Figure 86: Gas Analysis Sample Container (GASC) ( 0.4Mb )
The GASC - sometimes called the "Short Can" - was flown on Apollo 11 and 12 and NASA photo S88-52660, which is taken from Union Carbide photo 121372, shows the knife edge on the can and the indium alloy, sealing surface on the lid.
Page 58: Lunar Evironment Sample Container ( 0.1Mb )

Page 59: Magnetic Shield Sample Container ( 0.3Mb )

Figure 87: Magnetic Shield Sample Container ( 0.4Mb )
NASA photo S70-29817 shows an Apollo 14 ALSRC (Apollo Lunar Sample Return Container or "rock box") packed for flight with round documented sample bags, 2-cm diameter core tubes and a Magnetic Shield Sample Container (MSSC). The white cylinder is believed to be the MSSC because it is approximately the correct size and all the other objects have been identified. This was the only MSSC flown during Apollo and was never used.
Page 60: Organic Sample Monitor Bag ( 0.2Mb )

Figure 88: Organic Sample Monitor ( 0.2Mb )
The Organic sample monitor consisted of a roll of clean aluminum metal mesh which was packed in the SRCs. When the astronauts opened an SRC, they sealed the bag and, during post-mission analysis, the aluminum mesh allowed experimenters to estimate sample contamination from the spacecraft and backpacks. NASA photo S70-18751 shows an Organic Sample Monitor packed in one of the Apollo 14 SRCs. Note the cloth protector covering the box seal.
Figure 89: Organic Sample Monitor ( 0.2Mb )
NASA photo S71-36040 shows an Organic Sample Monitor packed for Apollo 15.
Page 61: Protective Padded Sample Bag ( 0.3Mb )

Figure 90: Protective Padded Sample Bag ( 0.4Mb )
Two "padded bags" were flown on Apollo 16 and were designed to cushion fragile rocks and to prevent rock surfaces from being abraded. The interior, padded volume was 15 x 14 x 5 cm in size.
Page 62: Special Environmental Sample Container ( 0.3Mb )

Figure 91 : Special Environmental Sample Container ( 0.8Mb )
Apollo 12 photo AS12-49-7278 shows LMP Al Bean holding the SESC at Sharp Crater. Photographer Pete Conrad is reflected in Al's visor. The lid is hanging below the body of the "long can" and is attached to it by a short piece of wire.
Figure 92 : Special Environmental Sample Container ( 0.1Mb )
This Union Carbide drawing shows the SESC with the lid closed. The handle gave the astronauts leverage when the closed the container.
Figure 93 : Special Environmental Sample Container (51k)
NASA photo S88-52667, taken from Union Carbide photo 137775, shows an SESC after it has been filled with simulated lunar soil. Note the Teflon seal protectors on both the lid and body.
Figure 94 : Special Environmental Sample Container (78k)
NASA photo S88-52666, taken from Union Carbide photo 137774, shows an SESC after it was filled with simulated lunar soil and the seal protectors were removed. The knife edge is on the rim of the body and the soft indium strip is in the lid rim. In the original photo, small amounts of dirt can be seen on the sealing surfaces.
Figure 95 : Sample Collection Bag ( 1.1Mb )
Apollo 17 photo AS17-145-22157 shows LMP Jack Schmitt wearing an SCB on the right side of his PLSS at Station 5. An empty SCB weighed 762 grams, had outer dimensions of 42 x 22 x 15 cm, and had a capacity of 13869 cubic cm. The LMPs wore their SCBs on the right side because they sat in the right-hand seat and there wasn't room between the two PLSSs to accommodate two SCBs. For the same reason, the Commanders wore their SCBs on the left side. Jack is collecting a soil sample near some meter-sized boulders on the rim of Camelot crater. Gene Cernan has placed the gnomon on the top of the foreground rock, which is a vesicular basalt. The South Massif is in the background.
Figure 96 : Sample Collection Bag (120k)
NASA photo S71-36042 shows an SCB packed in one of the Apollo 15 rock boxes. The SCB is folded and the lid is toward the viewer. Exterior pockets containing a Special Environmental Sample Container (SESC) and a drive-tube cap dispenser can be seen on the upper surface.
Page 68: Sample Collection Bag ( 340k )

Figure 97 : Extra Sample Collection Bag ( 0.4Mb )
This detail from Apollo 16 photo AS16-107-17473 ( 0.8Mb ) shows an SCB that John Young set on the surface near the rim of a small crater at Station 4 on the flank of Stone Mountain. He was doing solo sampling at the time and need the SCB to hold samples as he collected them. The Extra SCBs did not have external pockets or internal stowage sleeves for dire tubes and, consequently weighed on 557 grams.
Figure 98 : Sample Collection Bag (top) (176k)
NASA photo S88-52673 shows the closed top of an SCB and the diagonal slit through which samples could be dropped. None of the crews used the slit but, rather, opened the top and dropped samples directly into the SCB. The metal tab identifies this as SCB-2. Bag numbering allowed experimenters on Earth to keep track of samples.
Figure 99 : Open Sample Collection Bag (151k)
NASA photo S88-52671 shows the interior of an SCB with its top open. Two drive tubes can be seen in the interior stowage slots. The metal mesh stiffener in the lid and in the bottom of the bag are visible. Note, also, the underside of the diagonal slit. The Teflon seal protectors on an SESC can be seen protruding from an external pocket on the left side.
Figure 100 : Sample Collection Bag loaded for flight (151k)
NASA photo S88-52662 shows an SCB loaded from flight. This bag contains four lower drive-tube sections (labeled with four capital "L"s), three upper ("U") sections, two SESCs (one stowed in an external pocket on the left side), and two 20-bag dispensers.
Page 69: Weigh Bag ( 387k )

Figure 101 : Weigh Bags 0.7Mb
NASA photo S69-32248 shows Neil Armstrong filling a weigh bag with soil during pre-flight training. The weigh bag appears to be similar in size to the Sample Collection Bags (SCBs) of later missions. Like the SCBs, the weigh bags had metal stiffeners in the top and bottom. The bags flown on Apollo 11 and 12 were made of a plastic film and were subject to cracking and tearing. In this photo, the weigh bag is attached to the left-hand corner of the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) on the side of the LM below the LMP's window
Figure 102 : Weigh Bags ( 0.4Mb )
NASA photo S69-32242 shows Neil Armstrong holding what appear to be two weigh bags during pre-flight training.
Page 70: Weigh Bag (cont.) ( 311k )

Figure 103 : Plastic Film Weigh Bag ( 112k )
NASA photo shows a weigh bag of the type flown on Apollo 11 and 12 packed inside a rock box. The rectangular, metal frames are visible through the plastic film.
Figure 104 : Cloth Weigh Bag ( 89k )
NASA photo S70-18760 shows the type of weigh bag flown on Apollo 14 packed in a rock box. Complaints by the Apollo 11 and 12 crews about the susceptibility of the Teflon-film weigh bags to damage led to their replacement with bags made of Teflon-impregnated cloth.
Page 71: Part 11. Summary of Tool and Container Weights ( 116k )

Page 72: Summary of Tool and Container weights (cont.) ( 396k )

Text; Table 1 - Numbers of Lunar Samples, Weight of Lunar Samples, and Sampling Tools (by mission)
Page 73: Summary of Tool and Container weights (cont.) ( 154k )
Figure 105 - Bar graph of the number of samples collected on each mission

Figure 106 - Bar graph of the weight of samples and of tools for each mission.

Page 74: Summary of Tool and Container weights (cont.) ( 235k )
Table 2 - Apollo 11, including part number, serial number, and weight of each tool/container.
Page 75: Summary of Tool and Container weights (cont.) ( 281k )
Table 3 - Apollo 12, including part number, serial number, and weight of each tool/container.
Page 76: Summary of Tool and Container weights (cont.) ( 286k )
Table 4 - Apollo 14, including part number, serial number, and weight of each tool/container.
Page 77: Summary of Tool and Container weights (cont.) ( 146k )
Table 4 - Apollo 14 (cont.), including part number, serial number, and weight of each tool/container.
Page 78: Summary of Tool and Container weights (cont.) ( 305k )
Table 5 - Apollo 15, including part number, serial number, and weight of each tool/container.
Page 79: Summary of Tool and Container weights (cont.) ( 156k )
Table 5 - Apollo 15 (cont.), including part number, serial number, and weight of each tool/container.
Page 80: Summary of Tool and Container weights (cont.) ( 305k )
Table 6 - Apollo 16, including part number, serial number, and weight of each tool/container.
Page 81: Summary of Tool and Container weights (cont.) ( 190k )
Table 6 - Apollo 16 (cont.), including part number, serial number, and weight of each tool/container.
Page 82: Summary of Tool and Container weights (cont.) ( 350k )
Table 7 - Apollo 17, including part number, serial number, and weight of each tool/container.
Page 83: Summary of Tool and Container weights (cont.) ( 158k )
Table 7 - Apollo 17 (cont.), including part number, serial number, and weight of each tool/container.
Page 84: Acknowledgements ( 353k )

Page 85: References 1 to 22 ( 352k )

Page 86: References 23 to 42 ( 403k )

Page 87: Appendix - Tool and Container Inventories ( 265k )

Page 88: Appendix - Tool and Container Inventories (cont.) ( 335k )

Table A-1 - Items in the National Air and Space Museum collection
Page 89: Appendix - Tool and Container Inventories (cont.) ( 342k )
Table A-1 (cont.) - Items in the National Air and Space Museum collection
Page 90: Appendix - Tool and Container Inventories (cont.) ( 323k )
Table A-1 (cont.) - Items in the National Air and Space Museum collection
Page 91: Appendix - Tool and Container Inventories (cont.) ( 350k )
Table A-1 (cont.) - Items in the National Air and Space Museum collection
Page 92: Appendix - Tool and Container Inventories (cont.) ( 392k )
Table A-1 (cont.) - Items in the National Air and Space Museum collection
Page 93: Appendix - Tool and Container Inventories (cont.) ( 358k )
Table A-1 (cont.) - Items in the National Air and Space Museum collection
Page 94: Appendix - Tool and Container Inventories (cont.) ( 207k )
Table A-2 - Items held by NASA Johnson Space Center Public Affairs Office
Page 95: Appendix - Tool and Container Inventories (cont.) ( 331k )
Table A-3 - Items held by NASA Johnson Space Center Lunar Sample Curator
Page 96: Appendix - Tool and Container Inventories (cont.) ( 301k )
Table A-3 (cont.) - Items held by NASA Johnson Space Center Lunar Sample Curator
Page 97: Appendix - Tool and Container Inventories (cont.) ( 145k )
Table A-3 (cont.) - Items held by NASA Johnson Space Center Technical Services Division

Inside Back Cover: Acronyms (132k)