Knowledge Process Team
Site Visit to Sandia National Laboratories
19 November 1997
1. CK Process Team Members:
Angela Ewell-Madison and Unmeel Meht
2. Technical Activities and
Blewer Manager, Microelectronics Industry/University Partnerships
H. Eckelmeyer Education Outreach Program
||Kevin A. McMahon
& Commercialization Licenses & Agreements
3. Micro Devices
i) What was the objective
of your research/operational effort?
- To develop the necessary
expertise and capabilities to support the Microelectronics and Photonics
Center (a staff of 400) Mission
- To support the objective
of the Defense Microelectronics Technology Program (DMTP)
ii) How would you classify
your research? How do you accomplish research?
- Programmatic research to
provide knowledge for a mission
- Industrial research to achieve
- Industrial partnerships
save capital, time, and manpower in achieving Sandia's mission
- The DMTP relies on existing
relationships and industry production
- Win-win partnerships model
- Commercial partnerships
are vital to Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology development
iii) Who were your customers?
- Primary: DOE, IC (Integrated
Circuit) industry manufacturers, IC equipment manufacturers, and consortia
- Secondary: Other Federal
Agencies, universities, non-semiconductor based industries
- Ultimate Customer: U.S.
- Example: Semiconductor Manufacturing
Technology (SEMATECH)/ Sandia Partnership
- Started as a work-for-others
contract in 1989; extended with two one-year CRADA's in 1992;
extended with a five-year CRADA in 1993; negotiating extension
for the sixth year
- Total CRADA funding
$105,950,000 (50% from DOE and 50% from SEMATECH (fund-in and
- 241 total personnel
working on program (zero full time), involving 70 departments,
23 centers, and 9 divisions
- Project Management Approach:
The Sandia/SEMATECH CRADA is operated under formal project management
principles and techniques to ensure successful projects and satisfied
partners and projects are selected from the list of mutually beneficial
topics that appear on both partners' technology roadmaps.
- Through 1997, greater
than 130 projects were completed
iv) Did you involve your customers
in the up-front planning?
- DOE/Defense programs: Worked
with DOE to assist the U.S. Congress in creating a contingency for
- SEMATECH: Worked with S&T
Focus Advisory Boards to define research projects of greatest mutual
- Industry CRADA's: Established
streamlined approach to defined R&D projects
v) What kind of communication
did you use?
- Written: Proceedings, publications,
preview reports, tech transfer reports, Gantt charts
- Oral: Presentations at quarterly
and annual reviews, at conferences, at road shows at sponsor's site,
and at trade shows
- Electronic: Web page, videos,
e-mail, teleconferences, videoconferences
vi) Who assisted you in this
- Internal Infrastructure:
Program participants, internal tech transfer, protocol, marketing
groups, and onsite partner assignees
- External Partners: Consortia,
CRADA partners, and universities
- Industry Trade Groups: Semiconductor
Research Corporations, Semiconductor Industry Association, and Trade
vii) Was there a source of
funds dedicated to help in this process?
- Costs of report preparation,
of travel for presentations, etc., were included in the project plan.
- The infrastructure and resources
of Consortia partners were leveraged to fan out results of joint projects.
- Internal infrastructure
was used when possible.
- Spinoff of technology was
encouraged through entrepreneurial leaves.
- Internal points of contact
were appointed for systematic knowledge collection and distribution.
viii) How has this knowledge
- FTAB (Focus Technology Advisory
Board) proceedings, publications, reports
- Newsnotes, minutes, quarterly
reports, one pagers
- Patents, technical advance
disclosures, lab notebooks
- Videotapes ix) What was
your incentive to carry out this process?
- Reduced costs
- Unforeseen dual-use applications
- Reduced time to application
- Future funding opportunities
x) What mechanisms did you
use to gather feedback on quality, timeliness, accuracy, etc., of this
- Support and satisfaction
ratings on each project after every consortium review
- Real-time feedback/action
requests during every meeting
- Meeting evaluation forms
at the completion of every review with a customer/partner
- Monthly or quarterly reviews
- Upward/360 feedback exercises
4. Education Outreach
- Sandia's K12 effort
began with after-school activities (hands-on science and technology
projects) for minority secondary students in 1980's led by minority
Sandia staff. Several dozen students were involved in 1980's, and several
hundred students took part in 1990's.
- The effort was expanded in
1989 in response to DOE's request to help enhance science education
for America's mainstream students.
- The School Partnership Program
was initiated to improve mainstream students' attitudes toward and understanding
of science by teaming Sandia staff with schools (~1,000 students) to
provide In-class activities complementing curriculum topics
- Teacher support & assistance
- Out-of-class mentoring
- Special event (science
fair, etc.) involvement
- The Science Advisors Program
extended the Partnership program to target teachers in entire districts
by providing assistance to teachers on request, by making available
hands-on instructional resources to teachers, and by holding professional
development workshops for teachers.
- ~200 schools served by
SCIADs (Science Advisors)
- ~10,000 resource center
loans per year
- ~1000 teachers attend
- Following several years of
SCIAD involvement, 3rd and 5th graders scored higher in science than
any other Iowa Test Basic Skills test area. Eighth graders did not.
- The strengthening quality
in the schools program concentrated on improving education using Baldridge
Quality Award Criteria and on implementation of quality principles,
procedures, and tools.
- In 1995, Sandia began changing
the way in which future teachers experience science at universities
by also including them.
- Currently, an effort is being
made to win commitment from school districts to implement hands-on minds-on
science instruction in 1999.
- Strategies used for quality
science education activities:
- Support and collaborate
- Recognize your need for
planning and preparation
- Employ sound learning
- Do age-appropriate activities
- Engage numerous senses
and learning modalities
- Balance science process
- Demonstrate concern for
safety and environment
- Build relationships
- Solicit feedback from
teachers and students
5. Technology Partnerships
- Congress mandated the development
of closer partnerships with industry by enacting the National Competitiveness
Technology Transfer Act of 1989.
- Created new technology transfer
mechanism: Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA)
- 5-year protection of trade
secrets (Freedom of Information Act exemption)
- Broad authority to negotiate
intellectual property rights
- Guiding principles of technology
- Provide for fairness of
- Contribute to U.S. competitiveness
- Contribute to DOE mission
- Manage conflict of interest
- Protect national security
- Avoid competition with
- Intellectual property management
- Technological innovation
and know-how are "owned," have value, and can be managed
to generate tangible and intangible benefits to the corporation
- Rights of use can be conveyed
to others by make, sell, or use and qualified by the term exclusive,
limited exclusive, or nonexclusive
- "Every patent shall contain
a grant to the patentee for the term of twenty years . . . of the right
to exclude others from making, using, or selling the invention throughout
the United States."
- Mechanisms for technology
partnering: licenses, leave-of-absence, publications and conferences,
personnel exchange, user facilities, commercial work for others, CRADA's,
consortia, memoranda of agreement, and technical assistance
- Internal filters and external
market research are used to identify technologies for transfer. Technology
transfer project leads to either an R&D project or a know- how project.
- The modes of communication
of tech transfer opportunities are conferences, seminars, publications,
Commerce Business Daily, and external web sites.
- Market research to determine
partner needs is the preferred approach rather than the "show and
tell" approach for creating partnerships.
- At the end of fourth quarter
of FY 1997, Sandia had
- 602 CRADA's in 37 States,
with some CRADA's having multiple industry partners
- granted 186 plus 33 foreign
- provided technical assistance
numbering in 1,148 cases since October 1991
- Sandia presents the best example
of the use of CRADA's.
- Probably, Sandia does some
things in Education Outreach that are unique and that may help NASA
to enhance its Education Outreach.
- Education Outreach addressed
to elementary school students has more impact than to junior high school
- Market research offers higher
payoff than show and tell for setting up partnerships and for commercialization