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EDUCATION
Museum in a Box

The Museum in a Box program brings the physical sciences of flight to students in grades K-12.

Great for educators at museums, science centers and schools, Museum in a Box provides exciting hands-on/minds-on lessons with an aeronautics theme to inspire future scientists, mathematicians and engineers.

The lessons are tied to all national science and math standards.

Currently, online lessons are being made available for downloading. All of the lessons are described on this page. Downloadable files are added to lesson descriptions as soon as they are completed. These lessons are identified as "(available for download)."

RSS Feed Icon To know when a lesson file has been added, please subscribe to the RSS feed (the orange icon on this page). The feed will place an icon in your browser toolbar that you click to see if a new lesson is listed, or in your Google homepage or reader or several other applications.

Museum in a Box Lessons
NOTE:This is the complete list of lessons. Click on the lesson to read its description. As each lesson becomes available for download, it is marked "(available for download)." (Please be aware that, even with a high-speed connection, it takes a few moments for the large lesson files to open or download.) Please subscribe to our RSS feed for a quick and easy way to check when a new lesson file has been added.

Dressing for Altitude
+ Why Do We Really Need Pressure Suits? (5-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-12
(can be shown to K-4 as demonstration)
Four lessons, each made up of several activities. Each activity takes 45-60 minutes to complete. Can be completed in entirety or each activity stands alone. Lesson One (pressure and human survival): Four activities Lesson Two (pressure): Three activities Lesson Three (temperature): Four activities Lesson Four (density): Two activities Science K-4:
(as demo)

- Abilities necessary
  to do scientific
  inquiry
- Understandings
  about
  scientific inquiry
- Properties of objects
  and materials
- Light, heat,
  electricity,
  and magnetism

Science 5-8:
- Abilities necessary
  to do scientific
  inquiry
- Understanding
  about
  scientific inquiry
- Properties and
  changes of
  properties
  in matter
- Motions and forces
- Transfer of energy
- Structure of the
  Earth system
- Structure and
  function in
  living systems
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understandings
  about science and
  technology
- Science and
  technology in
  society
- Science as a human
  endeavor

Science 9-12:
- Abilities necessary
  to do scientific
  inquiry
- Understanding
  about scientific
  inquiry
- Structure and
  properties of matter
- Motions and forces
- Natural and human-
  induced hazards
- Science and
  technology in local,
  national, and global
  challenges
- Science as a human
  endeavor
- Conservation of
  energy and increase
  in disorder

Temperature, Pressure, Density, and Human Survival at High Altitudes "Do You Really Need Pressure Suits?" is a set of activities that tie temperature, pressure, and density to human survival at high altitudes. Four lessons, each made of several activities, can be taught alone or as a unit, since temp., pressure, and density are interrelated. Lessons and activities are broken down as follows: Lesson One: (Pressure and Human Survival) contains four activities incl. building a pressure suit for marshmallow Peeps and observing how gases act in a vacuum. Lesson Two: (Pressure) contains three activities that further examine gases in a vacuum or under pressure. Lesson Three: (Temperature) contains four activities that focus on the effect pressure or lack of pressure affects temp. Activities include boiling water without heat, igniting an object with increased air pressure, and collapsing a soda can by changing pressure through temp. Lesson Four: (Density) contains two activities that examine density in solids and in a gas as students observe floating and sinking bowling balls, and a decrease in air pressure in a candle and jar experiment.

+ Why Do We Really Need
   Pressure Suits?
   Grades (5-12)
[PDF]


Middle School / High School
+ Design Packet [PDF]


Elementary
+ Design Packet [PDF]



History of Flight
+ If These Airplanes Could Talk (5-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-12 20 minutes Interpreting Artifacts On occasion groups of students visit a museum and don’t know what to do. They have never had experience or training on how to interpret an exhibit or an artifact. The following is an example of how you might assist individuals to hone their skills in interpreting an exhibit or artifact by asking the what, where, when, who, and why related to the exhibit or artifact.

+ If These Airplanes Could Talk
   Grades 5-12 Lessons
[PDF]


+ First Flyers (PK-4) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
PK-4 45 minutes Science:
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Position and motion of
  objects
- Objects in the sky
- Changes in Earth and
  sky
- Abilities of
  technological design
Condensation, Air, Weather, Clothing In this activity, the teacher guides the students in demonstrations of condensation and air flow to simulate different weather conditions. This activity will lead to a discussion of open cockpits as gliders evolved into lightweight engine-driven airplane designs. The activity culminates in opportunities to use the weather-conscious clothing typical of early aviators as the students pretend to be pilots.

+ First Flyers
   Grades PK-4 Lessons
[PDF]


+ Designing an Aeronautics Museum Gallery (5-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-12 Varies Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
- Science as a human
  endeavor
- Nature of scientific
  knowledge
- Historical perpectives
Artifact Interpretation, Planning and Design Students will create an Aeronautics Museum Gallery in order to develop their knowledge of the science of aeronautics. Students will expand their knowledge of these topics as they work in committees similar to the work environment in the real world. By planning, designing, and building an Aeronautics Museum Gallery, students will bring educational resources that museums offer to others in your school. The students will sharpen their information gathering, organizational, and problemsolving skills by writing labels and other documentation for the objects in the exhibits. The students will learn how to organize objects in an exhibit.

+ Designing an Aeronautics
   Museum Gallery
   Grades 9-12 Lessons
[PDF]



Parts of an Airplane
+ Getting on an Airplane (K-2) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-2 10 minutes Parts of an Airplane + Getting on an Airplane
   Grades K-2 Lessons
[PDF]

A song to learn the parts of an airplane and their functions

Play "I'm Gettin' On An Airplane"


To download the song
MAC Users: Select "Option" and Click the link. Download will begin immediately.

PC Users: Right click link and select the "Save Target As" (Internet Explorer) or the "Save Link As" (Firefox) selection. Download will begin immediately.

+ Download Song [MP3]



+ Wing Design (K-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-12 60 minutes Science K-4:
- Characteristics of
  organisms
- Undertanding about
  science and
  technology
- Abilities to distinguish
  between natural
  objects and objects
  made by humans
- Science and
  technology in local
  challenges

Science 5-8:
- Motion and forces
- Diversity and
  adaptations of
  organisms
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology

Science 9-12:
- Motion and forces
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
Wing Design, Form and Function, Structures and Materials Toy models of planes and/or pictures will be used to show similarities and differences in wing design of birds and planes. The instructor is encouraged to have participants sort and classify the similar wing designs while explaining the purpose of the different designs. As actual bird wings may not be possible for distribution through this program, we are including pictures of bird wings and of plane wings for visual aids. In addition, participants will be able to hold for close observation, an ostrich feather, a turkey or swan feather, and a series of toy model planes for comparison and classification. The lesson instructor will deliver information on wing design, initiated by a prompting question(s) expressed to the participant. Participants in 5th-12th grade can engage in a quick study of aspect ratio to determine an aircraft’s ability to glide.

+ Wing Design
   Grades K-12 Lessons
[PDF]


+ Parts of an Airplane (K-4) - Available download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-4 60 minutes Science:
- Models and
  explanation
- Form and function
- Properties of objects
  and materials
- Position and motion of
  objects
- Objects in the sky
Parts of an Airplane, Form and Function This lesson will be used to teach students, through hands-on activities, the different parts of an airplane and the major function of each of those parts. Activities will include putting together a model, puzzles and coloring sheets.

+ Parts of an Airplane Grades K-4 Lessons


+ Parts of an Airplane (5-8) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-8 60 minutes Science:
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
- Motion and forces
Parts of an Airplane, Form and Function This lesson will be used to teach students, through hands-on activities, the different parts of an airplane and the major function of each of those parts. Students will also see how these parts have advanced over the years since the first airplane and how these parts change based on the airplane’s intended function. Activities will include completing worksheets, comparing photographs and/or models and building several 3-D puzzles.

+ Parts of an Airplane
   Grades 5-8 Lessons


+ Parts of an Airplane (9-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
9-12 120 minutes Science:
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
- Motion and forces

Math:
- Understand meanings
  of operations and how
  they relate to one
  another
- Compute fluently and
  make reasonable
  estimates
- Understand patterns,
  relations and
  functions
- Represent and
  analyze mathematical
  situations and
  structures using
  algebraic symbols
- Analyze
  characteristics and
  properties of two and
  three dimensional
  geometric shapes
- Apply appropriate
  techniques, tools and
  formulas to determine
  measurements
Parts of an Airplane, Form and Function This lesson will be used to teach, through hands-on activities, the different parts of an airplane and the major function of each of those parts. Students will also see how these parts have advanced over the years since the first airplane and how these parts change based on the airplane’s intended function. Activities will include completing worksheets, comparing photographs and/or models and building several 3-D puzzles.

+ Parts of an Airplane Grades 9-12 Lessons



Principles of Flight
+ Kites (K-4) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-4 120 minutes Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Position and motion of
  objects
- Objects in the sky
- Science and
  technology in local
  challenges
- Science as a human
  endeavor

Math:
- Compute fluently and
  make reasonable
  estimates
- Understand patterns,
  relations, and functions
- Use visualization,
  spatial reasoning, and
  geometric modeling to
  solve problems
- Apply appropriate
  techniques, tools, and
  formulas to determine
  measurements
- Formulate questions
  that can be addressed
  with data and collect,
  organize, and display,
  relevant data to
  answer them
- Problem Solving
Wind, weather measurement, air, motion, force, work Through observation, the children will identify common occurrences and make inferences about air and how it moves. They will “see” wind as it works, identifying its direction of travel and its strength by observing its effects on a windsock. Students will follow directions to create their own simple kites and come to understand the power of wind as it applies to the simple activity of flying it. They will begin to view wind as a force that is capable of doing work, whether it be for fun or to perform a job.

+ Kites
   Grades K-4 Lessons


+ Kites (5-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-12 120 minutes Wind, air, motion, force, geometric shapes, patterns, sequencing, lift, pressure Students will follow directions to create their own kites and understand the power of wind as it applies to the activity of flying a kite. They will view wind as a force that is capable of doing work, whether it be for fun or to perform a job.

+ Kites
   Grades 5-12 Lessons


+ Axes/Control Surfaces (K-4) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-4 60 minutes Science:
- Position and motion of
  objects
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
- Science and
  technology in local
  challenges

Math:
- Understand patterns,
  relations, and functions
- Use visualization,
  spatial reasoning, and
  geometric modeling to
  solve problems
- Apply appropriate
  techniques, tools, and
  formulas to determine
  measurements
- Problem Solving
- Reasoning and proof
Motion, Axes of Motion The purpose of this activity is to introduce the control surfaces of an airplane. This will be done by each student working with a basic glider. The three axes around which an airplane moves will be presented. Further, the airplane maneuver around each of these axes will be addressed. Skewers will be inserted into the glider to reflect each of the axes. Mention will also be made that there are only two cockpit mechanical controls that control the three exterior control surfaces, the yoke and the rudder pedals. A children’s picture dictionary of a few basic terms will be made by each student. Then, a matching game will be present that will reinforce axes of movement, control surfaces and aircraft movement. If available, Microsoft Flight Simulator 2004 or Flight Simulator X is very visual and effective ways of demonstrating the control surfaces and, when the plane is flying, the effect of moving each of the control surfaces.

+ Axes/Control Surfaces
   Grades K-4 Lessons
[PDF]


+ Axes/Control Surfaces (5-8) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-8 60 minutes Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Position and motion of
  objects
- Objects in the sky
- Science and
  technology in local
  challenges
- Science as a human
  endeavor

Math:
- Understand patterns,
  relations, and functions
- Use visualization,
  spatial reasoning, and
  geometric modeling to
  solve problems
- Understand
  measurable attributes
  of objects and the
  units, systems, and
  processes of
  measurement
- Problem Solving
- Develop and evaluate
  inferences and
  predictions that are
  based on data
Motion, Axes of Motion, Forces, Newton's Laws The purpose of this activity is to explore the control surfaces of an airplane. This will be accomplished with a NASA Boeing 757 paper glider plane for each participating student. The three axes around which an airplane moves will be demonstrated. Further, the airplane maneuver around each of these axes will be addressed, as well as the control surface that makes the plane move in that particular direction. This is a vivid demonstration of Newton’s third law of physics. Students will also identify the part of the cockpit that moves each of the control surfaces. If available, Microsoft Flight Simulator 2004 or Flight Simulator X computer programs are also very visual and effective ways of demonstrating the control surfaces and the effect of moving each of the control surfaces during flight.

+ Axes/Control Surfaces
   Grades 5-8 Lessons
[PDF]


+ Four Forces (K-4) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-4 60 minutes Science:
- Abilities necessary
  to do scientific
  inquiry
- Position and motion
  of objects
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Science and
  technology in local
  challenges
Forces Students will be exposed to the four forces of flight and experience the relationship between them by reviewing an internet site, participating in a board game and completing a word search. Activity 1 consists of going to an internet site that has a presentation of the four forces of flight. It is a series of slides similar to a PowerPoint presentation. The illustrations are simple and there are a few questions dispersed throughout. They may be good discussion points. Activity 2 will consist of a board game in which students role a cube with the four forces on all sides. Based on the force, they will move their playing piece a certain number of spaces. The goal is to the first to get from one airport to the other before anyone else. Activity 3 will be a word search of aeronautical terms. A word bank is provided.

+ Four Forces Grades K-4 Lessons


+ Four Forces (5-8) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-8 60 minutes Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Objects in the sky
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
- Science and
  technology in local
  challenges
- Science as a human
  endeavor

Math:
- Compute fluently and
  make reasonable
  estimates
- Understand patterns,
  relations, and
  functions
- Use mathematical
  models to represent
  and understand
  quantitative
  relationships
- Analyze change in
  various contexts
- Use visualization,
  spatial reasoning,
  and geometric
  modeling to solve
  problems
- Understand
  measurable attributes
  of objects and the
  units, systems, and
  processes of
  measurement
- Apply appropriate
  techniques, tools,
  and formulas to
  determine
  measurements
- Formulate questions
  that can be
  addressed with data
  and collect, organize,
  and display relevant
  data to answer them
  Select and use
  appropriate statistical
  methods to analyze
  data
- Understand and
  apply basic concepts
  of probability
- Problem Solving
- Reasoning and Proof
Forces, Motion, Probability, Graphing, Ratios This activity is a modification of one that appeared in the NASA “Why” Files. Specifically, it was Program 4 of the 2000 – 2001 series, “The Case of the Challenging Flight”. It can be located at: http://scifiles.larc.
nasa.gov/docs/guides/guide4_00.pdf
. In this activity, students will be presented with a scenario of an aircraft carrier receiving a distress call from a downed pilot on a nearby mountain island. Students will move from the carrier toward the pilot by progressing in one of four directions; up (lift), forward (thrust), down (gravity / weight) or backward (drag). The direction that the students move will be determined by spinning one of four spinners. Students will determine which of the spinners would be most advantageous based on a statistical analysis. The goal is to select the spinner that has the highest probability of moving the student in the desired direction. The goal will be landing exactly on the location area of the downed pilot, without crashing into land. The statistical analysis will be conducted by each student or team of students. Spinning will be done by providing each student with a large paper clip and pen or pencil. Fifty spins will be made and recorded for each of the four spinners, for a total of 200 spins. This information will be entered into an excel spreadsheet and, with the chart wizard, will generate four charts which will visually demonstrate the probabilities of each force on each spinner.

+ Four Forces Grades 5-8 Lessons
   [PDF]


+ Bernoulli's Principle (K-4) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-4 60 minutes Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Objects in the sky
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
- Science and
  technology in local
  challenges
- Science as a human
  endeavor
Bernoulli's Principle, Forces, Fluids, Pressure, Air, Motion This lesson includes one activity and two demonstrations, using commonly available items to demonstrate the Bernoulli principle. There is also a concluding activity. Before starting the lesson, students should record what they think will happen as a result of each activity or demonstration.
  • Students will create a paper bag mask with a movable tongue. By blowing across the tongue, it will rise. This will demonstrate the Bernoulli principle - the faster moving air across the top of the tongue creates lower air pressure and causes the tongue to rise.
  • Demo 1: Two balloons will be inflated and each tied to either end of a piece of string. The balloons will be suspended, each at the same height and several inches apart. A student will blow air directly between the balloons and the balloons will come together.
  • Demo 2: A ping pong ball will be put into the air stream of a hair dryer. The ball will remain in place, even as the dryer is tilted.
  • A final activity will have all students participate in acting as air passing over the wing of an airfoil.

+ Bernoulli's Principle
   Grades K-4 Lessons
[PDF]


+ Bernoulli's Principle (5-8) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-8 60 minutes Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Objects in the sky
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Science and
  technology in local
  challenges
- Risks and benefits
- Science as a human
  endeavor
- History of science

Math:
- Compute fluently and
  make reasonable
  estimates
- Understand patterns,
  relations, and
  functions
- Use mathematical
  models to represent
  and understand
  quantitative
  relationships
- Investigate,
  describe, and
  reason about the
  results of subdividing,
  combining and
  transforming shapes
- Use visualization,
  spatial reasoning,
  and geometric
  modeling to solve
  problems
- Understand
  measurable attributes
  of objects and the
  units, systems, and
  processes of
  measurement
- Apply appropriate
  techniques, tools,
  and formulas to
  determine
  measurements
- Problem Solving
- Reasoning and Proof
Bernoulli's Principle, Forces, Fluids, Pressure, Air, Motion This activity will use commonly available items to demonstrate the Bernoulli principle. Students will be given a sheet that identifies each of six experiments. The sheet has room for each student, after the explanation of the experiment, to write what he / she believes is going to happen. The experiment is conducted by either the instructor or by one / several of the students. There is an area on the student’s paper to write what they observed happen. Then, the most challenging part of the activity will be for the student to tell why they think the result occurred. This activity is even more fun if students are not given any background on Daniel Bernoulli or the principle that faster moving fluids create relatively lower pressure. The experiments being undertaken in this activity will visually demonstrate the idea that faster moving air creates relatively lower pressure.

+ Bernoulli's Principle Grades 5-8
   Lessons
[PDF]


+ Principles of Flight in Action (9-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
9-12 Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Objects in the sky
- Interactions of energy
  and matter
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
- Science and
  technology in society
- Science as a human
  endeavor
- History of science

Math:
- Compute fluently and
  make reasonable
  estimates
- Understand patterns,
  relations, and
  functions
- Use mathematical
  models to represent
  and understand
  quantitative
  relationships
- Analyze change
  in various contexts
- Investigate,
  describe, and
  reason about the
  results of subdividing,
  combining and
  transforming shapes
- Use visualization,
  spatial reasoning,
  and geometric
  modeling to solve
  problems
- Understand
  measurable attributes
  of objects and the
  units, systems, and
  processes of
  measurement
- Apply appropriate
  techniques, tools,
  and formulas to
  determine
  measurements
- Formulate questions
  that can be addressed
  with data and collect,
  organize, and display,
  relevant data to
  answer them
- Select and use
  appropriate statistical
  methods to analyze
  data
- Problem Solving
- Reasoning and Proof
Design, geometry, surface area, wings, ratios This first part of this activity is intended to challenge students to work together as a team to develop the best possible paper glider model to compete against other teams. The students’ options can come from a series of different designs or they may design their own. After competition, they will use their math and geometry skills to determine the surface area of both wings. In the second part of the activity, students will be instructed on the use of NASA’s FoilSim II software to determine how changes in the chord and span may provide more lift for the same amount of wing area. One last competition will determine which team has the biggest percentage of increase in lift per constant wing area.

+ Principles of Flight in action
   Grades 9-12 Lessons [PDF]


+ Foam Wing (K-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-12 15 minutes Science K-4:
- Properties of
  objects and materials
- Objects in the sky
- Undertanding about
  science and
  technology
- Science and
  technology in society

Science 5-8:
- Motion and forces
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology

Science 9-12:
- Motion and forces
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
Bernoulli's Principle, Forces, Fluids, Pressure, Air, Motion, Area This activity is intended to be presented to a general audience at science centers and museums. Participants will be perform some activities illustrating Bernoulli’s Effect. They will also be able to wear giant foam wings and utilize a simulated wind tunnel to feel the potential of lift. The instructor will deliver information on airfoil design, lift, and Bernoulli’s Effect, initiated by a prompting question(s) expressed to the participant. Participants at and above the 5th grade level can engage in a brief description of the area rule and laminar flow.

+ Foam Wing Grades K-12 Lessons



Structures and Materials
+ Space Shuttle Tires (K-4) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-4 60 minutes Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Science and
  technology in society
- Science as human
  endeavor
Structures and Materials Students will compare several different types of tires to see if they can determine why each is constructed the way they are. This is an observe-and-infer type of activity with room for lots of discussion.

+ Space Shuttle Tires Grades K-4
  Lessons
[PDF]


+ Space Shuttle Tires (5-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-12 120 minutes Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Science and
  technology in society
- Science as human
  endeavor
Structures and Materials, Rotational Motion, Pressure Through demonstration and math activities, students will learn about tire technology and air pressure concepts. A space shuttle tire section as well as sections from a light truck tire and bicycle are provided for students to compare and contrast tire facts while learning about tires. Math activities are also provided for the students to learn more about air pressure, circumference, revolutions and contact patch.

+ Shuttle Tires Grades 5-12
   Lessons
[PDF]


+ Space Shuttle Tires Supplemental Lessons (K-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-12 60 minutes for K-12 activity

120 minutes for all grades 5-12 activities
Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Properties of objects
  and materials
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understandings about
  science and
  technology
- Science as human
  endeavor
- Properties and
  changes of properties
  in matter
- Motions and forces
- Science and
  technology in society
- Systems, order, and
  organization
- Science and
  technology in local,
  national, and global
  challenges
Logistical planning, mathematical calculations of radius, diameter, and area of a circle, membrane permeability, materials In the K-12 supplemental activity, students compare membrane permeability between mylar and latex balloons as they observe the diffusion of various scents through the latex balloon. They then relate this permeability to the permeability of space shuttle tires and loss of air through those tires.

The grades 5-12 supplemental activities ask students to take the role of logistics engineers as they figure out how many tires are needed to keep the space shuttle program running for a year. In addition, they use standard tire ratings to calculate radius, diameter, and area of various types of tires, including a space shuttle tire.

+ Space Shuttle Tires
  Supplemental Lessons (K-12)

  [PDF]


+ Composites (K-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-12 90 minutes Science K-4:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Properties of objects
  and materials
- Position and motion of
  objects
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology

Science 5-8:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Transfer of energy
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology

Science 9-12:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Interactions of energy
  and matter
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
Structures and Materials, Density Students examine several samples of carbon fiber materials. They measure at least one sample and determine the volume. The sample’s mass is determined and the density is calculated. The same procedure is followed for a spruce sample. Students are shown the sample of Nitinol that is in the shape of the word “ICE”. Nitinol is an alloy of nickel and titanium that has a very unusual property. The sample is then deformed by gently stretching it so that the word “ICE” is no longer discernable. The sample is then immersed into warm water and the original shape returns. Six cubes of different metals are compared for their density. Each cube is weighed and the volume is determined by measuring the dimensions. The density of each cube is calculated and compared. Aluminum, a common metal used in aircraft construction, is one of the samples. An object will float if the volume of fluid displaced is heavier than the object. In the "Density Paradox" activity, the weight of the displaced fluid is close to the weight of the object.

+ Composites Grades K-12
  Lessons
[PDF]


+ Shuttle Tiles (2-4) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
2-4 60 minutes Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Property of objects
  and materials
- Light, heat, electricity,
  magnetism
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
Area, Weight, Cost In this activity, students will calculate the number of tiles and weight to cover an area of the shuttle (15 feet by 22 feet) based on the shuttle tile included in the MIB. The students then determine the launch costs for the weight of the tiles determined.

+ Shuttle Tiles Grades 2-4 Lessons [PDF]


+ Shuttle Tiles (5-8) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-8 60 minutes Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Properties and changes
  of properties in matter
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
Density, Thermal Properties, Structures and Materials, Temperature This activity is divided into 2 parts—Task 1 Shuttle Tile Density and Task 2 Thermal Properties. During the first task the students will determine the density of the shuttle tile included in the MIB. The students will then do Task 2 to demonstrate the thermal properties of a shuttle tile. Use the background material as a lead into the activity.

+ Shuttle Tiles Grades 5-8 Lessons [PDF]


+ Shuttle Tiles (9-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
9-12 60 minutes Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Science and technology
  in local, national, and
  global challenges
- Science as human
  endeavor
- Nature of scientific
  knowledge
- Historical perspectives
Mass, Velocity, Work, Energy, Power, Acceleration In this activity, students observe the properties of a space shuttle tile and consider how these properties relate to the threats imposed on the shuttle by space debris. The students will use a tissue paper covered box to represent the tile as they experiment to determine the amount of energy required to penetrate the tissue paper.

+ Shuttle Tiles Grades 9-12
   Lessons
[PDF]
+ Shuttle Tiles Grades 9-12
   Supplemental Lessons
[PDF]



Propulsion
+ Rockets Away (K-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-12 120 minutes Science:
- Physical Science
- Science as inquiry
- Science and
  technology

Math:
- Measurement
- Data analysis and
  probability
- Problem solving
Newton's Laws, Proulsion, Rockets, Forces The information presented in ‘Rockets Away!’ is intended for both middle school (grades 5-8) and high school (grades 9-12). However, modifications may be made for its use at the elementary (grades k-4) level. The ‘Rockets Away!’ lesson will be divided into two sections. In the first segment, a brief history of rockets and rocketry will be explored. In the second segement, students will explore the concepts of rocketry through both an experiment using alka-seltzer tablets and water and by actually launching rockets.

+ Rockets Away Grades K-12 Lessons [PDF]


+ Ball Launcher (5-12) - Available for download New!
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-12 90 minutes Science:
- Communicate scientific
  data and/or
  information
- Interpret scientific
  data and/or
  information.
- Make inferences, form
  generalized statements
  and/or make
  predictions
- Draw conclusions
  about the process(es)
  and/or outcome(s) of a
  scientific investigation
- Relate and apply
  scientific and
  technological
  information
  to daily life

Math:
- Determine solution
  strategies and analyze
  or solve problems
- Express or solve
  problems using
  mathematical
  representation.
- Evaluate the
  reasonableness of a
  solution to a problem
  situation.
Kinematics, Projectiles, Motion, Terminal Velocity Understand how NASA uses an aircraft to create a microgravity environment to train astronauts and test equipment before it is flown in space:
  • Understand the motion of a projectile under ideal (no air resistance) conditions
  • Apply basic kinematic equations [kinematics is the study of objects in motion] to the motion of a thrown tennis ball
  • Describe, draw, and calculate the approximate path of a thrown tennis ball under ideal conditions
  • Apply the information gained through these activities to the flight of a Understand how NASA uses an aircraft to create a microgravity environment to train astronauts and test equipment before it is flown in space
  • Gain an understanding to terminal velocity


+ Ball Launcher
   Grades 5-12 Lessons
[PDF]


+ Wind Power (9-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
9-12 90 minutes Science:
- Abilities necessary
  to do scientific inquiry - Understanding about
  scientific inquiry - Motion and forces - Abilities of
  technological design - Understanding
  about science and
  technology - Science and
  technology in
  local, national and
  global challenges - Science as a human
  endeavor
Power, Energy, Wind, Alternative Energy, Convection, Heat, Turbines, Gears, Torque Students will first explore the necessary component that must be present in order to operate a wind turbine, the wind. Using a simple see-through plastic container, the instructor will use food coloring and water to demonstrate the effect of heat (sunshine) on the atmosphere. The wind cycle will become visually evident as students watch in slow motion, the cold “air” moving in to replace rising warm “air”. Understanding how wind is created will help students identify where wind turbines can best be utilized to produce consistent power. An introduction to the basic parts of a wind turbine and how they work together to produce electrical power will be viewed via Power Point presentation. This will familiarize participants with the technology and give them the basic tools to begin formulating plans to build their own, using a variety of materials made available by the instructor such as 2 liter plastic beverage bottles, poster board, balsa wood, coffee cans, milk jugs, etc. Electrical wires and gears will be provided as well as a voltmeter or multimeter to measure power output. Students will not only be challenged to create an operational wind turbine, but also to design efficient turbine blades to produce the most electrical power possible.

+ Wind Power Grades 9-12 Lessons [PDF]



Future Flight
+ Aerolab (5-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-12 90 minutes Science K-4:
- Abilities necessary
  to do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Properties of objects
  and materials
- Position and motion of
  objects
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
- Personal health
- Characteristics and
  changes in populations
- Changes in
  environments
- Science and
  technology in
  local challenges

Science 5-8:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Transfer of energy
- Personal health
- Populations,
  resources, and
  environments
- Risks and benefits
- Science and
  technology in society
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology

Science 9-12:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Interactions of energy
  and matter
- Personal and
  community health
- Environmental quality
- Science and
  technology in local,
  national, and global
  challenges
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
Forces, Speed, Energy, Aerodynamics, Work, Power, Momentum, Weight, Mass, Acceleration AeroLab is a hands-on inquiry-based workshop in conceptual physics and physical science. Flight is always a topic of intense curiosity, offering opportunities for great student interest. As we begin developing aircraft to meet the requirements of a new era of flight, a key part of research will focus on flight testing. One of the critical components of any design is related to drag. Before the flight test phase, wind tunnel and computer simulations help scientists and engineers understand the drag profile of their aircraft. Whether it happens to be a blended wing body (BWB), a hypersonic aircraft, rotorcraft, or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) the importance of drag is of utmost concern. Drag, the topic of the first activity, is one of the four main forces that act on any aircraft in flight. This force will be evaluated using a model airplane called JETSTREAM. The airplane is powered through the potential energy of a wound rubber band. The test plane will be tethered via a string attached to a pylon. Tests will first be run on the unaltered introduction to a unit from Inventing Flight, a multi-disciplinary curriculum written by the authors to celebrate the Centennial of the Wright Brothers’ achievements in 2003. This ten-minute video is included in the DVD as preparation for the foam plate glider (FPG-9) activity. The video was made available, courtesy of ThinkTV, of Dayton, Ohio, the local PBS affiliate that produced the curriculum. Copies of the curriculum may be obtained by contacting the Agency for Instructional Technology at www.ait.net The final activity, Building a Skystreak, is included purely for fun. Although, the activity has limited utility as a science lesson, students love the experience of flying a simple free-flight model outdoors. A successful flight requires patience and finesse, but the project is definitely rewarding as a culminating activity for a unit on flight. plane. For the second test the drag characteristics will be modified and the test will be conducted again. The only variable changed will be the drag. The resulting data will be analyzed and the average speed for each test calculated. Other core math and science activities can be found in three lessons featuring the “Pylon Racer”: Speed, Potential Energy, and Weight. The remaining lessons are offered as enrichment and additional inquiry based activities for your students.

+ Aerolab Grades 5-12 Lessons [PDF]


+ Fuel Cell Activity (5-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-12 60 minutes Science 5-8:
- Abilities necessary
  to do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Properties and
  changes of properties
  in matter
- Motions and forces
- Transfer of energy
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology

Science 9-12:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Structure of atoms
- Structure and
  properties of matter
- Chemical reactions
- Motion and forces
- Interaction of energy
  and matter
Alternative Energy, Fuel Cells, Electrolysis Build a model Fuel Cell car that runs on water! Fuel cells have been used in the space program since the early Gemini program. They are now finding their way into many Earth-based applications. This activity will engage you in a series of experiments that will lead to a better understanding of this amazing technology.

+ Fuel Cell Activity Grades 5-12
   Lessons
[PDF]


+ Solar Power (5-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-12 30 minutes Science 5-8:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Properties and
  changes of
  properties in matter
- Motions and forces
- Transfer of energy
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology

Science 9-12:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Structure of atoms
- Structure and
  properties of matter
- Chemical reactions
- Motion and forces
- Interaction of energy
  and matter
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
Energy, Solar Cells, Alternative Energy, Radiation This activity will build a solar powered car that runs on sunlight. This activity is based on a science kit called the by Thames & Kosmos Fuel Cell Car and Experiment Kit (Fuel cells are covered in another Museum in a Box module.) A series of experiments introduce visitors and students to solar energy and solar cell technology.

+ Solar Power Grades 5-12
   Lessons
[PDF]



Careers in Aeronautics
+ Careers in Aeronautics (5-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-12 60 minutes Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Science and
  technology in society
- Science and
  technology in local,
  national, and global
  challenges
Careers, Aviation This lesson is designed to define specific aviation careers, allowing students to broaden their career options. After studying this overview of aviation careers, the student will select a career and fill out worksheets detailing their research. These worksheets can be used to develop an oral presentation on their career choice.

+ Careers in Aeronautics Grades 5-12 Lessons [PDF]



Airspace
+ Weather to Fly By (K-8) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-8 20 minutes for set-up, 30 minutes per activity Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Position and motion of
  objects
- Objects in the sky
- Undertanding about
  science and
  technology
- Formulate questions
  that can be addressed
  with data and collect,
  organize, and display
  relevant data to
  answer them
- Select and use
  appropriate statistical
  methods to analyze
  data
- Understand and apply
  basic concepts of
  probability
- Problem Solving
- Reasoning and Proof
Air, Pressure, Gas Laws, Atmosphere, Weather, Volume, Density, Energy The focus of these activities is on learning basic meteorological concepts about weather elements. They are designed to demonstrate understanding of the general characteristics of the atmosphere and how weather conditions and weather phenomena occur. Weather to Fly By activities are written to assist educators in instilling excitement in learning about meteorology by permitting the learner to take increasing responsibility for his/her learning. The learner is encouraged to build and/or test a variety of weather instruments to better understand the basic factors involved in weather phenomena.

+ Weather to Fly By Grades K-8 Lessons [PDF]


+ Noise: Good Vibrations (K-8 and 9-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-12 60 minutes Science K-4:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Properties of
  objects and materials
- Position and motion of
  objects
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
- Personal health
- Characteristics and
  changes in
  populations
- Changes in
  environments
- Science and
  technology in local
  challenges
- Science as a human
  endeavor

Science 5-8:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Transfer of energy
- Personal health
- Populations,
  resources, and
  environments
- Risks and benefits
- Science and
  technology in society
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology

Science 9-12:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Interactions of energy
  and matter
- Personal and
  community health
- Environmental quality
- Natural and human-
  induced hazards
- Science and
  technology in local,
  national, and global
  challenges
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
Sound, Vibrations, Waves, Noise, Frequency, Ptich, Beats, Resonance Three activities/demonstrations will help participants understand underlying concepts about sound.
  1. Tuning Forks Activity: Participants will engage in a series of demonstrations that illustrate the concept of vibrations, pitch, frequency, and beats.
  2. Thunder Drum Demonstration: Participants will see how adding a simple spring to the design of this drum results in some very unusual sounds.
  3. Resonator Activity: Participants will understand the concepts of natural frequency and resonance. They will directly observe resonance in a pair of demonstrations using a series of wooden dowels. In the first demonstration, four wooden dowels of various lengths are placed in the wooden base, which is then rocked back and forth. The different-size wooden dowels resonate at different times as the frequency of the back-and-forth motion of the base is varied. In the second demonstration, dowels of different diameter are used – varying the frequency of the back-and-forth motion of the wooden base again causes the dowels to achieve resonance at different times.

    + Noise: Good Vibrations
       Grades K-8
    [PDF]

    + Noise: Good Vibrations
       Grades 9-12
    [PDF]


+ Noise: Speed of Sound (9-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
9-12 105 minutes Science:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understandings about
  scientific inquiry
- Science and
  technology in local,
  national, and global
  challenges
- Science as human
  endeavor
- Nature of scientific
  knowledge
- Historical perspectives

Math:
- Understand numbers,
  ways of representing
  numbers, relationships
  among numbers, and
  number systems
- Understand meanings
  of operations and how
  they relate to one
  another
- Compute fluently and
  make reasonable
  estimates
- Represent and analyze
  mathematical situations
  and structures using
  algebraic symbols
- Use mathematical
  models to represent
  and understand
  quantitative
  relationships
- Understand
  measurable attributes
  of objects and the
  units, systems, and
  processes of
  measurement
- Apply appropriate
  techniques, tools and
  formulas to determine
  measurements
- Formulate questions
  that can be addressed
  with data and collect,
  organize, and display
  relevant data to answer
  them.

Speed of Sound In this lesson, participants will learn about motions and forces and the interactions of energy and matter as they use the principle of resonance to set up an experiment in the classroom to measure the speed of sound in air. The speed of sound will be calculated using the standard relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength.

A second activity challenges students to produce longitudinal and transverse waves in a spring. They will measure wavelength, amplitude and the period of a transverse wave.

+ Noise: Speed of Sound
   Grades 9-12
[PDF]


+ Noise: Quieting the Popper (5-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
5-12 60 minutes Science K-4:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Properties of objects
  and materials
- Position and motion of
  objects
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
- Personal health
- Characteristics and
  changes in populations
- Changes in
  environments
- Science and
  technology in local
  challenges
- Science as a human
  endeavor

Science 5-8:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Transfer of energy
- Personal health
- Populations,
  resources, and
  environments
- Risks and benefits
- Science and
  technology in society
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology

Science 9-12:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Interactions of energy
  and matter
- Personal and
  community health
- Environmental quality
- Natural and human-
  induced hazards
- Science and
  technology in local,
  national, and global
  challenges
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
Sound, Vibrations, Waves, Noise The noise generator for this activity is called a “Piezo Popper”. A piezoelectric crystal has a unique property such that when deformed a high voltage and subsequent electrical spark is produced which can be used for ignition. The fuel used is ethanol, which is placed inside a film canister. The noise produced upon ignition of the ethanol is quite loud – loud enough that ear protection is recommended for the primary user and anyone standing close by. Participants are challenged to design, test, and evaluate a sound suppression system for the sound generator. A Digital Display Sound Level meter is used to record intensity levels.

+ Noise: Quieting the Popper Grades 5-12 Lessons


+ Noise: Seeing Sound (K-8) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-8 60 minutes Science K-4:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Properties of objects
  and materials
- Position and motion of
  objects
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
- Personal health
- Characteristics and
  changes in populations
- Changes in
  environments
- Science and
  technology in local
  challenges

Science 5-8:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Transfer of energy
- Personal health
- Populations,
  resources, and
  environments
- Risks and benefits
- Science and
  technology in society
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology

Science 9-12:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Interactions of energy
  and matter
- Personal and
  community health
- Environmental quality
- Science and
  technology in local,
  national, and global
  challenges
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
Sound, Vibrations, Waves, Noise Sound takes on a new perspective when vibrations become visible using laser light waves. Vibrations originate within a visitor’s larynx as their vocal cords begin to vibrate. Shortly after the sound wave leaves their mouth, it contacts a polymer membrane (balloon or clear plastic food wrap) and causes it to vibrate. A small mirror attached to the membrane reflects a laser beam onto a wall. The vibration patterns become visible in an interesting light display on the wall. The visitor can also feel the membrane vibrate by lightly touching it with their fingertips. A strobe light is available as another way to see the vibrations characteristic of a tuning fork. A connection can be made with noise from aircraft by using an analogy: the visitor’s voice is like the noise from an aircraft and the membrane is comparable to a human eardrum.

+ Noise: Seeing Sound
   Grades K-8 Lessons
[PDF]


+ Pollution: Making Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide (K-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-12 60 minutes Science K-4:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Properties of
  objects and materials
- Position and motion of
  objects
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
- Personal health
- Characteristics and
  changes in populations
- Changes in
  environments
- Science and
  technology in local
  challenges

Science 5-8:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Transfer of energy
- Personal and community health
- Environmental quality
- Science and
  technology in local,
  national, and global
  challenges
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology

Science 9-12:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Interactions of energy
  and matter
- Personal and
  community health
- Environmental quality
- Science and
  technology in local,
  national, and global
  challenges
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
Atmosphere, Gases, Green House Gases, Chemical Reactions Participants will produce two important atmospheric gases: oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is made through a chemical reaction between hydrogen peroxide and yeast. A glowing splint is used in the classic test for pure oxygen. Carbon dioxide is generated using baking soda and vinegar. A lighted splint is used to test for the CO2.

+ Pollution: Making Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Grades K-12 Lessons


+ Contrails (K-12) - Available for download
Grade Level Time Required National Science Standards Addressed Topic Description
K-12 60 minutes Science K-4:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Properties of objects
  and materials
- Position and motion of
  objects
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
- Personal health
- Characteristics and
  changes in populations
- Changes in
  environments
- Science and
  technology in local
  challenges

Science 5-8:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Transfer of energy
- Personal health
- Populations,
  resources, and
  environments
- Risks and benefits
- Science and
  technology in society
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology

Science 9-12:
- Abilities necessary to
  do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about
  scientific inquiry
- Motions and forces
- Interactions of energy
  and matter
- Personal and
  community health
- Environmental quality
- Science and
  technology in local,
  national, and global
  challenges
- Abilities of
  technological design
- Understanding about
  science and
  technology
Clouds, Contrails, Pollution, Phase Changes An artificial cloud is produced inside a 500 ml flask by using water vapor, smoke as the condensing nucleus, and changes in pressure. The cloud production is similar to how contrails form behind a jet engine.

+ Contrails Grades K-12 Lessons






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