NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
 

				       FISCAL YEAR 1996 BUDGET ESTIMATES 
 

					  NASA'S VISION FOR THE FUTURE 

 
NASA is an investment in America's future.  As explorers, pioneers, and innovators, we boldly expand frontiers in air and space to 
inspire and serve America and to benefit the quality of life on Earth. 

 
NASA's unique mission of exploration, discovery, and innovation has preserved the United States' role as both a leader in world 
aviation and as the preeminent spacefaring nation.  It is NASA's mission to: 

 
   *   Explore, use and enable the development of space for human enterprise; 
   *   Advance scientific knowledge and understanding of the Earth, the Solar System, and the Universe and use the environment of space for research; 
   *   Research, develop, verify and transfer advanced aeronautics, space and related technologies. 
 

The outcomes of NASA's activities contribute significantly to the achievement of America's goals in four key areas: 

 
   *   Economic Growth and Security - NASA conducts aeronautics and space research and develops technology in partnership 
       with industry, academia, and other federal agencies to keep America capable and competitive. 
   *   Preserving the Environment - NASA studies the Earth as a planet and as a system to understand global change, enabling the 
       world to address environmental issues. 
   *   Educational Excellence - NASA involves the educational community in our endeavors to inspire America's students, create 
       learning opportunities, and enlighten inquisitive minds. 
   *   Peaceful Exploration and Discovery - NASA explores the Universe to enrich human life by stimulating intellectual curiosity, 
       opening new worlds of opportunity, and uniting nations of the world in this quest. 
 

To fulfill NASA's mission of exploration, discovery and innovation, NASA sets the following overarching goals to take its science and 
aeronautics program proudly into the 21st century: 

 
   *   NASA will be at the forefront of exploration and science.  We will develop and transfer cutting-edge technologies in 
       aeronautics and space.  NASA will establish a permanent human presence in space. 
   *   As NASA pursues its mission, NASA will enrich the Nation's society and economy.  NASA will contribute to a better life for 
       this and future generations. 
   *   In the longer term, it is our goal to undertake bold and noble challenges -- exciting future programs, such as the return of 
       humans to the Moon and human missions to Mars, which stir the imagination and fall within the grasp of the United States 
       and its international partners' technical and financial grasp. 



					    STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING OUR GOALS 

 
The framework for achieving these goals is embodied in the NASA Strategic Plan, published in May 1994.  The NASA Strategic Plan 
separates key NASA activities into five distinct Strategic Enterprises.  They are: 
 

   *   Mission to Planet Earth; 
   *   Aeronautics; 
   *   Human Exploration and Development of Space; 
   *   Space Science, and, 
   *   Space Technology. 

 
Each Enterprise, similar to the strategic business units employed by the private sector, has a unique set of strategic goals, 
objectives, and concerns, and a unique set of primary external customers.  NASA also provides capabilities that are required for 
each Enterprise to achieve its goals and meet the needs of their customers.  These agency-level activities serve multiple Enterprises 
and the strategies of these functions are driven primarily by the strategic plans of the Enterprises.  The fundamental values of 
excellence, responsibility, teamwork, trust, and honor form the bedrock of all of NASA's activities. 
 

NASA's Strategic Plan transcends its organizational structure.  Each of the Strategic Enterprises seek to respond to a unique 
customer community.  At the same time, there is considerable synergy between the Enterprise activities which strengthens the 
activities of each.  A broad description of the focus of each Strategic Enterprise follows: 
 

Mission to Planet Earth - The activities which comprise this Enterprise are dedicated to understanding the total Earth system and 
the effects of humans on the global environment.  This pioneering program of studying Global Change is developing many of the 
capabilities which will be needed indefinitely, for long-term environment and climate monitoring and prediction.  Governments 
around the world need information based on the strongest possible scientific understanding.  The unique vantage point of space 
provides information about the Earth's land, atmosphere, ice, oceans, and biota as a global system, which is available in no other 
way.  In concert with the global research community, the Mission to Planet Earth Enterprise is developing the understanding 
needed to support the complex environmental policy decisions that lie ahead. 
 

Aeronautics - NASA, and its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, have worked closely with U.S. industry, 
universities, and other Federal agencies to give the United States a preeminent position in Aeronautics.  Future U.S. 
competitiveness in aeronautics, as well as the continued safety and productivity of the Nation's air transportation system, is 
dependent upon sustained NASA advances in aeronautics research and technology.  The Aeronautics Enterprise will pioneer the 
identification, development, verification, transfer, application and commercialization of high-payoff aeronautics technologies.  
Activities pursued as part of this Enterprise emphasize customer involvement, encompassing U.S. industry, the Department of 
Defense, and the Federal Aviation Administration.   
 

Human Exploration and the Development of Space - Human Space Flight serves as a foundation for much of what NASA does.  
Activities pursued as part of the Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise seek to bring the frontiers of space fully 
within the sphere of human activities for the benefit of America and all humankind in this and future generations.  It will open the 
space frontier by exploring, using, and enabling the development of space.  NASA was propelled into the space frontier, by an 
international political challenge born of the Cold War.  With the Cold War behind us, we seek to work with other nations in our 
current and future activities, and to lay the foundations for human development of space.  
 

Space Science - The activities of the Space Science Enterprise seek answers to fundamental questions, such as understanding the 
origin of the universe and our solar system, how they have evolved, and whether the Earth is unique, if there are planets around 
other stars and if life exists elsewhere.  The quest for this information, and the answers themselves, maintains scientific leadership, 
excites and inspires our society, strengthens education and scientific literacy, develops and transfers technologies to promote U.S. 
competitiveness, fosters international cooperation to enhance programs and share their benefits, and sets the stage for future space 
ventures.   
 

Space Technology - Technology advances drive the ability of United States business to compete successfully in the global 
marketplace.  Activities undertaken by the Space Technology Enterprise are focused on proactively transferring technology to 
aerospace and non-aerospace industries in order to enhance U.S. competitiveness; developing new and innovative space 
technologies to improve the performance and cost of future space missions; and, to developing technology to revitalize access to 
space.  This specific focus on developing technology leading to new low cost launch systems will be done in partnership with U.S. 
industry, with the private sector playing a significant role in managing the development and operation of a new reusable space 
transportation system.   

 
The Strategic Enterprises comprise an integrated national effort.  Synergism of broad purposes, technology requirements, workforce 
skills, facilities, and many other dimensions was the basis for amalgamating these activities in NASA in the National Aeronautics 
and Space Act in 1958, and the benefits remain strong today. 
 

					       ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

The NASA budget request for FY 1996 is reflected in four appropriations: 
 

Human Space Flight - providing funding for the Space Station and Space Shuttle programs, including payload and utlization 
operations and flight support for cooperative programs with Russia; 

 
Science, Aeronautics and Technology - providing funding for NASA's research and development activities, including all science 
activities, global monitoring, aeronautics, technology investments, education programs, mission communication services and direct 
program support; 

 

Mission Support - providing funding for NASA's civil service workforce, space communication services, safety and quality assurance 
activities, and maintenance activities for the NASA institution; 

 

Inspector General - providing funding for the manpower and support required to perform audits and evaluations of NASA's 
programs and operations. 
 

The President and his Administration are committed to a fundamental reshaping of the federal government, reducing its size, 
cutting its cost, eliminating unnecessary regulations, and improving service to its customers, the American public.  The 
Administration has directed NASA and other federal agencies to reflect in this budget request for FY 1996 funding estimates for  
FY 1997-2000 derived by making percentage reductions to the FY 1996 request base.  These estimates for NASA are substantially 
below the levels required to support previously approved programs and planned new initiatives.  In response, NASA has underway 
an orderly process to examine the relative merits and funding requirements of all its programs and activities.  The results of this 
review will not be available for several months. 

 
This budget reflects the continuing revolution at NASA, which is changing the paradigm in the way the agency approaches its 
business, making it more relevant to America.  The vision of NASA in the year 2015 starts with the FY 1996 budget request.  Many 
of NASA's highest priority programs that will enable this vision are encompassed within the Administration's New Technology 
Investment initiative.  The initiative will promote a new class of technology-intensive smaller, cheaper type of space missions.  The 
initiative includes the following programs:  Discovery, Explorer, Mars Surveyor, Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative, New 
Millennium Spacecraft, and the Small Booster Technology Testbed (X-34).  These programs will experiment with new innovative 
management and procurement practices, and enforce strict adherence to performance criteria and a cost cap.  An emphasis on low 
life cycle cost will enable more frequent solicitation and, hence, greater opportunities for participation by industry and academia.  
These programs will provide a higher technological and management standard from which future new ambitious programs will be 
based. 
 

The New Millennium Program, proposed for initiation in FY 1996, will touch all facets of NASA's mission to explore space.  It is the 
strongest signal that NASA is serious about changing the way it manages its programs, pursues technology development, and works 
in partnership with the private sector.  In Space Science, the New Millennium Program will demonstrate new technologies to 
produce lower mass spacecraft capable of launching on lower cost launch vehicles, and for increasing spacecraft autonomy to 
reduce operations costs.  The era of large spacecraft with complex instrument complements has given way to small, frequent, and 
affordable missions that will result in "virtual colonization" of the solar system and beyond.  The questions raised by the initial 
reconnaissance of the solar system, combined with the desire to understand how common Earth-like planets are, require frequent, 
challenging missions to "mine" the solar system for knowledge and to better understand the potential for Earth-like planets around 
other stars.   In Mission to Planet Earth, the New Millennium Program will result in advanced Earth Probes spacecraft that can be 
developed in a short time period to respond to new targets or phenomena of interest.  In Space Access and Technology, special 
emphasis will be on enabling technology for this next generation of spacecraft.  Advances in microsystem technology, and 
instrument detector technologies are required to meet the challenge of drastically reducing the size of future spacecraft, increasing 
their capabilities and lowering the cost.  Industry will play a multifacted role in the New Millennium Program.  They will be involved 
in all aspects of the program, from technology development through science data processing.  They will be aggressively sought out to 
identify and provide new technologies appropriate for demonstration on New Millennium Program flights.  One of the key goals of the 
partnerships with industry is to ensure that at the end of the partnership, industry will be in a better position to compete effectively 
in aerospace and other commercial markets. 

 
Funding is also included to initiate technology development for a new reusable launch vehicle.  The challenge of reducing the cost to 
orbit goes in hand with the challenge of the New Millennium Program.  Funding is included in this budget request to begin 
developing new technologies that will revolutionize access to space.  The target of this program is to reduce launch costs to less than 
$1000 per pound to low-Earth orbit in the post-2000 timeframe.  Each part of this closely integrated program contributes to the 
process of validating key component technologies, proving that they can be integrated into  a functional vehicle, and demonstrating 
that they can be operated as required to make low-cost access to space a reality.  The model for the relationship in this program 
among NASA, industry, and the Department of Defense (DoD) is a partnership.  In forging this partnership, the emphasis is on 
mutual responsibility for the effort, mutual benefit from the research and design efforts, and mutual contribution of assets to the 
execution of the effort.  This program is structured to eliminate the technology barriers so to allow the Government and industry to 
make an informed decision on whether to proceed with development of an operational next-generation reusable launch system.   
 

NASA is also transforming itself to respond more effectively to the nation's future.  NASA has been a leader in responding to the 
challenge of reducing the federal deficit and the goals of the National Performance Review.  The five year budget requirement for 
NASA programs has been reduced 30% from the FY 1993 President's budget request.  NASA has examined all of the agency's 
activities, from major flight programs to its individual research efforts, and has aggressively pushed the entire community involved 
in NASA's programs to gain the maximum value from every dollar spent.  Every organization in NASA is performing a critical 
assessment of its own workforce.  The NASA Streamlining Plan contains actions the agency is taking to reduce by 16.5% the 
number of NASA civil servants over the FY 1993 to 1999 timeframe.  NASA is actively involved in the National Science and 
Technology Council (NSTC) Federal Laboratory review of the activities and functions of the Department of Defense, Department of 
Energy and NASA laboratories.  A strengthened program management system has been implemented over the past year, and 
baseline reviews were conducted for all of NASA's major flight programs.  The Program Management Council will regularly review the 
technical, schedule and financial status of NASA's major activities.  A disciplined process has been established for the early 
identification of problems, and guidelines for addressing a solution.  This process has resulted in senior management attention 
focused on program performance.   
 

HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT 
 

This appropriation encompasses all human space flight activities, including development of the Space Station and the safe and 
efficient operation of the Space Shuttle.  During the past year, NASA has focused on putting a new Space Station program structure 
in place and transforming the outlines of the redesigned Space Station into detailed drawings.  The program has emerged from the 
redesign process of 1993 with a strengthened program structure led by a single prime contractor, Boeing.  The program office at the 
Johnson Space Center has primary management responsibility for the program, and is structured around integrated product teams 
with responsibility for bringing the systems and elements into integrated launch packages. 
A Space Station Systems Design Review was completed in March 1994 which validated the current system design as meeting 
program requirements.  The International partners - the European Space Agency, Japan, and Canada, the Russians, and the U.S. 
are pressing forward toward First Element Launch, scheduled for December 1997.  Development, manufacturing and testing of 
Space Station hardware has continued through FY 1994, with approximately 25,000 pounds of flight hardware produced by the 
Space Station contractors.  Planning activities for the operation and full utilization of the Space Station are well underway.  The 
Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) will be the prime site for the planning and execution of integrated 
system operations of the Space Station, with exclusive command and control authority.  The MCC at JSC and the Mission Control 
Center at Kalingrad form the unified command and control center for the Space Station.  The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) 
has responsibility for the payload integration and operations process.  The payload integration process has been streamlined and 
shortened significantly from procedures used on the Space Shuttle.  Standardized payload accommodation and an express rack 
concept have been incorporated for later payload manifesting.  A Payload Operations Integration Center and user support facilities 
will be located at the MSFC as part of existing facilities that support the Shuttle/Spacelab activities and operation of the Advanced 
X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF).   
 

The highest priority of the Shuttle program remains the safe launch, operation and return of the orbiter and crew.  Funding is 
included to continue modifications that will significantly improve the Space Shuttle's overall safety, including modifications to the 
Main Engine, Orbiter and Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster.  In addition, funding for investments to improve Shuttle performance, 
such as the Super Lightweight External Tank, is included in order to satisfy Space Station requirements.  At the same time, each 
Shuttle project has been working to a very aggressive cost reduction program.  These efforts will continue through FY 1995 and  
FY 1996, through critical operational and workforce reviews of current requirements and exploring new ways of doing business.   
 

In 1995, an American astronaut will spend approximately three months on the Russian Space Station Mir, an important first step in 
the planned U.S.-Russian cooperative space program.  The Shuttle will rendezvous with the Mir in February 1995, during which 
important procedures will be tested that have direct application to the docking mission planned with the Mir in May 1995.  Up to 
seven additional joint U.S. visits to the Mir are planned, which will provide approximately 24 months of on-orbit time to test science 
hardware planned for the Space Station.  NASA has pursued an active program of cooperative activities in concert with Russia 
across the NASA program. 
 

The Space Shuttle continues to provide its unique capabilities.  The Space Shuttle successfully completed eight flights in FY 1994, 
including the highly successful Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Repair mission, two Spacelab module missions - the second Spacelab 
Life Sciences (SLS-2) and first International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) mission - as well as three pallet missions.  The first 
mission of FY 1995 has already been completed, and six more are planned.  During FY 1995, there will be two extended duration 
flights of thirteen to sixteen days, and in May 1995, the first docking of the Shuttle to the Mir is planned.  During this mission, an 
astronaut and two cosmonauts, who will have been aboard the Mir for two months, will be picked up.  Two cosmonauts, who will be 
aboard the Space Shuttle when launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), will transfer to the Mir and replace the two who 
will return to KSC.   
 
 
 

SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND TECHNOLOGY 

 
Space Science 
 

The Space Science program is designed to expand our scientific understanding of the Sun, solar system, and universe beyond Planet 
Earth.  It seeks answers to fundamental questions, such as understanding the origin of the universe and our solar system, how it 
has evolved, and whether the Earth is unique; if there are planets around other stars; and, if life exists elsewhere.  The Space 
Science program supports two broad programs:  Physics and Astronomy and Planetary Exploration.  Each program conducts 
development, operation and research activities in their respective science disciplines. 
 

The Space Science programs continues a robust program of flight development activities.  In Planetary Exploration, funding is 
included to continue development activities on the Cassini mission to Saturn, scheduled for launch in October 1997 on a Titan IV 
launch vehicle.  The first two Discovery missions, the Mars Pathfinder and the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission 
continue, with launches scheduled for December 1996 and February 1996 respectively, on Delta II launch vehicles.  Funding is 
requested in FY 1996 to initiate the next Discovery mission.  A Discovery mission development cost (phase C/D through launch plus 
30 days) must be within $150 million (FY 1992 dollars) and the mission must be within 3 years from start of development.  These 
missions are designed to ensure a continuous stream of new planetary science data and more frequent access to space - both of 
which are critical requirements for a robust science program in the future.  In Physics and Astronomy, development activities on the 
Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) continue, with launch by the Shuttle scheduled for September 1998.  With its 
unprecedented capabilities in energy coverage, spatial resolution, spectral resolution and sensitivity, the AXAF will provide unique 
and crucial information on the nature of objects ranging from nearby stars like our sun to quasars at the edge of the observable 
universe.  Funding is also included for the continued development of Explorer missions, which conduct investigations of an 
exploratory or survey nature, as well as a number of instruments and payloads to be used on international satellites or on Spacelab 
missions. 
 

Results from the newly refurbished HST dominated the world of astronomy during 1994.  The results from Hubble touched on some 
of the most fundamental astronomical questions of the 20th century, including the existence of black holes and the age of the 
universe.  Data from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory uncovered evidence that gamma ray bursts are not limited to the Milky 
Way galaxy, a discovery called by one scientist as "one of the most spectacular astrophysical discoveries of the decade".  Funding for 
the science data management, archiving, and science networking is continued.  Funding is included to support ongoing servicing 
support and new instrument development for the HST.  The HST Imaging Spectrograph (HSTIS) and Near Infrared Camera and 
Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS) are being developed for flight in 1997, and the Advanced Camera for flight in 1999. 
 

Funding is proposed within Planetary Exploration to initiate a technology development program, the New Millennium Program, 
which will lead to a new generation of spacecraft.  These smaller, more intelligent, less expensive spacecraft will not only 
revolutionize NASA's exploration programs, but have beneficial payoffs for the commercial spacecraft industry as well.  The 
technologies which will be demonstrated, will advance the state of the art in the design, development and implementation of science 
spacecraft and instruments in the next century.  Demonstration missions will be pursued which demonstrate the validity of the high 
priority technologies needed to revolutionize space exploration, and exploit scientific opportunities as well.  Funding is also included 
to initiate the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a cooperative program with Germany that will replace the 
aging Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and to initiate definition of a Space Infrared Telescope Facility to complement the HST 
and begin a new era in infrared astronomy. 
 

In October 1994, NASA requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to assemble a review panel to validate the technical 
feasibility and scientific merits of the Gravity Probe-B mission in light of other science priorities within the NASA budget.  The 
Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) mission is a highly complex, technically challenging mission to test key elements of Einstein's General 
Theory of Relativity.  The final results of this study are anticipated in June 1995.  In the event the panel recommends continuation 
of the GP-B mission, equivalent offsets within the NASA budget must be identified. 
 

Life and Microgravity Sciences 
 

The Life and Microgravity Sciences program develops the utilization of space to understand the response of biological and materials 
systems to the weightless environment.  Flight opportunities aboard the Space Shuttle in FY 1994 provided a rich preview of 
research work that will be conducted on the Space Station.  In Microgravity Sciences, two dedicated Spacelab flights were flown, the 
second International Microgravity Laboratory flight (IML-2) and the second U.S. Microgravity Payload flight  
(USMP-2).  In the area of Life Sciences, the second Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-2) mission was flown in early FY 1994, eighty-two 
experiments were flown on IML-2, and the first experiments resulting from a cooperative space flight initiative with the National 
Institutes of Health were flown on STS-59.  Funding is continued to support development of the experiment hardware for use on the 
Space Shuttle and Space Station.  Work carried out by Life Sciences and Aerospace Medicine ensure the development of medical 
care and countermeasures to facilitate productive work and the health of humans in space.  The U.S.-Russian cooperative program 
will benefit research in Microgravity and Life Sciences by providing early long duration research opportunities.  In FY 1995, a study 
will be conducted to identify options which could lead to the development of a next-generation Extravehicular Activity system, or 
space suit, for use on the Space Station.  The major objectives of any follow-on initiative would be to increase the productivity of the 
space suit as well as decrease the maintenance and logistics costs of the system. 
 

Mission to Planet Earth 
 

The Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) program seeks to better understand the mechanisms that drive the climate and ecology of 
Earth, and how human activity is affecting the environment.  NASA's base program combines ground-based measurements, 
laboratory studies, data analysis and model development with a progressive series of satellite missions to study cloud climatology, 
Earth radiation budget, ozone levels, atmospheric chemistry, and ocean circulation.  This is just a first step.  The capability to model 
and predict the consequences of global change is the ultimate objective. 
 

The ongoing Mission to Planet Earth program is making critical near-term contributions to understanding the Earth as an 
integrated system as well as environmental issues, such as global warming and ozone depletion.  In FY 1994, four Shuttle flights 
were dedicated to various studies of Earth, using powerful radars and lasers to penetrate cloud cover and map critical factors on a 
global scale.  Data from satellites in orbit, such as the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) and Ocean Topography 
Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon, and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are being used in multidisciplinary studies 
focused on understanding various aspects of the global environment.  The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a key element in the 
Administration's U.S. Global Change Research Program, and NASA's major contribution to this effort.  The EOS is a series of 
spacecrafts designed to provide long-term data sets for use in modeling and understanding global processes.  The Earth Probes 
provide data in specialized areas, such as tropical rainfall, ocean wind speed and direction, and global ozone concentrations.  The 
EOS Data Information System (EOSDIS) will provide the processing, storage, and distribution of the EOS science data and resulting 
scientific products.  Funding is also included to continue development of the Landsat-7 spacecraft.  Management responsibility for 
the spacecraft was transferred from DoD to NASA in FY 1994.  Landsat-7 is scheduled to launch in 1998.  The ground system is 
being developed by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 
 

Aeronautical Research and Technology 
 

The Aeronautical Research and Technology (R&T) program provides a broad foundation of advanced technology to strengthen the 
United States' leadership in aviation, an industry which plays a vital role in the economic strength, transportation infrastructure 
and national defense of the United States.  The NASA Aeronautics program provides the nation with leadership in high payoff critical 
technologies which are transferred to industry, the Department of Defense, and the Federal Aviation Administration for application 
to safe, superior and environmentally compatible U.S. civil and military aircraft, and for a safe and efficient National Aviation 
System.  NASA's unique research capabilities contribute to the strengthening of America's aviation industry in many ways, and the 
FY 1996 program continues important investments required to pursue the high leverage technologies required to support both the 
subsonic and high-speed civil transport economic viability.  In FY 1994, a significant augmentation to the Advanced Subsonic 
Transport (AST) program took place, and funding for continuation of all program elements is included in  
FY 1995 and FY 1996.  Phase I of the High Speed Research (HSR) program is scheduled be completed in FY 1995.  This six year 
effort, begun in FY 1990, is defining critical HSCT environmental compatibility requirements in the areas of atmospheric effects, 
community noise and sonic boom, and is establishing a technology foundation to meet these requirements.  Phase II of the program, 
begun in FY 1994, is directed at developing and verifying, in cooperation with U.S. industry, the high leverage technologies essential 
for economic viability in addition to environmental compatibility.  NASA is an active participant in the High Performance Computing 
and Communications (HPCC) program, and has pioneered the application of design and simulation software on parallel machines 
and developed the most widely accepted performance evaluation/tuning software for applications on parallel machines.  The funding 
planned for FY 1995 and requested for FY 1996 will continue NASA's leadership role in this multi-agency program.  No funding is 
requested for the National Wind Tunnel Complex, however legislative language is proposed to extend the availability of funds 
appropriated in FY 1995 until FY 1997.  The industry/Government team is continuing to examine all options, refine cost estimates, 
and advance design to the point where industry and government will be able to decide whether to invest funds and have the 
confidence that the final product will fulfill all stated criteria and be delivered on time and within budget. 
 

Space Access and Technology 
 

The Space Access and Technology program leads NASA's efforts to develop advanced space technologies which support the 
development and application of technologies critical to the economic, scientific, and technological competitiveness of the U.S. and to 
promote U.S. industrial preeminence through strengthened linkages between the private sector and NASA technology efforts.  The 
highest priority of this program is to provide new and innovative space technologies to meet the challenges and lower the cost of 
future space missions.  Lowering space mission costs requires development of technology to revitalize access to space, through the 
discovery and validation of new and innovative space technologies that will dramatically reduce the cost to achieve orbit, and 
development of detector technologies to optimize sensitivity and resolution across the electromagnetic spectrum.  The Office of Space 
Access and Technology is also actively engaged in nurturing and expanding commercial space industries, by proactively developing, 
demonstrating and transferring NASA technology to aerospace and non-aerospace applications.    
 

NASA is taking the lead in developing the technology for the next generation reusable space transportation system.  This program, 
which will be pursued in close partnership with U.S. industry and the Department of Defense, will include systems engineering and 
concept analysis, ground based technology development, and a series of flight demonstrators - the DC-XA, the X-34 Small Booster 
and the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator.  Each part of this closely integrated program contributes to the process of 
validating key component technologies, proving that they can be integrated into a functional vehicle, and demonstrating that they 
can be operated as required to make low-cost access to space a reality.  NASA is also employing an innovative management strategy 
for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program, based on cooperative agreements between a variety of Government and industry 
participants.  Current partners on the RLV program are contributing manpower, facilities and funds to the technology development 
effort.  This cost-sharing will continue under the two new cooperative agreements planned for the X-34 and X-33, with industry 
contributions to the X-34 anticipated to be at least 50% of the total investment in the small booster program. 
 

There are two major decision gates which will guide the pace of development for the X-33.  The first, no later than December 1996 
will be whether to proceed with the large scale flight demonstration.  The second, by the end of the decade, will determine whether 
the Government and industry are going to move ahead with full-scale development of an operational launch system.  Both decisions 
will be based on criteria established in early 1995 and agreed to by NASA, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the 
Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), with the advice of an outside panel of experts such as the NASA Advisory Council.  
The program's progress toward meeting the criteria will be reviewed annually.  The release of funds identified for development of the 
large scale flight demonstration phase will be contingent on agreement by the President that, based on successfully meeting those 
criteria, the program is ready to proceed to the next phase. 

 
NASA is in the process of changing the way it does business in the area of technology transfer.  The Agenda for Change is NASA's 
blueprint for the ways NASA will impart the benefits of its knowledge, capabilities and research efforts into the national economy 
and the way that NASA derives benefits from the technological strength of American industry.  At the same time, the Office of Space 
Access and Technology (OSAT) is supporting programs in the areas of communications spacecraft technology, remote sensing, and 
biotechnology and materials processing that are aimed specifically at developing advanced technologies and systems concepts to 
benefit NASA programs, and to support the commercial development of space. 
 

Funding for the Launch Services program, which was previously managed by the Office of Space Science, has been brought under 
the cognizance of the Office of Space Access and Technology.  Overall program management responsibilities remain centralized 
within OSAT.  Mission support costs provide for technical oversight, launch support and program management which will be funded 
within the OSAT budget.  However, funding for mission unique launch services is now budgeted within the respective program 
offices - the Office of Space Science, Mission to Planet Earth, and the Office of Space Communications. 
 

Academic Programs 
 

Science and mathematics achievement is an integral element of the National Education Goals, and NASA's efforts in the education 
arena strongly support making U.S. students first in the world in science and mathematics achievement by the year 2000.  NASA's 
programs at the pre-college, college and graduate levels use NASA's unique mission and results to capture and channel student 
interest in science, mathematics and technology, as well as enhance teacher and faculty knowledge and skills related to these 
subjects.  At the undergraduate and graduate level, programs are geared to providing opportunities for students and faculty to 
participate in NASA-sponsored research activities at NASA field centers. 
 

NASA has made a commitment to playing a leadership role in strengthening the capabilities of minority universities and to 
increasing opportunities for students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Other Minority Universities (OMUs), 
primarily Hispanic-serving institutions and Tribal Colleges, to participate in and benefit from NASA's research and education 
programs.  The FY 1996 budget request for the Minority University Research program significantly increases funding to Other 
Minority Universities.  NASA will follow a comprehensive strategy to strengthen the infrastructure of OMUs, enhance mathematics, 
science, and technology education, and increase the opportunities for Hispanics, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders and people with 
disabilities to improve mathematics, science, and technology education outcomes in NASA's education programs. 

 
Mission Communication Services 
 

Support which is most directly related to NASA's science and aeronautics programs, including ground network support, mission 
planning for robotics spacecraft programs, suborbital mission support, and support to aeronautics test programs, is included in the 
Science, Aeronautics and Technology appropriation.  Funds are included in this budget to operate and sustain NASA's Deep Space 
Network, Wallops Flight Facility (and subsidiary facilities), and the Western Aeronautical Test Range which provide support for 
NASA's robotic science, aeronautics and suborbital programs; and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network and the Space 
Network Control Center. 

 
MISSION SUPPORT 
 

Safety, Reliability, Maintainability and Quality Assurance 
 

NASA is committed to providing leadership in quality management of science and engineering programs.  The Office of Safety and 
Mission Assurance (OSMA) is responsible for the development and implementation of risk management practices and Safety, 
Reliability, Maintainability and Quality Assurance (SRM&QA) practices into all NASA activities.  The funding requested in FY 1996 
will continue a wide range of activities underway through which SRM&QA practices are integrated into the earliest phases of 
development for space and aeronautics programs.   
 

Space Communication Services 
 

Funding for the operation, sustainment, and replenishment of NASA's Space Network is in NASA's Mission Support appropriation.  
This program supports the operation of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS), and the ground terminals at White Sands, 
New Mexico.  Funds for services provided to non-science users of the TDRSS are included under this program.  The NASA 
Communications (NASCOM) system and the Program Support Communications Network (PSCN) are also funded by this 
appropriation.  In FY 1995, a contract for the development of three replenishment TDRSS spacecraft will be awarded, with 
availability planned to begin in 1999.  The TDRS Replacement spacecraft, F-7, is scheduled for launch by the Shuttle in June 1995.  
As part of the National Performance Review, NASA has been tasked to explore how more of NASA's TDRS requirements could be met 
with broader-based commercial communications services. 
 

Research and Program Management 
 

The NASA workforce is the foundation underpinning the successful achievement of NASA's goals.  Funding for the salaries, travel 
support and other personnel expenses for the entire NASA workforce is included.  Funding for support activities to the NASA 
workforce and physical plant is also included in Research and Program Management. 
 

NASA has exceeded all goals established by the President and Congress concerning the size of the NASA workforce.  Through the 
overwhelmingly successful implementation of the Voluntary Separation Incentive (buyout) program, NASA reached their workforce 
goals established for FY 1995 by the end of FY 1994.  NASA has reduced employment by approximately 8%; of that reduction, at 
least 10% were in pay grades GS-14 and above.  In concert with the redesign and restructuring of the Space Station program, the 
workforce level for this program has been reduced approximately 45%.   
 

NASA is refining its strategies to implement the recommendations contained in the National Performance Review for streamlining 
components of the workforce and meet its FTE targets as part of the governmentwide effort to reduce the size of the government 
workforce by 272,900 by FY 1999.  This strategy must assure that the NASA workforce is technically competent to meet the 
challenges of NASA's diverse and highly technical programs, while continuing the multiyear staff reductions and streamlining 
initiatives begun earlier.  During FY 1995, each NASA installation is undergoing a workforce review including both civil servants and 
contractor support.  It is anticipated that the preliminary conclusions from this review will be reached by mid-1995. 
 

Construction of Facilities 
 

Funding is included for discrete projects to repair and modernize the basic infrastructure and institutional facilities, the minor 
repair, rehabilitation and modification of exiting facilities, minor new construction projects, environmental compliance and 
restoration activities, the design of facilities projects, and the advanced planning related to future facilities needs.  




                                                NATIONAL AERONAUTICS & SPACE ADMINISTRATION
                                                        FY 1996 BUDGET SUMMARY
                                                         (MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)


                                                                                       BUDGET PLAN
                                                                        1994              1995             1996

HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT                                                   6,074.3           5,514.9          5,509.6


SPACE STATION                                                        1,939.2           1,889.6          1,833.6
US/RUSSIAN COOPERATIVE PROGRAM                                         170.8             150.1            129.2
SPACE SHUTTLE                                                        3,558.7           3,155.1          3,231.8
PAYLOAD AND UTILIZATION OPERATIONS                                     405.6             320.1            315.0


SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND TECHNOLOGY                                  5,792.5           5,943.6          6,006.9

SPACE SCIENCE                                                        1,920.9           2,012.6          1,958.9
LIFE AND MICROGRAVITY SCIENCES AND APPLICATIONS                        507.5             483.1            504.0
MISSION TO PLANET EARTH                                              1,068.0           1,340.1          1,341.1
AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY                                 1,067.2             882.0            917.3
SPACE ACCESS AND TECHNOLOGY                                            562.4             642.4            705.6
MISSION COMMUNICATION SERVICES                                         581.0             481.2            461.3
ACADEMIC PROGRAMS                                                       85.5             102.2            118.7

MISSION SUPPORT                                                      2,667.4           2,589.2          2,726.2


SAFETY, RELIABILITY AND QUALITY ASSURANCE                               34.3              38.7             37.6
SPACE COMMUNICATION SERVICES                                           248.2             226.5            319.4
RESEARCH AND PROGRAM MANAGEMENT                                      2,175.6           2,189.0          2,202.8
CONSTRUCTION OF FACILITIES                                             209.3             135.0            166.4


INSPECTOR GENERAL                                                       14.7              16.0             17.3


NATIONAL AERONAUTICAL FACILITIES                                                         400.0


                 TOTAL BUDGET AUTHORITY                             14,548.9          14,463.7         14,260.0
                 TOTAL OUTLAYS                                      13,693.3          14,239.4         14,125.3




                        NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

 
                               FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES
                   SUMMARY RECONCILIATION OF APPROPRIATIONS TO BUDGET PLANS


                                                                            Space Flight      Construction      Research &  
                                                            Research &       Control &             of            Program        Inspector
FISCAL YEAR 1994                                TOTAL      Development       Data Comm         Facilities       Management        General


 VA-HUD-INDEPENDENT AGENCIES                   14,551,399    7,529,300       4,853,500          517,700         1,635,508          15,391
 APPROPRIATIONS ACT, FY 1994 (P.L. 103-124)


 FY 1994 EMERGENCY SUPPLEMENTAL
 APPROPRIATIONS ACT (P.L. 103-211)                 16,800        4,200         -18,400          -25,000            56,000


 VA-HUD-INDEPENDENT AGENCIES
 APPROPRIATIONS ACT, FY 1995 (P.L. 103-327)       -18,000                                                         -18,000


 LAPSE OF FY 1994 UNOBLIGATED FUNDS                -1,266                                                            -601            -665



TOTAL BUDGET PLAN                              14,548,933    7,533,500       4,835,100          492,700         1,672,907          14,726




                                                            Human Space     Science, Aero        Mission         Inspector     Nat'l Aero

FISCAL YEAR 1995                                 TOTAL         Flight       & Technology         Support          General      Facilities


 VA-HUD-INDEPENDENT AGENCIES 
 APPROPRIATIONS ACT, FY 1995 (P.L. 103-327)    14,404,684    5,514,897       5,901,200         2,572,587           16,000         400,000


 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 
 APPROPRIATIONS ACT, FY 1995 (P.L. 103-335)        60,000                       60,000


 PROPOSED RECISSION                                -1,000                                         -1,000


TOTAL BUDGET PLAN                              14,463,684    5,514,897       5,961,200         2,571,587           16,000         400,000  





                                                                                               NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 


                                                                                                       FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES


                                                                                                  SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS 


                                                                                          Distribution of Program Amount By Installation
                                                                                                       (Thousands of Dollars)


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 
                                                      Total                                                  Human Space Flight                                   Science, Aeronautics and Technology                                     Mission Support 
                             --------------------------------------------------------     --------------------------------------------------------     --------------------------------------------------------     --------------------------------------------------------     
                               1994                    1995                    1996         1994                    1995                    1996         1994                    1995                    1996         1994                    1995                    1996
                               ----                    ----                    ----         ----                    ----                    ----         ----                    ----                    ----         ----                    ----                    ----


Johnson Space Center          2,190,015              1,798,192              1,992,403      1,604,300              1,318,300               1,415,400      231,081                128,352                147,726       354,634                 351,540                359,277
Space Station Program Office  1,187,580              1,524,251              1,437,566      1,171,400              1,494,000               1,407,100            0                      0                      0        16,180                  30,251                 30,466
Kennedy Space Center          1,444,046              1,323,622              1,280,591      1,125,200              1,021,600                 972,800       40,040                 38,924                 40,871       278,806                 263,098                266,920
Marshall Space Flight Center  2,838,573              2,519,874              2,592,970      1,887,100              1,533,397               1,582,000      518,889                603,776                634,047       432,584                 382,701                376,923
Stennis Space Center             90,736                103,830                106,928         39,500                 51,200                  45,700       10,559                 15,920                 19,849        40,677                  36,710                 41,379
Ames Research Center            632,670                602,410                666,427              0                      0                       0      447,756                423,034                477,475       184,914                 179,376                188,952
Dryden Flight Research Center    97,164                105,465                 94,048          5,700                  6,100                   5,600       51,700                 49,200                 46,000        39,764                  50,165                 42,448
Langley Research Center         674,820                657,797                699,239          1,600                    900                     600      443,964                426,044                467,033       229,256                 230,853                231,606 
Lewis Research Center           930,048                775,993                847,416        132,300                 17,900                   9,000      557,467                527,277                585,722       240,281                 230,816                252,694
Goddard Space Flight Center   2,321,371              2,441,923              2,517,666          9,200                  9,200                   9,900    1,825,311              1,934,040              1,905,127       486,860                 498,683                602,639
Jet Propulsion Laboratory       902,261                997,015                980,523            400                      0                       0      878,652                974,576                955,473        23,209                  22,439                 25,050
Headquarters                  1,121,577              1,178,357              1,076,343         97,600                 62,300                  61,500      713,062                822,457                727,577       310,915                 293,600                287,266


Undistributed:


 Construction of Facilities:
  Various Locations              81,846                  8,955                 10,580              0                      0                       0       74,000                      0                      0         7,846                   8,955                 10,580
  Facility Planning and Design   21,500                 10,000                 10,000              0                      0                       0            0                      0                      0        21,500                  10,000                 10,000


 National Aeronautical Facilities     0                400,000                      0


 Inspector General               14,726                 16,000                 17,300
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL NASA                   14,548,933             14,463,684             14,260,000      6,074,300              5,514,897               5,509,600    5,792,481             5,943,600               6,006,900     2,667,426               2,589,187              2,726,200
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------





                     NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION


                            PROPOSED APPROPRIATION LANGUAGE


                               ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS


                             [INCLUDING TRANSFER OF FUNDS]

	

  [Of the budgetary resources available to the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration during fiscal year 1995, $59,003,000 are permanently canceled.  The 
Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall allocate 
the amount of budgetary resources canceled among the agency's accounts available for 
procurement and procurement-related expenses.  Amounts available for procurement and 
procurement-related expenses in each such account shall be reduced by the amount 
allocated to such account.  For the purposes of this paragraph, the definition of  
"procurement" includes all stages of the process of acquiring property or services, 
beginning with the process of determining a need for a product or service and ending 
with contract completion and closeout, as specified in 41 U.S.C. 403(2).]


  Notwithstanding the limitation on the availability of funds appropriated for "Human 
space flight", "Science, aeronautics and technology", or " Mission support" by this 
appropriations Act, when any activity has been initiated by the incurrence of obli-
gations for construction of facilities as authorized by law, the amount available 
for such activity shall remain available until expended.  This provision does not 
apply to amounts appropriated in "Mission support" pursuant to the authorization for 
repair, rehabilitation and modification of facilities, minor construction of new 
facilities and additions to existing facilities, and facility planning and design.


  Notwithstanding the limitation on the availability of funds appropriated 
"Human space flight", "Science, aeronautics and technology', or "Mission support" 
by this appropriations Act, the amounts appropriated for construction of facilities 
shall remain available until September 30,[1997] 1998.


  Notwithstanding the limitation on the availability of funds appropriated for 
"Mission support" and "Inspector General", amounts made available by this Act for 
personnel and related costs and travel expenses of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration shall remain available until September 30, [1995] 1996 and may be used 
to enter into contracts for training, investigations, cost associated with personnel 
relocation, and for other services, to be provided during the next fiscal year


  [No amount appropriated pursuant to this or any other Act may be used for the lease or 
construction of a new contractor-funded facility for exclusive use in support of a 
contract or contracts with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under which 
the administration would be required to substantially amortize through payment or 
reimbursement such contractor investment, unless an appropriations Act specifies the 
lease or contract pursuant to which such facilities are to be constructed or leased or 
such facility is otherwise identified in such Act.  The Administrator may authorize such 
facility lease or construction, if he determines, in consultation with the Committees on 
appropriations, that deferral  of such action until the enactment of the next appropria-
tions Act would be inconsistent with the interest of the Nation in aeronautical and space 
activities.]


  The unexpired balances of prior appropriations to NASA for activities for which funds 
are provided under this Act may be transferred to the new account established for the 
appropriation that provides funds for such activity under this Act.  Balances so trans-
ferred may be merged with funds in the newly established account and thereafter may be 
accounted for as one fund to be available for the same purpose and under the same terms 
and conditions.


  [The fourth proviso in the paragraph under the heading "Science, space, and technology 
education trust fund" in the Department of Housing and Urban Development -Independent 
Agencies Appropriations Act, 1989 (Public Law 101-404, 102 Stat. 1014, 1028) is amended 
by striking out "for a ten-year period" and inserting in lieu thereof  "hereafter"]
	

  [Notwithstanding any other provision of law or regulation, the National Aeronautics 
and space Administration shall convey, without reimbursement, to the city of Slidell, 
Louisiana, all rights, title, and interest of the united States in the property, including 
all improvements thereon, known as the Slidell Computer complex, and consisting of 
approximately 14 acres in the City of Slidell, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana: Provided 
further, That in consideration of this conveyance, the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration may require such other terms and conditions as the Administrator deems 
appropriate to protect the interests of the United States.]  (Departments of Veterans 
affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1995.)

	
 

AS