HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT 
 

					      FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 

						     BUDGET SUMMARY 
						    

OFFICE OF SPACE FLIGHT                                                                                                    SPACE STATION 
 

						   SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS


							   
							      FY 1994                 FY 1995                 FY 1996             
									       (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Development.......................................          1,918,200               1,752,400               1,612,800             
Utilization support...............................             21,000                  28,300                  67,900               
Operations........................................                --                  108,900                 152,900               
 

	Total.....................................          1,939,200               1,889,600               1,833,600 
 
Distribution of Program Amount by Installation 
 

Johnson Space Center..............................            392,000                 333,100                 349,000 
Space Station Program Office......................          1,071,400               1,394,000               1,307,100 
Kennedy Space Center..............................             57,000                  81,200                  73,000 
Marshall Space Flight Center......................            221,300                  48,400                  81,700 
Langley Research Center...........................              1,300                     900                     100 
Lewis Research Center.............................            132,200                  17,600                   8,700 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory.........................                200                      --                      -- 
Headquarters......................................             63,800                  14,400                  14,000 
 

	Total.....................................          1,939,200               1,889,600               1,833,600 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goal of the international Space Station is to provide a long-duration laboratory to allow investigations of the limits of human 
performance, vastly expand human experience in living and working in space, and provide the capability to understand whether 
there are additional opportunities for the large-scale commercial development of space.  The experience and dramatic results 
obtained from the use of the international Space Station, together with information obtained from robotic missions to the Moon, 
near-Earth asteroids, and Mars, will guide the future direction of the Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise, one 
of NASA's key strategic areas.  The Space Station is key to NASA's ability to fulfill its mission to explore, use, and enable the 
development of space for human enterprise. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Space Station is unique because it will provide the world with a permanent outpost in space.  The schedule for the current 
design emphasizes an early permanent crew capability that provides an advanced research laboratory for use by international crews 
for extended durations.  Therefore, very early into the program, the Space Station will provide enormous benefits to stimulate new 
technologies, enhance industrial competitiveness, further commercial space enterprises, and add greatly to the storehouse of 
scientific knowledge.  In March of 1994, a Systems Design Review (SDR) was completed, which validated the current system design 
as meeting program requirements. 
 

The international Space Station is the culmination of the redesign work begun in FY 1993 to increase efficiency and effectiveness in 
response to lower projections for the Agency budget and growing emphasis on other programs, such as science and aeronautics.  
Human presence in space is one of NASA's highest priorities, and the redesigned Space Station has met the President's goal to 
reduce program costs while still providing significant research capabilities.  An entirely new management approach has been 
implemented, in which a single contractor (Boeing) has been given total prime and integration responsibilities, with the previous 
prime contractors (McDonnell Douglas, Rocketdyne, and Boeing Huntsville) serving as first-tier subcontractors to Boeing.  This has 
produced clearer lines of authority and greater accountability.  In addition, program management has relocated to a streamlined 
Space Station Program Office (SSPO) in Houston, structured around integrated product teams with responsibility for bringing the 
systems and elements into integrated launch packages.  Project management organizations at the various centers have been 
eliminated.  Efficiencies have been gained through these program management improvements, design changes, a simplified 
integration effort, and our recent invitation to the Russians to enter into the international partnership. 
 

The Space Station will be developed within annual funding constraints of $2.1 billion, which includes not only the program 
described here, but also agreed-upon content for Space Shuttle-Mir activities, science payload facilities, and utilization related to the 
Space Station.  Within NASA, extensive coordination with the user community is ongoing, with payload facilities and research and 
technology activities provided by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Office of Space Access and 
Technology, and the Office of Mission to Planet Earth.  These include the centrifuge and related facilities, furnaces, gloveboxes, 
various pieces of lab support equipment, solar dynamic flight experiment, and research and experiment development, and are 
funded in those programs' respective budgets.  The current estimate for completing the development and assembly of the Space 
Station is $17.4 billion (from FY 1994 through June 2002), including $14.7 billion for developing and operating the Station,  
$0.2 billion for Space Shuttle-Mir activities, and $2.5 billion for science payload facilities and utilization.  The total estimate and 
schedule is contingent upon annual funding levels of $2.1 billion for the activities described above.  This funding level reflects the 
Agency commitment to Administration guidance, and is the minimum necessary to ensure the success of the program. 
 

The Space Station's international aspect was initiated in 1984 with invitations for the full participation of other nations.  President 
Clinton has expanded the international scope of the Space Station dramatically by forming a cooperation with the Russian Space 
Agency (RSA).  Space Station team members include NASA, RSA, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the European Space Agency 
(ESA), and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA).  The continued partnerships with the CSA, ESA, and NASDA 
significantly enhance the capabilities of the international Space Station, and ensure compatible development of interfacing elements.  
In accordance with the terms of our agreements, the U.S. and the international partners will share the total available resources and 
the common costs for operations.  Currently, the CSA, ESA and NASDA have invested almost $4 billion for design and development, 
and anticipate a total expenditure of $8-9 billion.  In accordance with the terms of the agreements, the U.S. and the international 
partners will share the total available resources and the common costs for operations.  This unprecedented level of international 
cooperation could also serve as a model for cooperative activities in future space projects and enhance the feasibility of advanced 
initiatives. 
 

Assembly of the Space Station will commence in 1997 at an inclination of 51.6 degrees in order to fully utilize Russian contributions 
as well as U.S. and partner capabilities.  The Space Station will support permanent 3-person crew operations in 1998, and evolve to 
a permanent 6-person crew by 2002.  To ensure the earliest possible science and research activity, microgravity capability is 
planned for 1998, with the outfitting of the U.S. lab in December.  With completion in June 2002, the Station will provide 110 
kilowatts of electrical power (with 46 kW for users), 33 payload racks in the U.S., ESA and NASDA laboratory modules, three 
Russian research modules, and an operational lifetime of approximately ten years



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

						 SPACE STATION DEVELOPMENT 

 
							    FY 1994              FY 1995         FY 1996 
									 (Thousands of Dollars)

 
Flight hardware..................................         1,609,700            1,319,900       1,277,200 
Test, manufacturing and assembly.................            99,000               94,900          90,300 
Operations capability and construction...........           151,000              169,800         137,100 
Transportation support...........................            58,500              117,600          83,000 
Flight technology demonstrations.................                --               30,000          10,400 

 
	Subtotal.................................         1,918,200            1,732,200       1,598,000 

 
Operations capability and construction 
  Neutral buoyancy laboratory - CofF.............                --               20,200          14,800 


	Total....................................         1,918,200            1,752,400       1,612,800 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 

 
Development of the international Space Station will provide an on-orbit, habitable laboratory for science and research activities, 
including flight and test hardware and software, flight demonstrations for risk mitigation, ground operations capability and facility 
construction, shuttle hardware and integration for assembly and operation of the station, mission planning, and integration of 
Space Station systems. 

 
STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Space Station elements will be provided by the U.S. and our international partners.  The U.S. elements include two nodes, a 
laboratory module, truss segments, four photovoltaic arrays, a habitation module, three pressurized mating adapters, a cupola, and 
an unpressurized logistics carrier.  Various systems are also being developed by the U.S., including thermal control, life support, 
navigation and propulsion, command and data handling, power systems, and internal audio/video.  The U.S. elements also include 
the FGB energy tug, being provided by a Russian firm under the Boeing prime contract, and a pressurized logistics module, 
similarly provided by Italy. 
 

Canada, European nations, Japan, and Russia are also developing hardware for the international Space Station.  Laboratory 
elements will be provided by the Japanese and European Space Agencies.  Canada will provide the remote manipulator system, vital 
for assembly of the station.  The Russian Space Agency, invited to join the partnership, is providing experiment, power and service 
modules, Soyuz crew transfer vehicle, and one universal docking module (UDM).  
 

Boeing has been awarded the prime contract for the Space Station, including integration responsibility.  As a subcontractor to 
Boeing, McDonnell Douglas will develop and build the integrated truss segments that separate station elements and house essential 
systems, including central power distribution, thermal distribution and attitude control equipment.  Radiators, communications 
antennas, photovoltaic (PV) elements and the Space Station Robotics Manipulator System are also mounted to truss segments. 
 

All U.S. pressurized volumes are developed by Boeing Defense and Space Group, Missiles and Space Division in Huntsville, which is 
considered a first tier subcontractor to Boeing prime.  After the first element launch in November 1997 of the FGB energy block, the 
next flight will launch Node 1, a pressurized volume which contains four radial and two axial berthing ports.  The node will be 
launched with two Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) attached and will serve as the docking location for the delivery of the U.S. 
Laboratory Module and the pressurized logistics module.  Node 2 with an attached cupola is manifested in the second phase of 
assembly.  The final U.S. pressurized volume is the Habitation Module which will contain the galley, ward room, waste management, 
water processing and other crew support functions necessary for human operations. 
 

The power system, essential to the station's housekeeping operations and scientific payloads, will be built by Rocketdyne Division, 
Rockwell International, in a subcontracted effort to Boeing.  Four PV elements, containing a mast, alpha joint, radiator, arrays and 
associated power storage and conditioning elements make up the power system. 
 

The development program also includes test, manufacturing and assembly support for critical NASA center activities and 
institutional support.  Test capabilities, the provision of government furnished equipment (GFE), and engineering analysis provide 
in-line products to support the work of the prime contractor, its major subcontractors and NASA system engineering and integration 
efforts. 
 

Operations capability provides the development of a set of facilities, systems and capabilities to conduct the operations of the Space 
Station.  The work will be performed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Johnson Space Center (JSC).  The KSC will develop 
launch site operations capabilities for conducting prelaunch and post-landing ground operations.  The JSC will develop space 
systems operation capabilities for conducting training and on-orbit operations control of the Space Station.  Construction of the 
Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) in Houston will provide the capability for Space Station crew training to support a March 1997 
training need date.  Requirements for simultaneous extravehicular activity (EVA) training (up to nine crews at a time) and larger 
volume for time critical EVA tasks has dictated the NBL requirement.  Although the FY 1995 budget planned for construction of the 
NBL on-site at the JSC, the FY 1996 budget requests authority to lease and subsequently purchase the Clear Lake Development 
Facility from McDonnell Douglas, including modification of the existing facility as an NBL. 
 

The redesigned Space Station emphasizes multicenter and multiprogram cooperation.  At JSC, a consolidated approach between 
Space Shuttle and Space Station will minimize, if not prevent, duplicated effort and costs for command and control and training.  
Crew training will be based on a detailed risk analysis to determine the optimum failure response training profile.  Therefore, 
training will be knowledge- and proficiency-based rather than driven by timeline and detailed procedures rehearsal.  At KSC, 
investments in facilities will be limited.  The redesigned Space Station will make efficient use of available personnel from other 
programs. 
 

Transportation support provides those activities which are required to mate and integrate the Space Shuttle and Space Station systems.  
This budget line supports development and procurement of two external airlocks, and upgrade of a third airlock to full system 
capability, which are required both for docking the Space Shuttle with the Russian Mir and for use with the Space Station.  Other items 
in this budget include:  the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) and Space Shuttle Mission Training Facility upgrades; development of a 
UHF communications system and a laser sensor; procurement of an Operational Space Vision System; procurement of three docking 
mechanisms and Space Station docking rings; EVA/extravehicular mobility units (EMU) services and hardware; and integration costs to 
provide analyses and model development. 
 

Space Station technology and system validation funding requirements include flight technology demonstrations in areas of joint 
NASA/RSA development that pose a level of technical or programmatic risk, warranting additional verification.  Risk areas include life 
support, the data processing system, automatic rendezvous and docking, vibration isolation in a microgravity environment, assembly 
and maintenance, loads and dynamics, contamination, radiation environment, and micrometeoroid/orbital debris.  In addition, funding 
is provided for operational techniques development for procedures, utilizing the Space Shuttle flights to the current Russian Mir, that 
will benefit the future operational phases of the Space Station program.  A solar dynamic technology demonstration is being developed 
jointly with RSA for a mission to Mir, and is co-funded with the Office of Space Access and Technology. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Russian Elements Baselined -    Addition of Russian elements to "Alpha" design which came out of Space Station redesign 
October 1993                    activities during FY 1993. 
 

Systems Requirements            Programmatic and technical review to validate top level system requirements. 
Review - December 1993 
 

Contract Novation/Letter        Established Boeing as single prime with integration responsibility, with former Space Station 
Contract With Boeing -          Freedom primes as first-tier subcontractors to Boeing. 
February 1994 
 

Systems Design Review -         Technical review to validate that current system designs meet program requirements. 
March 1994 
 

Agreement With Boeing -         "Not-to-exceed" handshake agreement with Boeing prime for SDR baselined design. 
August 1994

 
Technical Convergence           Technical review to assure that vehicle design baseline is consistent with engineering and 
Review - November 1994          contractual documentation, feasible with acceptable development risk, safe, operable and 
				supports utilization. 
 

Joint Program Review            First in a series of top-level reviews of NASA-RSA cooperative effort;  confirmed program 
(Moscow) -                      milestones for 1995 and beyond. 
November 1994 
 

Definitize Boeing Contract -    Finalization of NASA-Boeing agreement;  establishes contractual baseline, cost and fee 
January 1995                    arrangement for Space Station. 
 

Incremental Design Reviews -    Series of incremental, cumulative reviews throughout the design phase, which assure that 
March 1995  (IDR-1) and         system level requirements are properly implemented in the design, have traceability, and that 
2nd Qtr FY 1996  (IDR-2)        hardware and software can be integrated to support staged assembly and operation.  FY 1995 
				review will assess technical feasibility for the first six assembly flights, and forward planning 
				review of all assembly flights. 

 
Prime Development Activity 
 

NOTE:  All activities listed are planning milestones, and are not contractual. 
 

Flight 1A:  (November 1997)     Self-powered, active vehicle; provides attitude control through early assembly stages; 
  (First Element Launch)        provides fuel storage capability after the service module is attached; provides rendezvous 
  (Proton Launch Vehicle)       and docking capability 
  FGB Energy Block                Complete manufacture of structural components for first FGB flight article (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete subcontractor component deliveries to RSA for FGB assembly (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete manufacture of compartment that houses solar arrays on FGB (2nd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete manufacture of the second of two solar panels for the FGB (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete and install solar arrays in FGB flight article (4th Qtr FY 1996)  

 
Flight 2A:  (December 1997)     Initial U.S. pressurized element, launched with PMA-1, PMA-2, and 2 stowage racks;  
  Node 1, Pressurized Mating    PMA-1 provides the interfaces between U.S. and Russian elements; 
  Adapters (PMA-1, PMA-2)       PMA-2 provides a Space Shuttle docking location 
				  Complete mechanical equipment installation into node structural test article (1st Qtr  
				    FY 1996) 
				  Complete node structural test article (STA) proof pressure/leak rate qualification testing 
				    (2nd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete node structural test article (STA) static flight loads testing (4th Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Begin engineering, fabrication, assembly, set-up and preparation for node STA modal survey  
				    test (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete procurement of hardware for construction of Node 1 flight article (2nd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete welding for Node 1 flight article (FA) primary structure (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete installation of mechanical equipment into Node 1 flight article primary structure  
				    (4th Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete design and fabrication of Node 1 FA external secondary structure (e.g. multilayer  
				    insulation) (3rd Qtr FY 1996)  
				  Begin final assembly and outfitting of all major components of Node 1 flight article (4th Qtr  
				    FY 1996) 
				  Complete pressurized mating adapter (PMA-1) design (4th Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete pressurized mating adapter (PMA-2) design (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 
 

Flight 3A:  (June 1998)         Z1 Truss allows temporary installation of the P6 photovoltaic module to node 1 
  Z1 Truss Segment,             for early U.S. based power;  KU-band and CMGs support early science capability; 
  Control Moment Gyros          PMA-3 provides a Space Shuttle docking location for the lab installation on flight 5A 
  (CMGs), PMA-3, KU-Band          Complete Z1 truss Critical Design Review (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Begin fabrication and assembly of Z1 truss (2nd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete design of control moment gyros (CMGs) (1st Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete fabrication and assembly of CMG qualification unit (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Begin build of CMG flight articles 1-4 (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  PMA-3 pressurized shell & secondary structure on-dock at McDonnell Douglas for tooling &  
				    fabrication (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 

 
Flight 4A:  (September 1998)    Establishes initial U.S. photovoltaic module based power capability; installed in a temporary 
  P6 Truss Segment,             location on top of the Z1 truss until flight 13A when it is permanently attached to the P5 
  Photovoltaic Array,           truss; includes 2 TCS radiators for early active thermal control 
  Thermal Control System (TCS)    Complete P6 truss segment (long spacer) qualification unit design (2nd Qtr FY 1996) 
  Radiators, S-Band               Begin fabrication and assembly of P6 truss segment qualification unit (4th Qtr FY 1996( 
				  Complete assembly of integrated electronics assembly (IEA) qualification unit (1st Qtr  
				    FY 1996) 
				  Complete mechanical installation and outfitting of IEA qualification unit (2nd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete IEA qualification unit hardware/software integration and functional testing 
				    (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Begin thermal vacuum testing of IEA qualification unit 
 

Flight 5A:  (November 1998)     Establishes initial U.S. user capability;  launches with 4 system racks preintegrated; 
  U.S. Laboratory,              KU-band and CMGs are activated 
  4 Lab System Racks              Begin laboratory common module STA qualification testing (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete development of lab flight article pressure vessel (4th Qtr FY 1996)  

 
Flight 6A:  (December 1998)     Adds U.S. lab outfitting with 1 stowage and 7 systems racks;  UHF antenna provides
  Mini-Pressurized Logistics    space-to-space communication capability for U.S. based EVA;  manifests Canadian SSRMS 
  Module (MPLM - Lab            needed to perform assembly operations on later flights 
  Outfitting), Canadian           Complete MPLM-1 flight article structure procurement (2nd Qtr FY 1996) 
  Remote Manipulator              Complete fabrication of MPLM-1 qualification unit (1st Qtr FY 1996) 
  System, UHF                     Begin fabrication and assembly of MPLM-1 flight article (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 

 
Non-Prime Development Activity 
 

Global Positioning System       Provides autonomous, real-time determination of Space Station's position, velocity, and attitude 
				of absolute time 
				  Complete Critical Design Review (4th Qtr FY 1996) 
 

Crew Health Care System         Provides crew health care system hardware included in the health maintenance system, 
				and the countermeasure system required to ensure crew health and safety 
				  Complete Critical Design Review (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete manufacture and assembly of qualification hardware (4th Qtr FY 1996) 

 
Flight Crew Systems             Provides flight and training hardware and provisions for food and food packaging development; 
				housekeeping management;  portable breathing apparatus;  commonality of decals and 
				placards 
				  Complete Critical Design Review (tools/diagnostics/housekeeping) (1st Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Complete production of qualification hardware (tools/diagnostics/housekeeping) (3rd Qtr  
				    FY 1996) 
				  Complete test and verification of qualification hardware (tools/diagnostics) (4th Qtr FY 1996) 

 
Joint Airlock Servicing         Provides flight servicing, performance unit, and certification unit, Russian space suit support 
And Performance Unit            hardware interface definition and documentation, test plans and reports, mockups, and  
				thermal analysis 
				  Complete Critical Design Review (2nd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Certification unit hardware delivered to Airlock Test Article (2nd Qtr FY 1996) 
 
 

 
Station Training Facility       Primary facility for space systems operations training and procedures verification 
(STF)                             Part task trainer ready for Flight 1A (4th Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Achieve Mission Control Center (MCC)/STF integrated operations capability (3rd Qtr  
				  FY 1996) 
 

Integrated Planning             Provides planning and analysis tools for pre-increment and real-time operations systems 
				(IPS) supporting trajectory/flight design, timelines, resource utilization, onboard systems, 
				performance analyses systems operation data file procedures and control, maintenance 
				operations, inventory and logistics planning, robotics analysis, procedures development 
				  Achieve First Element Launch capability (2nd Qtr FY 1996) 
 

Mission Control Center          Facility providing integrated command and control capabilities and support to real-time 
				increment operations 
				  Achieve capability for: ascent/entry; full Mir command/telemetry support; data 
				  record/playback; initial voice record/playback   (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 

 
Neutral Buoyancy                Provides training tank facility for neutral buoyancy training capability; current planning is 
Laboratory (NBL)                to initially lease and subsequently acquire the Clear Lake Development Facility to 
				house the NBL 
				  Complete training tank construction (3rd Qtr FY 1996) 
				  Joint occupancy for NASA outfitting (4th Qtr FY 1996) 

 
ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 

 
During FY 1994, the contractual arrangement with the three former prime contractors was realigned to create a single prime 
(Boeing), with full integration responsibility.  Subsequently, a major effort was devoted to implementation of this new management 
scheme.  A Request for Proposal (RFP) was released, based on the technical program baselined at the System Design Review in 
March 1994, and Boeing submitted a $7.4 billion proposal.  Extensive fact-finding activities were carried out with Boeing and each 
of the first tier subcontractors (McDonnell Douglas, Rocketdyne, and Boeing Huntsville).  Adjustments were made in program 
content and development approach, followed by contract negotiations with Boeing prime.  On August 31, a $6.2 billion "not-to-
exceed" handshake agreement was reached, and the contract definitization process has been underway since that time.  A final 
contract was signed January 13, 1995. 
 

In concert with this activity, the Space Station Program Office was staffed in Houston, with newly defined teams, functions, and 
interfaces.  Additionally, Utilization and Research Offices were formally established, to ensure user participation in all aspects of 
station planning and development. 
 
 
 
Additional contractual activity included:  

 
   -   Definitization of a contract with the Russian Space Agency 
   -   Entry into a contract with Lockheed for procurement of the Russian-built FGB 
   -   Award of contract to Rockwell for Space Shuttle external airlocks and modification kits 

 
These contractual activities are a reflection of the program changes related to incorporation of extensive Russian involvement in the 
international Space Station.  In FY 1994, a three phase program was formulated and negotiated with the Russians, to provide early 
research through utilization of the existing Mir Space Station (Phase I); early microgravity capability on the international Space 
Station using a combination of U.S., Canadian and Russian provided hardware (Phase II); assembly and operation of a six person 
permanently staffed research facility, with full international participation (Phase III).  During FY 1994 the technical configuration and 
requirements were established to accommodate Russian hardware and placement of the Space Station in a 51.6 degree orbit.  Study 
of, and modifications to U.S. elements and systems have been necessary to assure integration of hardware not originally designed for 
a 51.6 degree inclination or Russian interfaces. 

 
As a result of these changes, the program baselined a station configuration in the System Requirements Review, including a fourth 
photovoltaic array.  The assembly sequence was adjusted to reduce risk and provide early U.S. power.  A Program Execution Plan 
was put into place, and a Vehicle Architecture Review conducted, to assure that any cost reduction activities had no adverse effects 
on the technical design.   

 
Design, development and testing of hardware continued through FY 1994, including successful thermal vacuum testing of the beta 
gimbal assembly; completion of the first hatch subassembly; and welding of the aft cylinder common module structural test article, 
as well as the node structural test article bulkhead and radial docking port.  The first of two extravehicular activity mobility units 
were shipped from Hamilton Standard to the Johnson Space Center (JSC).  In addition, construction was completed on the Space 
Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). 

 
Activity in FY 1995 will result in a definitized contract with Boeing prime, followed by an Incremental Design Review (IDR) in the 
second quarter.  Negotiations will be completed with the Russian supplier of the FGB energy core in order to support the First 
Element Launch.  Development of the payload training capability at the JSC and physical integration capability at the KSC will be 
completed, in addition to the design of payload ground systems and facilities.  Node 1 qualification testing will start, and 
manufacture of the Node 1 flight article is scheduled to begin.  The laboratory engineering development article (EDA) will be 
completed, as will fabrication of the Space Station Airlock Test Article (SSATA).  Construction is planned to begin on the Neutral 
Buoyancy Laboratory, and delivery of docking module hardware is scheduled (mockups, experimental test unit and flight unit). 


In FY 1996, effort will continue to press toward First Element Launch in November 1997.  Manufacture and testing of flight 
hardware, preparation of operational capability, and construction of facilities will highlight development activities during the fiscal 
year.  As evidenced by the milestones listed in the Measures of Performance section, final fabrication and testing of flight hardware 
will be the focus, in order to meet the demands of the early assembly and utilization missions.  The first six U.S. flights referenced 
in that section complete Phase 2 of the three-phase program and establish the initial U.S. research capability for the utilization 
flights that will begin in the second quarter of FY 1999. 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 

 
						    UTILIZATION SUPPORT 
 

							    FY 1994             FY 1995            FY 1996 
									 (Thousands of Dollars) 

 
User support.....................................            21,000              28,300             67,900 


PROGRAM GOALS 
 

Utilization support provides and operates the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC)/United States Operations Center (USOC) 
user support facilities and the systems and capabilities necessary for user operations.  Following development of facilities and 
capabilities, utilization support will integrate user support and conduct user operations across NASA centers and with the 
international partners.  Using Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) existing capability, utilization support will provide streamlined 
and responsive payload operations support to users through a consolidated research and science control facility. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 

 
Consolidated utilization includes development of a payload operations integration capability and the Payload Training Complex as 
well as extensive payload mission planning, analytical integration, and the Payload Data Servicing System (PDSS).  The MSFC's 
unique express rack program provides an efficient payload integration capability for smaller payloads that require a limited amount 
of resources.  User support also includes outreach, express pallet program, and support equipment. 

 
User operations encompasses the payload functions from the initial definition of the payload for flight through the onboard 
operation and return of the data to the user.  Funding is provided for payload planning, development of operations documentation, 
training of the flight and ground teams and the execution of each mission to meet the needs of the users. 

 
For the redesigned Space Station, the payload integration process has been streamlined and shortened significantly.  Standardized 
payload accommodations and an express rack concept have been adopted to allow for later payload manifesting.  Real-time support 
has also been reduced, based on a flexible planning concept that allows for activity scheduling during the mission. 

 
The POIC and USOC are located in the MSFC Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) to aid in the streamlined payload 
process.  Space Station unique capabilities will augment the capabilities of the infrastructure which shall also provide support to 
Space Shuttle/Spacelab missions and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility.  Services and capabilities provided within the 
POIC/USOC shall include: communications, voice services, video services, data system services, and actual user facilities.   

 
Many of the functions of payload integration benefit the international partners.  Payload integration, training, and the POIC 
operations are all functions provided by the U.S. that are necessary for payloads to be integrated at the stationwide level. 


MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Complete Systems Requirements           The PDSS provides the data handling software and network needed to distribute data from  
Definition for Payload Data             the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) to users at the POIC/USOC and other  
Servicing System (PDSS) -               remote systems. 
2nd Qtr FY 1994 
 

Complete Operations Concept for         Performing payload operations for Space Shuttle and Space Station in the same facility allows  
Space Shuttle/Space Station             for more efficient and cost effective payload operations. 
operations in the HOSC -  
April 1994 

 
First TASP unit delivery -              Test & Simulation Processor (TASP) is used to verify the PDSS software in a real-time flight 
3rd QTR FY 1995                         simulated environment. 
 

Complete Phase 1 & 2 of the             POIC/USOC systems provide real-time support to Space Station payloads including: 
POIC/USOC integrated systems -          communication, voice, video, data systems, and facility services. 
3rd Qtr FY 1995 
(Final Phase 5 complete  
1st Qtr FY 1998) 
 

Complete PDSS Integration & Test -      The PDSS provides the data handling software and network needed to distribute data from  
4th Qtr FY 1996                         the TDRSS users at the POIC/USOC and other remote facilities. 
 

Receive first of four increments        Payload Information Management System (PIMS) provides online data system elements for 
for (PIMS) - 2nd Qtr FY 1996            reception, system (PIMS) software code/test recording and distribution of telemetry data to 
(Final build - 3rd Qtr FY 1998)         users and verification consoles and remote user facilities. 

 
Complete front end processor            The front end processor unit is a key element in the reception of data from TDRSS.  It converts 
build - 3rd Qtr FY 1996                 high rate data into usable low rate data. 

 
ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

FY 1994 marked the formal establishment of the Utilization Office.  Early in the process the Payload and Research Requirements 
were updated and implemented in the international Space Station program.  Additionally in FY 1994 the EXPRESS rack, which 
provides standard power and data communications interfaces for payloads, was transferred into flight hardware development and 
the ESA distributed operations concept was baselined.  The PDSS completed its system and detailed requirements definition and the 
POIC/USOC had completed preliminary system design and development. 

 
During FY 1995 PDSS development will continue with the first Test and Simulation Processor unit delivery in the 3rd quarter.  The 
POIC/USOC integrated system, which will be completed in five phases will complete phase I and phase II of development.  Also in FY 
1995, increment operations preparations and payload analytical integration began for the first utilization flights. 

 
Completion of the payload ground system and facilities design is planned for FY 1996.  As indicated in the Measures of Performance 
section above, activities begin to focus more on integration and test.  Key activities include qualification, fabrication and delivery of 
an EXPRESS rack to be flown on the Microgravity Science Lab.  Development and design of the payload training capability at the 
Johnson Space Center (JSC) and physical integration capability at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) will be completed during FY 
1996.  The PDSS design and development will be completed and integration and testing will begin.  Phase III and IV of the  
POIC/USOC system will be completed


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

						SPACE STATION OPERATIONS 

 
							   FY 1994             FY 1995         FY 1996 
									(Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Vehicle operations................................              --              40,100          50,800 
Ground and transportation operations..............              --              68,800         102,100 
 

	Total.....................................              --             108,900         152,900 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The first objective of the operations program is to provide for the safe, reliable, and sustained operation of the Space Station and the 
ground and transportation operations required to support the vehicle.  The second major goal is to perform the operations in a 
simplified and affordable manner.  Space Station operations will rely on the infrastructure developed for the Space Shuttle and the 
experience derived from the Space Shuttle-Mir program to develop efficient and effective operations.  Finally, operations will facilitate 
the transition of the various elements of development to the operations program.  
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

In order to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of operations, Vehicle Operations and Ground and Transportation operations 
planning will begin early in development. 
 

Vehicle operations will provide: post-development systems engineering and integration to sustain the specification performance and 
reliability of Space Station systems; logistics support for flight hardware and launch site ground support equipment; and 
configuration management and any associated procurement activity. 
 

Vehicle operations sustaining engineering will be performed by a small cadre of civil service system experts located at each 
development center, as opposed to carryover of prime contractor and subcontractor personnel.  Additionally, flight software 
sustaining engineering will be consolidated at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to allow all flight software to be handled under a 
single contract. 
 

Maintenance and repair costs have been minimized on the redesigned Space Station by accepting longer repair time spans, 
establishing a single maintenance and repair capability at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and using original equipment 
manufacturers or other certified industry repair resources. 
 

Ground operations will provide command and control, training, operations support and launch site processing.  A unified command 
and control center for the Space Station composed of the Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H) and the Mission Control Center 
(MCC)-Kaliningrad.  The MCC-H will be the prime site for the planning and execution of integrated system operations of the Space 
Station, with exclusive command and control authority.  Communication links from both Moscow and Houston will support control 
activities, using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) system. 
 

Flight controllers will be trained to operate the Space Station as a single integrated vehicle, with full systems capability in the 
training environment.  Crew members will be trained in Space Station systems, operations, and other activities expected during a 
mission.  Part-task and full hardware mockups and simulators will be used to provide adequate training for the crew prior to flight.  
Integrated training, consolidation of training facilities and the concept of proficiency based learning will increase the efficiency of the 
overall training effort. 
 

Operations support will provide analysis supporting systems definition, development, and implementation to ensure a safe and 
operationally viable vehicle is delivered and can be maintained.  Functions include the following:  vehicle design participation and 
assessment, operations product development, ground facility requirements and test support, ground display and limited 
applications development, resource planning, crew systems and maintenance, extravehicular activity (EVA) and photo/TV training, 
operations safety assessments, medical operations tasks, mission execution and systems performance assessment, and sustaining 
engineering. 
 

Launch site processing will begin at the KSC after the flight cargo elements have undergone acceptance testing at the development 
location.  Processing includes integrated testing, interface verification, servicing, launch activities and experiment-to-rack physical 
integration.  Because Space Station is a ten-year operational program, no major upgrades to facility systems and equipment are 
being planned. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Issue first multi-increment             Provides the basis for all planning of assembly and utilization flights. 
manifest - December 1995 
 

Publish FY 1996 operations              A comprehensive plan for all operations activities necessary to support the Space Station first 
summary - June 1995                     element launch (FEL) and follow-on flights. 
 

Baseline bilateral NASA-RSA             Details the roles and responsibilities NASA and RSA will perform during Space Station  
Operations Implementation Plan -        operations. 
August 1995 
 

Complete Integrated Planning            The specific software that enables on time delivery of the initial station element at KSC. 
System for First Element Launch - 
March 1996  


Complete MCC-H/SSTF Integrated          Supports the training schedule required to train ground crews for real-time operations of the 
Operations Training Capability -        Space Station Vehicle. 
May 1996 
 

Part Task training capability           Required 18 months prior to flight for real-time operations training. 
for U.S. flights 1A to 4A - 
July 1996 
 

Demonstrate MCC-H full Mir              Real-time validation of the MCC-H command and telemetry capability necessary for the  
command and telemetry support           support of the Space Station flight vehicle. 
capability - July 1996 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Although no operations funding was expended in FY 1994, the Space Station Operations Program Office was established.  Teams, 
functions and interfaces were defined.  A basic concept for operations was developed based on the NASA Operations Phase 
Assessment Team and the Concept of Operations and Utilization (COU), which is the formal document that provides top level source 
information on how international Space Station operates, was baselined with all partners except Russia.  Negotiations regarding 
Space Station command and control with the Russians were begun. 
 

At the beginning of FY 1995,  the Phase I operations strategy was completed.  Throughout the fiscal year operations will provide 
support to station design and development teams to ensure safe and cost-effective operability of the Space Station.  The MCC-H will 
provide support to the May 1995 docking mission to Mir in the special vehicle operations room.  The Space Station Training Facility 
(SSTF) will have almost complete capability for full and part-task training.  It will be able to provide full-up MCC-H flight controller 
training and integrated ground crew training.  Logistics and maintenance activities include provision of vehicle design evaluation in 
conjunction with the IDR-1 to ensure supportability during the operational time frame.  Spares requirements and maintenance 
procedures will also be developed. 
 

In FY 1996, funding will support the MCC-H with ascent/entry capability, full Mir command and telemetry support capability, and 
data/voice record and playback capability.  The integrated planning system will begin planning for first element launch and the 
SSTF will also begin part task training for the U.S. lab.  Before the end of FY 1996, the MCC-H and the SSTF will begin Integrated 
Operations Training which will provide crucial training for real-time Space Station operations.  Supply support, transportation 
support, and site facilities support infrastructure required for spaces and repairs will be provided in preparation of major buys that 
will begin in FY 1997.  Additionally, long lead spare items such as electronic, and electro-mechanical (EEE) parts will be purchased 
to support orbital replaceable unit (ORU) spares.
	





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