HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT 
 
 
                              FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 
 
                                    BUDGET SUMMARY 
 
 

OFFICE OF SPACE FLIGHT	                                  U.S./RUSSIAN COOPERATIVE PROGRAM 
	 

                            SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS 
 
	                                                                             

	                                     FY 1994      FY 1995      FY 1996      
	(Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Russian space agency contract support	     100,000      100,000      100,000       
Mir support		                      70,800	   50,100       29,200      
 

	Total		                     170,800      150,100      129,200 
 

Distribution of Program Amount by Installation 
 

Johnson Space Center		              62,000       40,500       28,300 
Space Station Program Office                 100,000      100,000      100,000 
Kennedy Space Center                           2,000        4,300          300 
Marshall Space Flight Center                   6,800        5,300          600 
 

	Total                                170,800      150,100      129,200 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The United States and the Russian federation have begun a joint cooperative space program to accomplish six major goals.  First, 
the program will permit us to develop, maintain, and enhance capabilities and operations to allow humans to live and work 
continuously in space.  Second, by establishing a relationship with Russia as an international partner for the human exploration 
and exploitation of space, the United States can reduce the cost of future U.S. space initiatives by applying Russian-developed 
technology.  Third, by flying Space Shuttle missions to the Russian Mir, the United States can enhance its understanding of long-
duration operations, along with life sciences and microgravity research benefits from long-duration experimentation.  Fourth, early 
cooperation with the Russians will permit us to develop common systems and operating procedures which will increase the 
probability of success and mitigate risks in the design, assembly, and operation of the international Space Station in which they are 
a full partner.  Fifth, by engaging Russia in constructive space work, the United States can advance its foreign policy initiatives.  
Finally, this relationship between the U.S. and Russian space agencies will advance U.S. national space programs as well as U.S. 
aerospace industry. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The two major activities comprising the U.S./Russian cooperative program include conducting joint space activities with Russia with 
the Mir space station and the contract with the Russian Space Agency (RSA) which will provide services and hardware for Phase I 
and Phase II of the Space Station program. 
 

Parts of Phase I and Phase II are conducted in parallel.  Phase I expands the joint participation by U.S. and Russian crews in Mir 
and Space Shuttle operations.  This expanded program uses the unique capabilities of the Space Shuttle and the Mir and provides 
the potential for up to ten flights to Mir, including U.S. crew stays aboard Mir.  Current NASA planning manifests seven Space 
Shuttle flights to Mir.  This program will provide valuable experience and test data that will greatly reduce technical risks associated 
with the construction and operation of the international Space Station and provide early opportunities for extended scientific and 
research activities.  Mir capabilities will be enhanced by contributions from both countries.  The Space Shuttle will bring new solar 
arrays, which will be built by the Russians, using solar cells provided by the U.S. which will replace existing arrays on Mir.  Russia 
will add Spektr and Priroda modules to Mir, equipped with U.S. and Russian scientific hardware to support science and research 
experiments. 
 

Phase II combines U.S. and Russian hardware to create an advanced orbital research facility with early human-tended capability.  
This facility will expand significantly the scientific and research activities initiated in Phase I, and will form the core of the 
international Space Station.  Phase II also develops the systems capabilities, support, and other infrastructure to complete the 
international Space Station.   
 

Russian Space Agency Contract Support 
 

Under a fixed-price contractual arrangement with NASA, the RSA will furnish supplies and/or services to enhance Mir operational 
capabilities, perform joint space flights, and conduct joint activities to design, develop, operate, and use the Space Station.   
 

During Phase I, which encompasses those activities related to the Space Shuttle flights to Mir, the RSA will provide management, 
Mir lifetime extension, Mir capabilities expansion, docking hardware and mission support for both long-duration and short-term 
missions.  Management activities include project documentation, and program and subcontract management.  Mir lifetime extension 
includes system requirements planning, communication and control systems analyses and upgrades, ground control facilities, 
thermal control documentation and requirements definition, environmentally-closed life support system (ECLSS) upgrades, power 
supply system upgrades, propulsion systems documentation and initial design and test, and elements of construction and 
mechanisms.  To expand Mir capabilities, Spektr and Priroda modules will be attached to the Mir for scientific use by Russia and 
the U.S. 
 

Phase II combines U.S. and Russian hardware creating an advanced orbital research facility which enables early permanent human 
presence.  This facility forms the core of the international Space Station.  During this phase, the RSA will provide management, 
advanced technology, international Space Station elements, and an evaluation of using the Proton launch vehicle with a transfer 
vehicle such as the Russian-built Space Tug as a back-up to Space Shuttle.  Advanced technology includes joint development of 
ECLSS upgrades and a study to develop a common space suit.  International Space Station elements include requirements 
definition of a joint airlock and androgynous peripheral docking system (APDS) hardware, service module modifications, FGB energy 
block modifications, and a study on a scientific power platform. 
 

Mir Support 
 

Successful execution of Space Shuttle flights to the Russian Mir space station will pave the way for Russian participation in the 
U.S.-led international Space Station.  From mid-FY 1995 through late FY 1997, NASA will fly seven missions to the Mir with the 
potential of up to three additional flights.  The primary objectives of these flights are to rendezvous and dock with the Mir, perform 
on-orbit joint U.S./Russian life sciences and microgravity investigations, resupply Mir logistics, and provide crew exchange.   The 
first of these flights will employ a Spacelab long module to support experiment transport and operation, as well as the transport of 
Mir hardware.  Four other flights will require pressurized habitable modules to transport Russian logistics items, NASA and Russian 
science and technology payloads, and international Space Station risk mitigation payloads to Mir.  These modules will be supplied 
by Spacehab, Inc.     
 

By its very nature, the U.S./Russian Cooperative program relies on support from the Russian government and Russian industry to 
be successful.   The Russian government is making a substantial effort in the success of this mission by providing access to their 
Mir Space Station, providing training for our astronauts, and working with NASA to develop joint operational procedures.  By 
contributing their expertise in long-duration missions gained through many years of Mir operations, and assisting NASA in the 
development and test of procedures used to rendezvous and dock with the Mir, they are strengthening NASA's ability to assemble 
safely and efficiently, operate and use the Space Station.  Under the aegis of the contract with NASA, the RSA will loan several items 
for use during Phase I.  These items include two Russian solar panels, a solar panel frame prototype, solar array ground support 
equipment (GSE), docking mechanism GSE and short-term mission crew training mockups.  During Phase II, the RSA will loan two 
space suit servicing and support equipment sets. 
 

Major contractors involved in the U.S./Russian Cooperative program include the RSA, the RSC-Energia, Krunichev, the Gagarin 
Cosmonaut Training Center, Rockwell International, and Spacehab, Inc.    
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

For this cooperative program, the level of performance will be measured by clearly defined, discrete results including successful 
docking and undocking of the Space Shuttle and Mir,  successful joint operations between the Space Shuttle and Mir, exchange of 
crew, and delivery of both pressurized and unpressurized cargo.  The success of the extensive science program will be measured by 
accomplishing many detailed test objectives, and the post-mission analysis of the science data.  However, the most important and 
meaningful indicator of success will be completing a joint mission with our Russian partners, demonstrating our ability to work 
together in space safely and effectively, and laying the foundation for the unprecedented scope of our joint endeavor in building and 
operating the international Space Station. 
 

The following events represent significant milestones in the successful completion of the U.S.- Russian Cooperative program: 
 

Russian Space Agency Contract Support: 
 

Delivery of hardware for U.S.	Design, fabrication, and test of hardware for Spektr launch of U.S. experiments 
experiments on Spektr -  
1st Qtr FY 1995 
 

Delivery of docking mechanism	Docking mechanism to support flights to Mir 
3rd Qtr FY 1995 
 

Delivery of hardware for U.S.	Design, fabrication, test and installation of hardware for Priroda launch with U.S. experiments 
experiments on Priroda -  
4th Qtr FY 1995 
 

Launch of U.S. experiments	Priroda launch will carry additional U.S. science and equipment 
on Priroda - 4th Qtr FY 1995 
 

Delivery of airlock depress/	Delivery of flight article 
repress pump assembly - 
3rd Qtr FY 1996 
 

Delivery of passive docking	Delivery of three passive docking mechanisms, associated avionics, control panels and 
mechanisms -	                documentation to support Phase II Space Shuttle flights to the international Space Station 
3rd and 4th Qtrs FY 1996 
 

Delivery of docking mechanisms	Delivery of four docking mechanisms for Space Shuttle flights to Space Station with three sets 
2nd, 3rd,  and 4th Qtr FY 1997 	of associated avionics 
and 1st Qtr FY 1998 
 

Mir Support: 
 

Progress launch to Mir -	Progress launch to Mir will carry U.S. science experiments  
2nd Qtr FY 1995 
 
 

Astronaut launch on Soyuz -	American astronaut will be launched on Soyuz to perform science investigations 
2nd Qtr FY 1995 
 

Spektr module launch to Mir -	Spektr launch will carry additional U.S. science experiments and equipment 
3rd Qtr FY 1995 
 

Space Shuttle docking to Mir -	STS-71 rendezvous and first docking flight to Mir with crew exchange 
3rd Qtr FY 1995 
 

Complete Spacehab primary 	Spacehab, Inc. will complete manufacture of the primary structure for use on STS-76 and 
structure - 4th Qtr FY 1995	STS-79 
 

Docking module delivery to Mir -STS-74 will deliver a new docking module to Mir allowing the Space Shuttle to dock to a more 
1st Qtr FY 1996	                favorable port 
 

Joint EVA spacewalk on Mir -	Perform a joint U.S./Russian spacewalk to validate and demonstrate assembly techniques 
4th Qtr FY 1996	                for the international Space Station 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Russian Space Agency Contract Support 
 

NASA and the RSA definitized their contract in June 1994.  During FY 1994, the RSA achieved 47 milestones.  These deliverables 
included the solar dynamics data package, the FGB energy block procurement plan and long-lead procurement plan, flight array 
fabrication (stage 1), and stage 1 tooling for the manufacturing of the docking module.  Deliverables anticipated in FY 1995 include 
the FGB energy block structural mockup, photovoltaic arrays with associated frames, cabling, and deploy/attach mechanisms, the 
docking module flight unit, the docking module electrical mockup, the docking module weightless environment training facility 
(WETF) mockup, the docking module experimental test unit, and the docking mechanism for Space Shuttle flights to Mir.  In  
FY 1996, the RSA or its subcontractors will deliver the solar dynamics qualification carrier and instrument module, the solar 
dynamics module qualification unit, and the solar dynamics verification GSE including training hardware.  In addition, NASA will 
receive three passive docking mechanisms. 
 

Mir Support  
 

In preparation for STS-71 in May 1995, in which the Space Shuttle Atlantis (OV-104) will dock with the Mir, qualification testing for 
the external airlock was conducted in May 1994.  The external airlock developed by Rockwell will provide the passage needed for the 
astronauts to enter the Mir; it also provides the attachment point for the docking mechanism.  Also in preparation for docking with 
Mir, Rockwell took delivery of the Russian Flight Article Docking Mechanism in September 1994.  The docking mechanism was 
integrated to the docking base and structure, tested, and accepted by NASA early in FY 1995.   Other FY 1994 accomplishments 
included the first flight of a Russian cosmonaut on the Space Shuttle and the first delivery of American science payloads to Mir.   
 

In February 1995, the crew of STS-63 will perform a rendezvous with and fly-around of the Mir.  This flight will set the stage for 
STS-71 which will be the first of seven docking flights scheduled over the next three years.  The STS-63 will also prepare for the 
flight of two cosmonauts on STS-71 by including one cosmonaut in its crew.   
 

In March 1995, an American astronaut will be launched in a Russian Soyuz capsule to spend ninety days aboard the Mir.  At the 
end of the ninety days, the STS-71 mission will dock to the Mir, deliver new crew members to the Mir, and bring back the American 
astronaut who was launched in the Russian Soyuz capsule.  Docking with the Mir on STS-71 will require use of a special Orbiter 
Docking System which incorporates the docking mechanism which was developed by Russia for this flight.  The design and 
fabrication of the docking mechanism has been thoroughly analyzed to ensure that its usage on a Space Shuttle mission will not 
endanger the crew or vehicle.  During the docked phase of the flight, a number of joint scientific experiments will be performed 
using Mir and Space Shuttle-Spacelab equipment. 
 

For STS-71, the primary objectives are to rendezvous and dock with the Mir, perform on-orbit, joint U.S./Russian life sciences and 
microgravity investigations, logistical re-supply of the Mir, return of the U.S. astronaut flying on the Mir, and the replacement of the 
Mir crew with two new cosmonauts.  The life science and logistical resupply objectives will be met through the use of a Spacelab 
long module.  Major experiments include the Baroreflex Experiment, the Lower Body Negative Pressure Experiment, the Graded 
Exercise Equipment, and the Protein Crystal Growth Experiment.  Physiological, metabolic, and environmental data will also be 
collected.  Transfer of Mir logistical hardware from the Spacelab to the Mir will also provide experience which will be very valuable in 
the transfer of U.S. experiment hardware to and from Mir on subsequent flights, and in using the international Space Station.  Use 
of a Spacelab module on this important mission, and Spacelab pallets on subsequent missions to support the delivery of 
unpressurized cargo, provides a high probability of success since this hardware has been flight-proven many times over.  Integration 
of the hardware required for this mission into the Spacelab, and then into the orbiter, is being accomplished according to well-
proven procedures and equipment. 
 

For the four missions which require pressurized habitable modules, NASA will be using modules provided by Spacehab, Inc.  NASA 
is currently leasing two of Spacehab's pressurized modules under the Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module contract, which 
also provides integration and operation services.  Spacehab, Inc. is the only commercial source with flight-certified modules capable 
of providing the required hardware and related services within the time required to support the NASA-Mir program.  NASA intends 
to contract with Spacehab, Inc. for lease, integration and operations of modules for delivery of logistics and other equipment to Mir.  
To meet the STS-76 launch date which is a single module mission, payload integration activities began in November 1994.  Design 
modifications to develop a double module capability to support STS-79 also began in November 1994.  On November 17, 1994, a 
letter contract was signed with Spacehab, Inc. to initiate these activities.  NASA anticipates receiving a proposal from Spacehab, Inc. 
in January 1995 with a formal contract being awarded by mid-March 1995. 
 

In October 1995, the STS-74 mission will deliver a new docking module to Mir to allow Space Shuttles to dock in a more favorable 
position on the Mir.  Two Space Shuttle missions will be flown to Mir in FY 1996.  On the last FY 1996 Space Shuttle-Mir mission, 
U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts will perform a joint spacewalk to validate and demonstrate assembly techniques for the 
international Space Station. 
 

FY 1996 funding for Spacehab will provide for initiation of integration support for the manifested logistics and equipment for 
delivery to Mir.  Three more Space Shuttle-Mir missions will be performed in FY 1997.  An option is being maintained to fly up to 
three additional Space Shuttle-Mir missions should they become necessary. 




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