HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT 
 

                                   FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 

                                        BUDGET SUMMARY 
 

OFFICE OF SPACE FLIGHT	                                              SPACE SHUTTLE 
 
                                                                                       

                                     FY 1994          FY 1995          FY 1996        
                                               (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Shuttle operations		   2,549,000        2,415,297        2,394,800         
Safety and performance upgrades    1,009,700          739,800          837,000       
 

	Total                      3,558,700        3,155,097        3,231,800 
 

Distribution of Program Amount by Installation 
 

Johnson Space Center               1,033,900          869,500          959,700 
Kennedy Space Center                 929,400          835,000          808,800 
Marshall Space Flight Center       1,520,000        1,351,597        1,378,100 
Stennis Space Center                  37,100           49,400           44,000 
Dryden Flight Research Center          5,700            6,100            5,600 
Goddard Space Flight Center              300                0                0 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory                100                0                0 
Headquarters                          32,200           43,500           35,600 
 

	Total                      3,558,700        3,155,097        3,231,800 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The primary objective of the Space Shuttle program is to support NASA launch requirements while maintaining the essential 
program focus on safety and mission success, demonstrated since the Space Shuttle's return to flight, and expanding existing safety 
margins.  Because of its unique capabilities, the Space Shuttle remains a key element of America's space program.  The Space 
Shuttle is the first reusable space vehicle and can be configured to carry many different types of space apparatus, spacecraft, and 
scientific experiments.  The Space Shuttle will serve as the primary transportation vehicle for assembling and operating with the 
international Space Station.  In addition to transporting material, equipment, and spacecraft to orbit, the Space Shuttle offers 
unique capabilities such as retrieving payloads from orbit for re-use, servicing and repairing satellites and observatories in space, as 
was demonstrated with the successful repair of the Hubble Space Telescope, safely transporting humans to and from space and 
operating and returning space laboratories. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The FY 1996 budget for the Space Shuttle program provides for a program which will continue to improve safety margins, fly the 
established manifest, launch seven flights every year, provide a vehicle that must undergo significant modifications to operate with 
the international Space Station, and continue to reduce costs.   
 

The budget structure of the Space Shuttle program consists of two major components:  Space Shuttle Operations, and Safety and 
Performance Upgrades.  Shuttle Operations supports the launch of NASA missions and is the primary program in which efficiencies 
have been implemented thereby significantly reducing the operational cost of flying the Space Shuttle.  When measured from the 
program's FY 1992 actual budget, a 23% reduction will be realized with the FY 1996 budget.  The Space Shuttle launch schedule 
plans for an annual flight rate of seven from FY 1995 through FY 2000.  Safety and Performance Upgrades provides for 
modifications and improvements to the flight elements and ground facilities, including expansion of safety and operating margins 
and enhancement of Space Shuttle capabilities as well as the replacement of obsolete systems.  In addition, this budget includes 
funding for facilities related to the Space Shuttle.  In FY 1995 and FY 1996, selected facilities at the Johnson Space Center, the 
Kennedy Space Center, and the Stennis Space Center will be modified, refurbished and restored to acceptable conditions to improve 
their performance.   
 

Safety modifications, such as upgrades to the main engine that significantly improve the Space Shuttle vehicle's overall safety, will 
achieve significant milestones in FY 1995 with first flight of the High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump and Single Coil Heat Exchanger.  
Development of performance enhancements will provide increased payload lift capability for operating with the higher inclination 
required by the Space Station; and, obsolescence and environmental considerations must be dealt with as operations continue.  
However, the program is acutely aware that providing reliable access to space must be more cost-effective.  Major cost reduction 
measures which have been underway since FY 1992 must continue as the program concentrates on becoming more efficient and 
effective.  New approaches in procurement, organizational changes, and investments in new hardware efficiencies are being 
examined and implemented where contributions are evident.  Space Shuttle functional workforce reviews initiated in early FY 1995 
are specifically examining the Space Shuttle's total workforce, in detail, to identify areas where changes to Space Shuttle program 
requirements, plans or operations approach can lead to cost savings while safely supporting seven flights per year.  NASA has also 
reviewed and updated the Space Shuttle pricing policy using data from the current budget submission.  NASA and the Office of 
Management and Budget (OMB) have agreed that the Space Shuttle flight price would be based on recovery of average Space Shuttle 
operating costs, which includes a portion of recurring safety and performance upgrades.   NASA is currently coordinating this flight 
price update with its international Space Station partners.    
 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                         SHUTTLE OPERATIONS 
 

	                                  FY 1994          FY 1995          FY 1996 
	                                           (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Orbiter and integration                   586,900          528,200          504,900 
	(Orbiter)                        (387,900)        (359,800)        (352,700) 
	(System integration)             (199.000)        (168,400)        (152,200) 
Propulsion                                996,000        1,006,997          993,200 
	(External tank)                  (252,200)        (329,600)        (328,000) 
	(Space shuttle main engine)      (189,200)        (149,200)        (145,600) 
	(Redesigned solid rocket motor)  (396,400)        (365,997)        (355,400) 
	(Solid rocket booster)		 (158,200)        (162,200)        (164,200) 
Mission and launch operations             966,100          880,100          896,700 
	(Launch and landing operations)	 (650,100)        (626,400)        (612,100) 
	(Mission and crew operations)    (316,000)        (253,700)        (284,600) 
 

	Total                           2,549,000        2,415,297        2,394,800 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goal of Shuttle Operations is to provide safe, reliable, and cost-effective access to space.  Space Shuttle operations are  
manifested at a planned rate of seven flights per year from FY 1995 through FY 2000.  
 

The Space Shuttle program is aggressively continuing to significantly reduce the cost of operations.  Since FY 1992, cost reduction 
efforts have been successful in identifying and implementing program efficiencies and specific content reductions.  Space Shuttle 
project offices and contractors have been challenged to meet reduced budget targets.   
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Space Shuttle program provides launch services to a diversity of customers, supporting payloads that range from small hand-
held experiments to large laboratories.  While many missions are devoted to NASA-sponsored payloads, wide participation is 
exercised by industry, partnerships and corporations, academia and other national and international agencies.  Both NASA and the 
U.S. scientific community are beneficiaries of this approach.  The Space Shuttle is a domestically and internationally desired 
research facility because of its unique ability to provide on-orbit crew operations, rendezvous/retrieval, and payload provisions, such 
as power, telemetry, pointing and active cooling to payloads. 
 

The Space Shuttle has numerous cooperative and reimbursable payloads involving many countries and international agencies.  
Examples of international participation which the Space Shuttle is uniquely suited to support include: 
 

-	the November 1994 launch of the German-built cooperative, Crista-SPAS 
-	the retrieval of the Japanese space flyer unit in late 1995  
-	the reflight of the Italian tethered satellite system in early 1996 
-	the flight of the CRISTA-SPAS free-flying payload, equipped with an international cargo of science instruments in  
  	mid-1997. 
 

The Space Shuttle program is also integral to the domestic commercial development of space, providing flight opportunities to 
NASA's Centers for Commercial Development of Space.  These non-profit consortia of industry, academia, and government were 
created to conduct commercially applied research activities by encouraging industry involvement leading to new products and 
services through the access to the space environment.  Over 50 payloads with numerous experiments have been developed through 
these consortia and are scheduled for flight in FY 1995. 
 

Cooperative activities with the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of Defense 
and other U.S. agencies are advancing knowledge on human health, medicine, science, and technology.  Space Shuttle support for 
the flight of Neurolab in 1998, a major cooperative NASA-NIH program, is a prime example. 
 

Orbiter and Integration 
 

The Orbiter program element consists of the following items and activities: 
 

(1)     Orbiter spares for the replenishment of line replacement units (LRUs) and shop replacement units (SRUs) along with the 
        workforce required to support the orbiter logistics program; 
 

(2)     Production of external tank (ET) disconnect hardware; 
 

(3)     Flight crew equipment processing as well as flight crew equipment spares and maintenance, including hardware to support 
        Space Shuttle Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA);  
 

(4)     Various orbiter support hardware items such as pyrotechnic-initiated controllers (PICS), NASA standard initiators (NSIs), 
        and overhauls and repairs associated with the Remote Manipulator System (RMS); and    
 

(5)     The sustaining engineering associated with the orbiter vehicles is now included in this budget element.  
 

The major contractors in this activity are Rockwell International, for logistics, external tank disconnects and sustaining engineering; 
and Hamilton-Standard, for flight crew equipment processing.    
 

System Integration includes those elements managed by the Space Shuttle Program Office, including payload integration into the 
Space Shuttle and systems integration of the flight hardware elements through all phases of flight.  Payload integration provides for 
the engineering analysis needed to ensure that various payloads can be assembled and integrated to form a viable and safe cargo for 
each Space Shuttle mission.  Systems integration includes the necessary mechanical, aerodynamic, and avionics engineering tasks 
to ensure that the entire launch vehicle can be safely launched, fly a safe ascent trajectory, achieve planned performance, and 
descend to a safe landing.  In addition, funds are provided for multi-program support at the Johnson Space Center (JSC).  Rockwell 
International, Space Division, is the major contractor for this function. 
 

Propulsion 
 

External tanks are produced by Martin-Marietta Corporation in the Government-Owned/Contractor-Operated (GOCO) facility near 
New Orleans, LA.  This activity involves the following: 
 

(1)     Procurement of materials and components from vendors;  
 

(2)     Engineering and manufacturing personnel; 
 

(3)     Support personnel and other costs to operate the GOCO facility; and  
 

(4)     Sustaining engineering for flight support and anomaly resolution. 
 

The program will begin delivering super lightweight tanks in support of the performance enhancement goal required by the Space 
Station in FY 1997.  Only recurring costs associated with the Super Lightweight Tank are included in this account.  Non-recurring 
costs are accounted for in the Safety and Performance Upgrades budget. 
 

The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) operations budget provides for overhaul and repair of main engine components, 
procurement of main engine spare parts, and main engine flight support and anomaly resolution.  In addition, this budget includes 
funding to the Department of Defense for Defense Contract Auditing Service (DCAS) support in the quality assurance and inspection 
of Space Shuttle hardware.  This also provides funds for transportation and logistics costs in support of SSME flight operations.  
Rocketdyne, a division of Rockwell International Corporation, provides the engines for flight and, Pratt-Whitney will begin providing 
an upgraded Alternate Turbopump (ATP) for flight in FY 1995.   
 

The first milestone for implementing the ATP is the flight of the High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP) with the single coil heat 
exchanger and phase 2+ powerhead as a "Block I" configuration in FY 1995.  The Block II configuration will combine the High 
Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) with the Large Throat Main Combustion Chamber (LTMCC) in FY 1997.  Completion of this block 
change will significantly increase the main engine's operating safety margins, and as a result improve the overall Space Shuttle 
vehicle safety. 
 
 

The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) program supports: 
 

(1)     Procurement of hardware and materials needed to support the flight schedule; 
 

(2)     Work at various locations throughout the country for the repair of flown components; 
 

(3)     Workforce at the prime contractor facility for integration of both used and new components into a forward and an aft 
        assembly; and  
 

(4)     Sustaining engineering for flight support. 
 

The USBI, Inc. of Huntsville, AL, is the prime contractor on the SRB and conducts SRB retrieval, refurbishment and processing at 
the KSC. 
 

The Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) budget includes: 
 

(1)     Purchase of solid rocket propellant and other materials to manufacture motors; 
 

(2)     Workforce to repair and refurbish flown rocket case segments, assemble individual case segments into casting segments 
        and other production operations including shipment to the launch site;  
 

(3)     Engineering personnel required for flight support and anomaly resolution; and 
 

(4)     New hardware to support the flight schedule required as a result of attrition. 
 

Thiokol of Brigham City, Utah is the prime contractor for this effort. 
 

Mission and Launch Operations 
 

Launch and Landing Operations provides the workforce and materials to process and prepare the Space Shuttle flight hardware 
elements for launch as they flow through the processing facilities at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC).  This category also funds 
standard processing and preparation of payloads as they are integrated into the Orbiter, as well as procurement of liquid propellants 
and gases for launch and base support.  It also provides for support to landing operations at KSC, Edwards Air Force Base and 
contingency sites, as required. 
 

Operation of the launch and landing facilities and equipment at KSC involves refurbishing the Orbiter, stacking and mating of the 
flight hardware elements into a launch vehicle configuration, verifying the launch configuration, and operating the launch 
processing system prior to lift-off.  Launch operations also provides for booster retrieval operations, configuration control, logistics, 
transportation, inventory management, and other launch support services.  This element also provide funds for: 


(1)     Maintaining and repairing the central data subsystem, which supports Space Shuttle processing as an on-line element of 
        the launch processing system; 
 

(2)     Space Shuttle-related data management functions such as work control and test procedures; 
 

(3)     Purchase of equipment, supplies and services; and 
 

(4)     Operations support functions including propellant processing, life support systems maintenance, railroad maintenance, 
        pressure vessel certification, Space Shuttle landing facility upkeep, range support, and equipment modifications. 
 

Mission and Crew Operations includes a wide variety of pre-flight planning, crew training, operations control activities, flight crew 
operations support, aircraft maintenance and operations, and life sciences operations support.  The planning activities range from 
the development of operational concepts and techniques to the creation of detailed systems operational procedures and checklists.  
Tasks include: 
 

(1)     Flight planning;  
 

(2)     Preparing systems and software handbooks;  
 

(3)     Defining flight rules;  
 

(4)     Creating detailed crew activity plans and procedures;  
 

(5)     Updating network system requirements for each flight; and  
 

(6)     Contributing to planning for the selection and operation of Space Shuttle payloads.  
 

Also included are developing, upgrading and establishing the Mission Control Center (MCC), Integrated Training Facility (ITF), 
Integrated Planning System (IPS), and the Software Production Facility (SPF).  These four facilities integrate the mission operations 
requirements for both the Space Shuttle and Space Station.  Flight planning encompasses flight design, flight analysis, and software 
activities.  Both conceptual and operational flight profiles are designed for each flight, and the designers also help to develop crew 
training simulations and flight techniques.  In addition, the flight designers must develop unique, flight-dependent data for each 
mission.  The data is stored in erasable memories located in the orbiter, ITF Space Shuttle mission simulators, and MCC computer 
systems.  Mission operations funding also provides for the maintenance and operation of critical mission support facilities including 
the MCC, ITF, IPS and SPF.  Finally, Mission and Crew Operations includes maintenance and operations of aircraft needed for flight 
training and crew proficiency requirements.  Other support requirements are also provided for in this budget, including engineering 
tasks at JSC which support flight software development and verification.  The software activities include development, formulation, 
and verification of the guidance, targeting, and navigation systems software in the orbiter. Shuttle Operations requirements are met 
through a combination of funds received from Congressional appropriations and reimbursements received from customers whose 
payloads are manifested on the Space Shuttle.  The reimbursements are applied consistent with the receipt of funds and mission 
lead times, and are subject to revision as changes to the manifest occur.  The  
FY 1995 planned reimbursements total $30.5 million.  
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Space Shuttle Missions and Primary Payloads 
 

FY 1994 
STS-58/Columbia       Space Life Sciences Laboratory-2 (SLS-2)                      October 1993 
STS-61/Endeavour      Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (HST SM-01)          December 1993 
STS-60/Discovery      Spacehab-2/Wake Shield Facility-1 (WSF-1)                     February 1994 
STS-62/Columbia	      United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2)                   March 1994 
STS-59/Endeavour      Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-1)                                April 1994 
STS-65/Columbia       International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2)                 July 1994 
STS-64/Discovery      Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE-1)                 September 1994 
STS-68/Endeavour      Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-2)                                September 1994 
 

FY 1995 
STS-66/Atlantis       Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) October 1994 
STS-63/Discovery      Spacehab-3                                                    February 1995 
STS-67/Endeavour      Astronomy (ASTRO-2)                                           March 1995 
STS-71/Atlantis	      Russian Space Station Mir (Mir-1)                             May 1995 
STS-70/Discovery      TDRS-G Satellite Deployment                                   June 1995 
STS-69/Endeavour      Wake Shield Facility-2 (WSF-2)                                July 1995 
STS-73/Columbia	      United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2)                September 1995 
 

FY 1996 
STS-74/Atlantis       Russian Space Station Mir(Mir-2)                              October 1995 
STS-72/Endeavour      SFU Retrieval/OAST-Flyer Deployment                           November 1995 
STS-75/Columbia	      Tether Satellite System Reflight (TSS-1R)/USMP-3              February 1996 
STS-76/Atlantis       Russian Space Station Mir (Mir-3)	                            March 1996 
STS-77/Endeavour      Spacehab-4                                                    April 1996 
STS-78/Columbia       Life/Microgravity Sciences (LMS-1)                            June 1996 
STS-79/Atlantis	      Russian Space Station Mir (Mir-4)                             August 1996 



                                                    FY 1994       FY 1995      FY 1996 
 

Number of Space Shuttle Flights                           8             7            7 
Shuttle Operations Workforce (Prime Contractors)     17,996        16,594       15,701 
Space Shuttle Processing Overtime                        3%            3%           3% 
Number of Days On-orbit                                 85             74           83 
Number of Primary Payloads Flown                        11              9           11 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

The requirements for Shuttle Operations are based on supporting the launch of seven Space Shuttle flights and their associated 
payloads.  Each Space Shuttle project has been working to a very aggressive cost reduction program resulting from cost targets 
established by NASA management.  These projects will continue to implement cost reductions in FY 1995 and in FY 1996 as well as 
the outyears by critically reviewing their current requirements and exploring new ways of doing business in order to determine the 
minimum resource level needed to support the manifest without compromising flight safety.  The cost of Space Shuttle operations in 
FY 1996 is almost 6% less than FY 1994 and represents a significant challenge to the program.  Both prime contractor and 
supporting personnel are being reduced across the program by contract restructuring, contract consolidation, utilization of civil 
service wherever possible, reevaluating processes, consolidating skills and reevaluating training requirements.  In order to continue 
accommodating reductions of this magnitude, the program is currently examining major structural changes as well as changes to 
roles and missions. 
 

In FY 1994, the Space Shuttle launched eight flights successfully including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) repair mission and 
the second Spacelab mission dedicated to the life sciences.  Other major payloads flown in FY 1994 include:   
 

-	materials processing in a microgravity environment for both U.S. and international customers; 
-	experiments involving molecular and chemical growth of compound semi-conductors in the Wake Shield Facility;  
-	Spacehab payloads for NASA-sponsored commercial customers;  
-	two separate missions with the Space Radar Laboratory; and  
-	over 45 middeck payloads.  
 

Also, the first of the cooperative missions with Russia was initiated when a Russian cosmonaut became a shuttle crew member of 
STS-60 in February. 
 

The Orbiter requirements are based on flight rate, maintenance schedules, operational usage, repair times, and lead times to 
procure new hardware or repair flown hardware.  The requirements for System Integration are based on the flight rate, specific 
payloads manifested, and unique launch requirements such as inclination or performance requirements.  The first flight to dock 
with the Russian Mir will be flown in May 1995 at a high inclination orbit.  In addition, the full capability of an extended duration 
flight will be demonstrated with a sixteen-day mission to be flown with a U.S. Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2) payload in 
September 1995.

 
In early FY 1995, the Space Shuttle successfully launched STS-66, the ATLAS/CRISTA-SPAS mission.  This was the third flight of 
the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science mission, a coordinated research effort to comprehensively study the 
planet's environment.  Complementing the ATLAS science mission, the German-built Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) carried two 
experiments: CRISTA (Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometer and Telescopes for the Atmosphere; and, MAHRSI (Middle Atmosphere High 
Resolution Spectrograph Investigation).  Seven additional experiments were also carried on this missions' mid-deck payloads.  
 

In FY 1995, the Space Shuttle will fly an additional six missions including a microgravity flight, a Space Radar Laboratory flight, 
and the third flight of the commercial Spacehab module.  These flights will also carry a multitude of secondary payloads.  There will 
also be two extended duration flights of thirteen to sixteen days on Columbia (OV-102).  In addition, the first visit and docking of the 
Space Shuttle to the Russian Mir is scheduled for May 1995, on STS-71.  During this mission, an astronaut and two cosmonauts, 
who will have been aboard the Mir for more than two months, will be returned to Earth.   Two cosmonauts who will be aboard the 
Space Shuttle, when launched from KSC, will transfer to the Mir and replace the two returning to the KSC. 
 

The seven-flight manifest for FY 1996 includes three flights to Mir, a combined reflight of the Tethered Satellite and microgravity 
mission, the fourth flight of the commercial Spacehab Module, retrieval of two free-flyer satellites, one launched by the Japanese 
(SFU) and one launched by NASA, and one Spacehab mission. 
 

The requirements for the External Tank, Solid Rocket Booster, and Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor are based on the flight schedule 
planned for FY 1995, FY 1996 and the outyears.  The budget provides for production of hardware as well as purchase of long-lead 
hardware based on each project's unique manufacturing lead-time requirements.  The External Tank production rate is increasing 
from four to five in FY 1995, as we continue to draw down the current inventory of tanks at KSC, to support the flight rate of seven 
missions.  In addition, funds are provided to purchase materials to produce the super lightweight tank based on utilization of 
aluminum lithium.  The requirements for the main engine are based on operational usage of flight hardware, repair times, and lead 
times to refurbish flown hardware.  Safety modification in the form of "block" changes will be incorporated over the next several 
years to significantly improve safety of the engine and the vehicle overall.  When all engines are modified, the shuttle vehicle's safety 
index will be improved by a factor of two.  
 

Launch and Landing Operations funding in FY 1996 provides the workforce and support services necessary for processing the 
hardware and launch from the KSC, as well as to support landing operations at the KSC and Dryden Flight Research Facility and 
contingency sites.  This includes the workforce to assemble the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs), mate the boosters and tanks, process 
the orbiter, mate the orbiter to the integrated SRBs and external tank, process and checkout integrated flight elements through 
launch, retrieve and disassemble the SRBs for refurbishment, and support landing of the orbiter.  Funding also supports the KSC 
sustaining engineering, provisioning, logistics, launch processing system operation and maintenance, and 
maintenance/modification of all other Space Shuttle-related ground support equipment and facilities including Launch Complex 39.  
Mission operations primarily supports functions at the JSC to plan for and conduct Space Shuttle missions from launch to landing.  
The functions are to maintain and operate all the ground facilities necessary for flight preparation and execution; to train the flight 
and ground controller crews in all aspects of flight including EVA training; to maintain the proficiency of operational aircraft for 
training and orbiter ferry requirements; and to provide real-time support to each Space Shuttle mission. 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 


                                      SAFETY AND PERFORMANCE UPGRADES

 
                                                    FY 1994             FY 1995           FY 1996 
                                                                  (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Orbiter improvements                                 204,300             194,800           227,900 
	Orbiter improvements                         204,300             194,800           227,900 
	(Multifunction electronic display system)    (36,500)            (37,900)          (40,600) 
	(Simplified aid for EVA rescue)                   (0)             (8,300)           (9,900) 
	(Global positioning system)                       (0)             (2,000)           (9,000) 
	(Other orbiter improvements)                (167,800)           (146,600)         (168,400) 
 

Propulsion upgrades                                  429,800             428,200           458,900 
	Space shuttle main engine upgrades           355,500             354,200           357,200 
	(Alternate turbopump program)                (66,000)            (98,200)         (124,700) 
	(Other main engine upgrades)                (289,500)           (256,000)         (232,500) 
	Solid rocket booster improvements             23,500              34,400            69,000 
	Super lightweight tank                        50,800              39,600            32,700 
 

Flight operations & launch site equipment upgrades   191,600             104,500           132,800 
	Flight operations upgrades                   109,900              63,900            89,000 
	Launch site equipment upgrades                81,700              40,600            43,800 
 

Advanced solid rocket motor (termination funding)    149,700 
 

Construction of facilities                            34,300              12,300            17,400 
	Replace component refurbishment facility                          (7,500) 
	Modernize firex system, pads A and B                              (4,800)           (5,000) 
	Replace space shuttle main engine processing facility                               (4,900) 
	Replace chemical analysis facility                                                  (7,500) 
 

	Total                                      1,009,700             739,800           837,000 
 
 



PROGRAM GOALS 
 

NASA planning assumes continued utilization of the Space Shuttle through at least the year 2012, which is the planned life span of 
the international Space Station.  In order to maintain a viable, manned transportation capability that will operate into the next 
century and support NASA's launch requirements, specific program investments are required.  
 

The Safety and Performance Upgrades budget provides for these investments which include necessary improvements to expand 
existing safety margins and ensure continued safe and reliable Space Shuttle operations.  In addition, the Space Shuttle's 
performance requirements have increased significantly with the change of the Space Station's orbital inclination from 28.5 to 51.6 
degrees.  In order for the Space Shuttle to achieve these higher inclination orbits, demand has been placed on the Space Shuttle 
system to increase its lifting capability by 13,000 pounds.  This higher performance must be achieved by improving the propulsion 
system and reducing the overall weight of the shuttle system.  In addition, this budget provides for modifying and improving the 
capability of the Space Shuttle to insure its viability as a safe space transportation system, reducing operational costs, meeting 
increasingly stringent environmental requirements, replacing obsolete systems and upgrading the ground systems for launch 
processing and mission operations. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The FY 1996 Safety and Performance Upgrades budget includes all development and investment activities necessary to expand 
safety margins, to continue to operate the Space Shuttle through the year 2012 and to improve the performance capability for 
operating with the Space Station.  Activities funded by this budget include Orbiter Improvements, Space Shuttle Main Engine 
Upgrades, Solid Rocket Booster Improvements, Super Lightweight Tank, Launch Site Equipment Upgrades and Flight Operations 
Upgrades, as well as specific, Space Shuttle-related Construction of Facilities.  Requirements to improve the Space Shuttle's 
performance affect all elements of the Space Shuttle system as well as continued development of the super lightweight external 
tank.    
 

Orbiter Improvements 
 

The Orbiter improvements program provides for enhancements of the Space Shuttle systems, produces space components that are 
susceptible to damage, and maintains core skills and capabilities required to modify and maintain the orbiter as a safe and effective 
transportation system.  These activities are provided by contract arrangements with the Rockwell International Space Division in 
three major locations: 
 

   - the Downey, California facility provides engineering, manufacturing and testing;  
   - the Palmdale, California facility provides vehicle assembly, modification and testing; and, 
   - the Houston, Texas contingent provides engineering and problem resolution.   
 

Other activities that support this effort are subsystem management engineering and analysis conducted by Lockheed, and 
development and modifications required for support to the extra-vehicular capability conducted by the Boeing Corporation and 
Hamilton-Standard. 
 

Orbiter Maintenance Down Periods (OMDPs) are planned such that each orbiter is taken out of service periodically for detailed 
structural inspections and thorough testing of its systems before returning to operational status.  These periods also provide 
opportunities for major modifications and upgrades, especially those upgrades that are necessary for improving performance to meet 
the Space Station operational profile.  Since the orbiter is planned to operate into the next century, obsolescence as it affects safety 
and availability of materials and components is a continuing concern.  In order to avoid the problems of obsolescence, this budget 
includes upgrading the orbiter's displays and controls to current aircraft standards, and upgrading the orbiter's navigation system 
used in the landing maneuver due to the planned phase out of the military's Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) system.  
 

Propulsion Upgrades 
 

The Space Shuttle Main Engine upgrade program strives to improve operating margins by introducing safety, life extension, and 
producibility enhancements.  Program funds include procurement of spare hardware, personnel, and other support needed to 
develop and test these enhancements.  Introduction of the Alternate Liquid Oxygen and Fuel Turbopumps into the inventory of main 
engines in FY 1995 and FY 1997, respectfully, along with other improved components, will improve the shuttle vehicle's margin of 
safety by a factor of two. 
 

The main engine safety and performance upgrade program is managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and supports 
the orbiter fleet with flight-qualified engines and the necessary engineering and manufacturing capability to address any failure or 
anomaly quickly.  The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation is responsible for operating three locations which 
provide engine manufacturing, major overhaul, component recycle and test.  They are:  
 

   (1)   Canoga Park, California which manufactures and performs major overhaul to the main engines; 
   (2)   Stennis Space Center, Mississippi for conducting engine development, acceptance and certification tests; and  
   (3)   Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida where the engine inspection checkout and rebuild activities are accomplished at the 
         KSC engine shop. 
 

Engine ground tests and flight date evaluation, hardware anomaly reviews and anomaly resolution are provided by the Marshall 
Space Flight Center.  The Alternate Turbopump project is also managed by the MSFC under contract with Pratt-Whitney of Ft. 
Lauderdale, FL. 
 

The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) and Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Improvement budget provides for enhancing the design 
of the current booster system to reduce its weight by 6,000 pounds (12,000 pounds per flight set).  This results in an additional 
shuttle payload capability of 1200 pounds.  Weight reduction is achieved through decelerator (parachute) subsystem material 
substitution and redesign, as well as modifications to the aft skirt.  The RSRM performance enhancement includes the development 
of an aft exit cone extension.  The resulting increase in specific impulse will translate into approximately 500 pounds of additional 
payload capability.  In direct support of NASA's goal to meet all energy and environmental standards, the RSRM effort includes 
development of asbestos-free insulation which is planned for certification by 1997.  In addition to providing performance 
enhancements and insuring environmental compliance, this budget also funds development of the RSRM's nozzle production and 
refurbishment capability at the former Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Facility at Iuka, Mississippi.  
Solid Rocket Booster/Motor activities are managed by the MSFC.  The booster modifications are contracted through USBI of 
Huntsville, AL, and for the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motors are contracted with Thiokol of Brigham City, UT. 
 

The most significant performance enhancement for achieving the Space Station's higher inclination orbit is the introduction of the 
Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT).  An 8,000 pound weight reduction will be achieved by selective substitution of high 
strength, low-density, aluminum-lithium alloys for the current aluminum alloys; optimization of structural design weight (selected 
redesign of certain structural components); and other weight savings measures.  The launch date of the first SLWT is scheduled for 
the first space station assembly flight in early FY 1998.  The proposed schedule includes the time required for the remaining design 
and development effort, the test of a tank dedicated for structural verification, the build of the first SLWT, and all the component 
requalification necessary for assurance that the SLWT has all the integrity of its predecessor.  
 

Development of the SLWT is managed by the MSFC and is being accomplished at the Martin-Marietta Corporation facility at the 
Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) near New Orleans, LA.  After the tanks are built, tested and certified for flight, they will be  
shipped on government-owned barges to KSC where they will be processed for flight.  
 

Flight Operations and Launch Site Equipment Upgrades 
 

The major facilities at JSC include the Mission Control Center (MCC), the flight and ground support training facilities, the flight 
design systems and the training aircraft fleet that includes the shuttle training aircraft, the T-38 aircraft and the Space Shuttle 
Carrier Aircraft (SCA).  Necessary improvements are being made for simulation training in both the Integrated Training Facility (ITF) 
and the MCC.  The ITF upgrades include new host computers, interface hardware and simulator subsystems.  The MCC will have 
improved console operations and communication equipment as well as new data processing and distribution systems.  Critical 
reliability required for the longer integrated simulations will be substantially improved with these replacements.  Also, associated 
maintenance costs will be reduced due to fewer computer breakdowns.  
 

All shuttle processing prior to launch is performed at KSC.  The launch of the Space Shuttle occurs with the vehicle under control of 
the KSC ground operations team.  After SRB ignition, control is switched to JSC for the duration of the mission.  After landing, 
control transfers back to KSC.  At KSC, the ground processing facilities and equipment are undergoing upgrading and modifications 
to prevent obsolescence and avoid increased costs due to high maintenance and failure rates.
 

The major operational Space Shuttle facilities at KSC include three Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPFs), two launch pads, the 
Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), the Launch Control Center (LCC), and three Mobile Launcher Platforms (MLPs).  
 
 


 
Construction of Facilities 
 

Construction of Facilities (CofF) funding for Space Shuttle projects  is provided in this budget to refurbish, modify, replace and 
restore facilities at Office of  Space Flight centers to improve performance, address environmental concerns of the older facilities, 
and to insure their readiness to launch the Space Shuttle.   
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

The Safety and Performance Upgrade program is measured by the success it has in accomplishing the projects listed above 
consistent with approved schedule and cost planning and also the effect these projects have had on the operation of the Space 
Shuttle.  Success depends on developing these projects and getting them implemented to help insure the Space Shuttle's safe 
operation, improve the reliability of the supporting elements, and improving efficiencies to reduce operational costs.  This budget 
addresses all elements of the Space Shuttle program and is managed through an approval process that insures that new projects 
are evaluated, approved and initiated on a priority basis, and that existing projects are meeting established cost and schedule goals.  
Significant milestones are listed below:  
 

Orbiter Improvements 
 

Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) - SAFER is a small self-contained, one person free-flyer unit which provides an EVA self-
rescue capability for the astronauts should they become inadvertently untethered from the Space Shuttle or Space Station 
 

Conduct Critical Design (CDR)        Completion of CDR will allow production to proceed so that SAFER will be available for 
for SAFER -                          Space Shuttle-Mir joint spacewalk in FY 1996. 
4th Qtr FY 1995 
 

Initial SAFER demonstration -        Demonstrated on STS/Mir-04 flight  
4th Qtr FY 1996 
 

Multifunctional Electronic-Display System (MEDS) - MEDS is a state-of-the-art integrated display system that will replace the 
current orbiter cockpit displays with an integrated liquid crystal display system. 
 

Complete MEDS                        Complete hardware qualification testing and start hardware integration and verification testing 
Qualification Testing - 
1st Qtr FY 1996 
 

MEDS Initial Operational             First flight of MEDS equipped orbiter. 
Capability (IOC) - 
4th Qtr FY 1998 
 

Global Positioning System (GPS) - GPS will replace TACAN in the orbiter navigation system when the military TACAN ground 
stations will cease to become operational in the year 2000.  The planned readiness date for the Space Shuttle's system is FY 1999 
 

Complete GPS Preliminary             Completion of PDR will allow design drawings to proceed toward CDR. 
Design Review (PDR) - FY 1996  
 

Complete GPS Critical Design         Completion of CDR will allow drawings to be released for production to proceed. 
Review (CDR) - FY 1997 
 

Complete GPS operational             Operation of GPS without TACAN system  
capability - FY 1999 
 

Orbital Maintenance Down Periods 
 

Complete Columbia (OV-102)           Routine Maintenance period for Columbia. 
OMDP - 4th Qtr FY 1995 
 

Conduct Discovery (OV-103)           Conduct routine maintenance; outfit Discovery with external airlock;  preparations 
OMDP - 1st Qtr FY 1997               for shuttle rendezvous with Mir and Space Station. 
 

Initiate Endeavour (OV-105)          Conduct routine maintenance and prepare Endeavour for station operations. 
OMDP - 4th Qtr FY 1996 
 

Propulsion Upgrades 
 

Performance Enhancement Program - The performance enhancement program affects all elements of the Space Shuttle and is 
designed to provide 13,000 pounds of additional performance to allow rendezvous and operations with the international Space 
Station. 
 

Critical Design Review (CDR)         The Super Lightweight Tank will provide 8,000 pounds of performance through incorporation 
of Super Lightweight Tank -          of an aluminum-lithium alloy in the external tank structure. 
3rd Qtr FY 1995 
 

Aluminum-Lithium Test Article        Completion of testing will certify the structural integrity of the external tank design and 
(ALTA) testing complete -            fabrication process. 
4th Qtr FY 1996 


Deliver first SLWT to                Final assembly and checkout will be conducted at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in 
KSC for flight -                     New Orleans, Louisiana. 
4th Qtr FY 1997 
 

Initiate test of Lightweight         The lightweight booster will provide 1,200 pounds of performance enhancements through  
Booster Decelerator System -         redesign of the decelerator (parachute system). 
3rd Qtr FY 1996 


Deliver first Lightweight Booster    Initial flight capability. 
to KSC for flight - 1st Qtr FY 1997 
 

Conduct Qualification Tests          Extending the RSRM Nozzle cone combined with increasing the diameter will increase the 
on RSRM Nozzle Cone Extension        specific impulse and provide a payload gain of 500 pounds. 
4th Qtr FY 1997 
 

Delivery of initial RSRM             Initial flight capability 
production nozzle - April 1998 
 

Space Shuttle Main Engine Safety Improvements - Introducing Block I and Block II changes into the Space Shuttle's Main Engine 
program will improve the margin of safety by a factor of two (2). 
 

First flight of                      The High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump will be combined with single-coil heat exchanger and 
the Block I engine -                 the phase II+ powerhead. 
3rd Qtr FY 1995 
 

High Pressure Fuel Pump              Completion of CDR will allow production to proceed for implementation of the ATP high 
Critical Design Review (CDR)         pressure fuel pump into the Block II Engine upgrade. 
3rd Qtr FY 1996 
 

First flight of the                  The high pressure fuel turbopump will be combined with the large throat main combustion  
Block II engine	                     chamber (LTMCC). 
4th Qtr FY 1997 



 
Flight Operations and Launch Site Equipment Upgrades 
 

Flight Operations Upgrades - Upgrades to the Mission Control Center will occur during FY 1995 and FY 1996 improving operations 
reliability and maintainability and also taking advantage of the state-of-the-art technology in displays and controls. 
 

Begin on-orbit simulations           Conduct a series of simulations to test new hardware/software in the MCC. 
from new MCC - 2nd Qtr FY 1995 
 

Begin on-orbit mission               Conduct on-orbit simulations before ascent/entry to ensure system reliability 
operations from new MCC -  
2nd Qtr FY 1995 
 

Begin ascent/entry mission           Complete entire mission profile with the new MCC. 
support from new MCC with 
STS-73 - 1st Qtr FY 1996 
 

Complete replacement of displays     Installation of new state of the art system will allow more efficient operations 
and controls - 3rd Qtr FY 1996 
 

Launch Site Equipment Upgrades 
Complete validation of Hardware      First production unit delivered and tested by user. 
Interface Modules (HIM Cards) - 
3rd Qtr FY 1995 
 

Construction of Facilities 
 

Restore Fire Extinguisher Pumps      Restoration is needed. Pumps are currently inadequate to provide spray coverage during 
and Piping at LC-39 -	             an emergency. 
FY 1995 
 

Replace Component Refurbishment      Facility is 25 years old, in non-compliance with OSHA standards, overcrowded and insulated 
and Chemical Analysis Facility       with asbestos.  Completing this effort in FY 1996 is earliest opportunity to comply with 
at KSC -                             CFC requirements during cleaning and degreasing operations. 
 

Phase I - 2nd Qtr FY 1995            Begin Construction of component refurbishment building. 
Phase II - FY 1996	             Begin Construction of chemical analysis facility. 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Budgetary pressures demand that the proper investments are made to promote efficiency of operations while, at the same time, 
insuring that the critical element of safety is maintained as a primary goal.  The FY 1996 budget request for Safety and Performance 
Upgrades is the result of a project prioritization process that addresses safety first, then provides for performance enhancements, 
upgrades to prevent obsolescence and promote efficiency,  and maintenance and logistics enhancements to improve reliability and 
operating efficiency.   

 
A significant portion of the Safety and Performance Upgrades budget is dedicated to avoiding and preventing deleterious and costly 
effects of obsolescence, especially at a time when the program is undertaking the challenge of reducing the costs of operations.  This 
portion of the budget contains projects that impact every element of the Space Shuttle vehicle.  During FY 1996, development will 
continue on replacing the Orbiters cockpit displays with MEDS, replacing TACAN with GPS, upgrading the T-38 aircraft with 
maintainable systems, replacing elements of the launch site complex such as the cable farm and HIM cards, upgrading major 
elements of the Mission Control Center and training facilities at JSC, testing of main engine components at Stennis Space Center, 
testing of orbiter on-orbit propulsion systems at the White Sands Test Facility, and replacing critical subsystems in the KSC facility 
complex.  At the KSC, phase two of the fire extinguisher upgrade will be conducted as will replacement of the chemical analysis lab 
and improvement of the main engine processing facility in the vehicle assembly building (VAB).  

 
Orbiter Improvements 
 

Orbiter Improvements provides for modifications and improvements that will insure compatibility of the shuttle vehicles with the 
new station operational environment.  Orbiter weight reductions have been identified where operating experience or updated 
requirements allow selected items to be changed without impact to crew safety or mission success.  The Orbiter weight will be 
reduced by changing the exterior thermal protection materials on certain portions of the orbiter, deleting portions of the orbital 
maneuvering and reaction control systems (OMS/RCS) that are no longer required, changing the material on the "flipper doors" that 
provide a seal between the orbiter wing and its control surfaces, and development of lighter weight crew seats for the cockpit.  
Additionally, funding will be used to analyze and certify the orbiter to fly safely with the super lightweight external tank and to land 
with the increased Space Station payload weight in an emergency situation.   

 
The Orbiter vehicle continues to undergo other improvements on its own internal systems.  For example, the Auxiliary Power Unit 
gas generator valve module is undergoing redesign to improve its reliability, the rate gyro assemblies underwent upgrades to 
improve their operational life, the thermal protection system underwent certification to allow the leading edge of the wing to 
experience higher temperatures during reentry, a new vendor was qualified for providing remote power controllers, and 
enhancements for improving the shuttle performance were initiated.  Also in FY 1994, the Orbiter's Extended Duration project was 
completed which extends the on-orbit stay time beyond 14 days, with the first flight planned to exceed 14 days being STS-73 in  
FY 1995.  Other improvements include developing a system to better contain the debris that occurs during the lift-off phase and 
threatens to damage the Orbiter, redesign of the water spray boiler, and introducing a bellows-type accumulator for the orbiter's 
hydraulic system. 

 
The Space Shuttle's on-orbit steering system, known as the Reaction Control System (RCS), is being modified in order to increase its 
reliability which will improve maintenance and reduce life cycle costs.  Operating experience to date has shown that the current 
RCS thrusters are being replaced often due to leakage, contamination or failure to fire.  A new directing-acting valve is being 
designed and developed to replace the existing ones that are experiencing the most damage and failure.  In the upgrade of the Direct 
Acting Valve (DAV) for the RCS, proof-of-concept testing on four DAVs were completed in FY 1994.  In FY 1996, four development 
direct acting valves will be produced and tested followed by a critical design (CDR) review.  Upon successful completion of the CDR, 
certification and qualification of this critical component will commence. 

 
During FY 1994, Atlantis (OV-104) completed its OMDP and reentered the fleet in time to fly STS-66 in October 1994.  Columbia 
(OV-102) followed Atlantis and is currently undergoing maintenance and structural inspections at the Palmdale, California facility 
and is expected to be complete in April 1995.  In FY 1996, Discovery (OV-103) will enter OMDP at Palmdale for normal maintenance 
and checkout and will also be modified for docking with the international Space Station. 

 
The Multifunctional Electronic Display System (MEDS) upgrade will replace the current orbiter cockpit displays which are early 
1970's technology.  The current displays which provide command and control of the Space Shuttle are "single string" electro-
mechanical devices that are experiencing life related failures and are maintenance intensive.  Difficulty in obtaining parts, some of 
which are no longer manufactured, is becoming more prevalent.  The MEDS upgrade is a state-of-the-art, multiple redundant liquid 
crystal display (LCD) system.  MEDS will enhance the reliability of the cockpit display system, resolve the parts availability problem, 
and provide a much more flexible and capable display system for the crew.  This upgrade will bring the orbiter up to current aircraft 
standards having a direct benefit on the training of new astronauts.  The MEDS was instrumental in helping develop the nation's 
first U.S. vendor for LCD glass thereby reducing dependence on overseas sources.  The first lot of liquid crystal displays were 
delivered to the prime contractor for assembly and testing in FY 1994.  Secondary benefits of MEDS are reductions in the orbiter's 
weight and also power consumption.  The MEDS upgrade includes the design effort and production of modification kits for the four 
orbiter vehicles.  New ground support hardware is also being designed and will be procured and installed to upgrade the appropriate 
simulators, test equipment, and laboratories.  MEDS will be installed in the orbiters and tested during the planned OMDPs.  In FY 
1994, MEDS completed its critical design review, a significant milestone that allowed the production contract to proceed.  The first 
flight of a MEDS equipped orbiter is planned for FY 1998. 

 
Expansion of the effort to replace the orbiter's TACAN landing navigation system with the Global Positioning System (GPS) will begin 
in FY 1995.  This expansion will include an increased interaction of the GPS receiver with the Orbiter backup flight software, and 
outfitting two more orbiters with a GPS test receiver.   A number of development flights will take place with increasing GPS 
capability while still utilizing TACAN navigation.  The first flight of a complete GPS system is planned for 1999. 

 
In addition to modifying the orbiter itself for Space Station operations, production of SAFER (Simplified Aid for Extravehicular 
Rescue) will begin in FY 1995.  SAFER will consist of a small propulsive backpack to be worn by each EVA crew member during all 
periods when the orbiter is docked to structure (e.g. spacewalking from the space station or the Mir complex) when rescue of an 
inadvertently-detached EVA crew member cannot be guaranteed.  Currently, during spacewalks from the shuttle, EVA crew 
members are always tethered to prevent them from becoming separated.  If an EVA crew member becomes inadvertently untethered, 
the shuttle can easily fly to the rescue.  However, the Mir and the Space Station will not be maneuverable enough to rescue an 
inadvertently detached crew member, therefore, an autonomous self-rescue device must be provided.   

 
The SAFER unit provides the overall best self-rescue capability, which was verified when a prototype was test flown on the STS-64 
shuttle mission in FY 1994.  Five SAFER flight units will be produced and fabricated along with two ground test and training units.  
Fabrication of the SAFER units will be accomplished by personnel at the Johnson Space Center.  The first operational use of SAFER 
is scheduled for the joint spacewalk to be performed on a Space Shuttle-Mir docking flight in FY 1996.  

 
Other orbiter activities include modifications to the portable life support system, redesign of the operating mechanism for external 
tank disconnect door, and accumulators for the hydraulic system and the waste collection system.  Also, system integration and 
engineering tasks continue to support orbiter upgrades as they affect the entire vehicle including support for the Program 
Compliance and Assurance Status System (PCASS), which is a comprehensive engineering data base that examines failure histories 
across all shuttle elements.  Orbiter modifications on subsystems such as the water spray boiler, the hydraulic system 
accumulators, the drive system for the external tank door and sensors for measurement of gaseous flows will be conducted to insure 
safety and reliability are maintained.   

 
Propulsion Upgrades 
 

The most complex components of the SSME are the high pressure turbopumps.  Engine system requirements result in pump 
discharge pressure levels from 6000 to 8000 psi and turbine inlet temperatures of 2000 Degrees F.  In reviewing the most critical 
items on the SSME that could result in a catastrophic failure, 14 of the top 25 are associated with the turbopumps.  The current 
pumps dependence on extensive inspection to assure safety of flight have made them difficult to produce and costly to maintain.  
The Alternate Turbopump development (ATD) contract with Pratt & Whitney was signed in December 1986 and called for parallel 
development of both the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) and the high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) to correct the 
shortcomings of the existing high pressure turbopumps.  This objective is achieved by: utilizing design, analytical, and 
manufacturing technology not available during development of the original components; application of lessons learned from the 
original SSME development program;  elimination of failure modes from the design; implementation of a build-to-print fabrication 
and assembly process; and full inspection capability by design.  The turbopumps utilize precision castings, reducing the total 
number of welds in the pumps from 769 to 7.  Turbine blades, bearings, and rotor stiffness are all improved through the use of new 
materials and manufacturing techniques.  The SSME upgrades are dedicated to continuing progress toward providing the necessary 
improvements to expand existing safety margins and reduce operational costs.  Significant progress was made in the main engine 
project during FY 1994 as the critical design review (CDR) for the Alternate Turbopump was completed.  A major breakthrough 
allowed this program to proceed with full mission duration testing when the silicon nitride bearings were accepted for use in the 
high pressure turbopumps.  Prior to this important event, the high pressure turbopumps were experiencing unacceptable bearing 
wear and shortening test periods with unplanned cut-offs caused by unacceptable vibrations.  Once these bearings were tested, 
accepted and introduced into the ATD, testing proceeded successfully.  One-hundred and eight tests were conducted during FY 
1994 at the Stennis Space Center where over 50,000 test seconds of test time were accumulated.   
 

The SSME powerhead is the structural backbone of the engine, connecting the two pre-burners powering the high pressure 
turbopumps to the main propellant injector.  The powerhead is the attach point for the high pressure turbopumps and the main 
combustion chamber (MCC) and is also the duct for routing turbine discharge gas back to the main injector.  The new Phase II+ 
Powerhead will result in improved hot gas flow path characteristics from the high pressure fuel turbine to the main injector lox 
posts.  Static and dynamic flow characteristics are improved throughout the hot gas flow path.  The Phase II+ Powerhead also 
reduces the number of welds, improving productibility and reliability.  

 
The heat exchanger, mounted in the oxidizer side of the powerhead, uses the hot (800 - 900 degrees F) hydrogen-rich turbine 
discharge gases to convert liquid oxygen in a thin walled coil to gaseous oxygen for pressurization of the external oxygen tank.  The 
current heat exchanger coil has seven welds exposed to the hot gas environment.  A small leak in one of these welds would result in 
catastrophic failure.  The new single coil heat exchanger eliminates all seven critical welds and triples the wall thickness of the tube.  

 
The large throat main combustion chamber (LTMCC) trades the gains realized in the improved powerhead for lower chamber 
pressure, resulting in lower pressures and temperatures throughout the engine system.   The wider throat also accommodates 
additional cooling channels and an accompanying reduction in hot gas wall thickness.  Hot gas wall temperatures are significantly 
reduced, which increases chamber life.   The LTMCC design also incorporates investment cast manifolds into the fabrication 
technique to reduce the number of critical welds and improve the productibility of the chamber.   
 

The "block" change concept for incorporating changes into the main engine was introduced and baselined during FY 1994.  The 
Phase II+ powerhead, the single coil heat exchanger and the new high pressure oxidizer turbopump comprise Block I.  This change 
will be introduced and flown for the first time in FY 1995.  The Block II is scheduled to be flown in FY 1997 and consists of the large 
throat heat exchanger and the high pressure fuel turbopump.  The end result of these engine improvements is an increase in the 
overall engine durability, reliability and safety margin, and productibility.  This is consistent with NASA's goals of decreasing failure 
probability and reducing Space Shuttle costs. 
 

Further safety margins and launch reliability on the Space Shuttle will be realized through the implementation of engine health 
monitoring capability.  SSME history has shown that the engine is more reliable than the instrumentation system, however, a 
transducer failure could result in a flight scrub or on-pad abort, failure to detect an engine fault, or in-flight abort.  NASA's health 
monitoring strategy is to improve the reliability of sensors and then incorporate controller improvements such as expanded and 
radiation hardened (to prevent single event upsets) memory, flight acceleration safety cut-off system redlines, and transducer 
qualification algorithms.  These sensor upgrades are essential to improving the reliability of the Space Shuttle's launch capability 
and are planned for incorporation into the fleet beginning in FY 1995. 

 
During FY 1994, the solid rocket booster project initiated delivery of the enhanced multiplexer-demultiplexer device, an improved 
electrical distribution system that will better withstand pressures and the severe reentry and impact environment experienced by 
the boosters after launch.  In addition, the effort was initiated to integrate the RSRM nozzle fabrication and refurbishment capability 
into the facilities previously planned for the canceled Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program at Iuka, Mississippi.  During FY 
1995, both projects will contribute to the performance enhancement initiative.  The SRB has initiated development of the lighter 
weight booster and the RSRM is extending the exit nozzle in order to provide more specific impulse during launch.   
 

The super lightweight external tank contract received authority to proceed in FY 1994 as progress in developing an acceptable 
welding process proved satisfactory.  The project completed casting of the thin plate test article proving the concept of weldability of 
this material and also completed the design review for the aluminum-lithium test article (ALTA).  During FY 1995, both a 
Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and a Critical Design Review (CDR) will be conducted leading to the release of drawings to the 
manufacturing process at the Michoud Assembly Facility.

   
Flight Operations and Launch Site Equipment Upgrades 

 
These facilities support the pre-launch and post-landing processing of the four orbiter fleet.  Key enhancements funded in launch 
site equipment include:  implementation of a digital operational intercom system (OIS-D); replacement equipment for the Launch 
Control Center, replacement storage tanks and vessels for the propellants, pressurants, and gases; an improved hazardous gas 
detection system (HGDS II); fiber optic cabling; and installation of a new orbiter ground cooling system. 
 

The Hardware Interface Module (HIM) cards, which are electrical command distribution systems, that support the launch processing 
system (LPS) at KSC are over 25 years old and have experienced an increased failure rate and higher cost of repair over the past 
several years.  The HIM upgrade will replace all chassis and cards with state-of-the-art "off the shelf" hardware to improve system 
reliability and maintainability.  Design reviews have been completed and procurement was initiated in FY 1993.  Installation should 
be completed by FY 1998. 
 

The cable plant upgrade at KSC has been initiated to replace the miles of cables which support a wide variety of Space Shuttle 
facilities.  Many of these cables were installed in the 1960s and are suffering from corrosion and increasing failure rates.  
Replacement will reduce the potential for disruption to critical Space Shuttle operations as well as have a direct maintenance 
benefit.  This activity will reduce the possibility of launch delays, increase communication system spares availability, and enhance 
the reliability of data, instrumentation, voice, and video communications.  This upgrade will replace the wide-band distribution 
system and the lead/antimony sheath cables with fiber optics and plastic sheath, gel-filled cable.  In addition, many field terminals 
will be replaced or upgraded.  Obsolete cable systems will also be replaced with current technology. 
 

With the termination in 1994 of the Control, Checkout and Monitoring System Upgrade (CCMS-II), the current CCMS system will be 
modernized to meet concerns of obsolescence.  This is a much more cost-effective approach than developing a new system, due in 
part, to prioritization of projects within the available budget.  
 

Equipment obsolescence items at KSC include replacement of the portable purge units (PPU) and launch pad chiller equipment.  
PPU's are required to purge and clean the air in the contained areas around the Space Shuttle engines to prevent accumulation of 
explosive and toxic gases and pad chillers are required to cool the computers during the launch sequence.  Increasing maintenance 
cost, high failures that pose environmental hazards due to leaking of freon and increasing vendor costs are reflective of obsolescence 
and environmental concerns.   
 

The Day-of-Launch-I-Load Update System, Version 2 (DOLILU-II) is designed to reduce flight and mission preparation costs while 
maintaining high launch probability for all mission profiles.  Current first stage mission designs baselined months before the flight 
are replaced with a design built, assessed and uplinked to the vehicle on the day of launch.  The system builds new first stage 
steering commands based on upper level winds measured four hours prior to launch time.  Additional processors assess the new 
trajectory against system constraints to insure mission safety.  The system replaces months of preflight development and 
assessment of first stage flight designs.  The DOLILU-II will also contribute to the ability for the Space Shuttle to launch within the 
required five minute window required for operations with the Space Station.  Initial design reviews for the DOLILU-II were completed 
in FY 1994 and the first flight using this system is scheduled for FY 1995.

  
Funds for other activities include implementing required modifications and upgrades on the T-38 aircraft used for space flight 
readiness training, capability improvements for weather prediction, and enhancements on information handling to improve system 
monitoring, notably for anomaly tracking.   
 

Construction of Facilities 
 

FY 1994 Construction of Facilities (CoF) funding concentrated on the facilities at KSC, JSC and SSC.  At SSC, the main engine B-1 
test complex was restored to insure continued reliable, single stand test operations beyond FY 1997.  At JSC, the air handlers in the 
Mission Control Center were replaced.  This replacement provided for the conversion of an energy saving variable air volume system 
by replacing six large built-up air handlers and also adding an extension on the north end of the building to house the new air 
handlers.  The thermal vacuum helium refrigeration system was also replaced.  This provides for replacing obsolete helium 
refrigerators with new larger helium refrigerators in the Space Shuttle Engineering Simulator (SES) laboratory.  This system was 
also at the end of its design life and threatening possible impact on program schedules.  At KSC, FY 1994 funding supported several 
facility improvements.  At launch complex 39, the exterior utility piping was restored, the cooling system was refurbished, the 
secondary circuit breaker system was refurbished and the C-5 substation was restored.   


FY 1995 CoF funding is concentrated on the KSC facilities. The fire extinguisher piping for launch pads A and B are in need of 
restoration as they are currently considered inadequate to provide spray coverage during an emergency water flow.  In addition, the 
underground piping between pump stations and launch pads is 25 years old and will not support pressures of the higher flow rates. 
The 25 year old facility at KSC used for components refurbishment is in non-compliance with OSHA fires safety standards, is 
overcrowded and is to be replaced.  This project replaces approximately 30,000 square feet for rough and pre-cleaning, precision 
cleaning clean rooms and test cells, hydraulics laboratories and other support space.   

 
FY 1996 CoF funding is also concentrated on KSC facilities.   The Chemical Analysis facility is overcrowded and is in non-
compliance with OSHA fire safety standards.   The project replaces chemical analysis laboratories and other support space, a 
hypergolic decontamination  building, and a hazardous waste storage building.   The existing Space Shuttle Main Engine Shop will 
be replaced by an addition to Orbiter Processing Building 3.   Finally, there will be an upgrading of the fire extinguisher pumps, 
motors, and diesels serving Launch Pads A and B fire extinguisher system.  For additional details on these projects, please refer to 
the Mission Support - Construction of Facilities budget.
 


HFS-3