HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT 
 

                                   FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 

                                         BUDGET SUMMARY 
 

OFFICE OF SPACE FLIGHT                                       PAYLOAD AND UTILIZATION OPERATIONS 

 
                                 SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS 
 

                                                                                           
                                      FY 1994            FY 1995            FY 1996       
                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Spacelab                              125,500             98,600             97,000      
Tethered satellite system               7,400              7,400              3,800       
Payload processing and support         85,100             36,300             30,300       
Advanced projects                       7,200             12,200             12,200       
Engineering and technical base        180,400            165,600            171,700      

 
	Total                         405,600            320,100            315,000 
 

Distribution of Program Amount by Installation 
 

Johnson Space Center                  116,400             75,200             78,400 
Kennedy Space Center                  136,800            101,100             90,700 
Marshall Space Flight Center          139,000            128,100            121,600 
Stennis Space Center                    2,400              1,800              1,700 
Langley Research Center                   300                  0                500 
Lewis Research Center                     100                300                300 
Goddard Space Flight Center             8,900              9,200              9,900 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory                 100                  0                  0 
Headquarters                            1,600              4,400             11,900 

 
	Total                         405,600            320,100            315,000 
 
 
 



 
PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The primary goal of the Payload and Utilization Operations is to support the processing and flight of shuttle payloads to ensure 
maximum return on the research investment, to reduce operations costs, and to continue to implement flight and ground systems 
improvements. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The principal areas of activity in Payload and Utilization Operations include the operation of the Spacelab systems; cooperative 
reflight of the U.S./Italian Tethered Satellite System (TSS); Payload Operations for accommodating NASA payloads; Advanced 
Projects; and the preservation of an Engineering and Technical Base (ETB) capability at the human space flight centers.  The 
activities of these programs are accomplished by civil service and contractor personnel.  Over the past several years, NASA has been 
extremely successful in reducing processing time and error rates while increasing customer satisfaction and controlling cost.  NASA 
will continue to  implement operational efficiencies gained-to-date plus assumptions of additional efficiencies by eliminating 
duplicative activities, and by accepting minor risk increases by eliminating some testing and analysis during payload processing.  
Workforce reductions achieved to date have not impacted schedule time and the FY 1996 strategy includes plans to further reduce 
the workforce while maintaining or continuing to improve customer satisfaction. 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                    SPACELAB 


 
                                     FY 1994            FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                  (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Spacelab                              125,500             98,600             97,000 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

Spacelab is a versatile, reusable, cost-effective observatory and laboratory facility located in the Space Shuttle payload bay to 
support a wide variety of science and technology development experiments which are developed by the utilizing programs within 
NASA and other external organizations.  Spacelab serves as both an observatory and a laboratory, giving scientists the opportunity 
to conduct a large variety of scientific experiments in the unique environment of space.   
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Ten foreign nations, including nine members of the European Space Agency (ESA), participated in the joint Spacelab development 
program with NASA.  The ESA designed, developed, manufactured and delivered the first set of Spacelab hardware which consisted 
of a pressurized module, five pallets, subsystem support hardware (e.g. igloo, Instrument Pointing Subsystem (IPS), racks, avionics, 
computers) and much of the ground support hardware and flight and ground software. 
 

Spacelab is configured within the orbiter bay in numerous ways to accommodate scientific experiments in the unique environment 
of space.  "Hands on" experiments requiring astronaut participation use the pressurized module configuration while experiments not 
requiring a pressurized environment or requiring experiment visual access to space use the unpressurized pallet configuration.  The 
module is pressurized and thermally-controlled to enable astronauts to work in a "shirt sleeve" environment.  Easy crew access from 
the orbiter middeck to the module is enabled by the Spacelab tunnel.  Module missions largely consist of life and microgravity 
sciences experiments. 
 

Spacelab pallet missions are designed to accommodate up to five pallets in the orbiter bay, depending on the experiment 
requirements.  In the event the experiment requires the use of the Spacelab computers and other avionics hardware which must be 
protected from the space environment, then the igloo is used to house the hardware and is flown as an attachment to the pallet.  
Other pallet configurations include the Spacelab Pallet System (SPS).  One configuration supports missions requiring the use of the 
Spacelab computer system and pallet in a mixed cargo configuration (i.e., more than one major payload flown in the orbiter bay 
rather than a single major payload flown using the igloo subsystem).   
 

Support software and procedures development, testing, and training activities are also included in NASA's funding request.  
Additional Spacelab hardware, including spares, are being procured from European and U.S. sources as needed to support the flight 
manifest. 
 

Spacelab operations support includes mission planning, mission integration, and flight and ground operations.  This includes 
integration of the flight hardware and software, mission independent crew training, systems operation support, payload operations 
control support, payload processing, logistical support and sustaining engineering.  The Spacelab operations cycle is repeated with 
each Spacelab flight but with a different payload complement.  This cycle consists of three processing integration steps.  Spacelab 
Level IV processing performs the integration and checkout of the experiment equipment with individual experiment mounting 
elements like racks, rack sets, and pallet segments, and is funded by the payload sponsor.  This activity is normally performed at 
the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) but is not part of the Spacelab Operations budget.  Spacelab Level III/II processing then combines 
and integrates all experiment mounting elements like racks, rack sets and pallet segments, which have the experiment equipment 
already installed and ready for checkout with the Spacelab software.  This processing activity is also done at KSC and is funded 
under the Spacelab budget. 
 

Spacelab Operations also funds smaller secondary payloads like the Get-Away Specials (GAS) and Hitchhiker payloads.  The GAS 
payloads are research experiments which are flown in standard canisters that can fit either on the sidewall of the cargo bay or 
across the bay on the GAS bridge.  They are the simplest of the small payloads with limited electrical and mechanical interfaces.  
Approximately ninety seven GAS payloads have been flown.  The Hitchhiker payloads are the more complex of the smaller payloads; 
they provide opportunities for larger, more sophisticated experiments.  The Hitchhiker system employs two carrier configurations: 
(1) an orbiter payload bay sidewall configuration and (2) an across payload bay configuration that uses a Multi-Purpose Experiment 
Support Structure (MPESS).  During the mission, the Hitchhiker payloads can be controlled using the aft flight deck 
computer/standard switch panels or from the ground through the Payload Operations Control Center.  
 

Another item funded in Spacelab operations is the Flight Support System (FSS).  The FSS consists of three standard cradles with 
berthing and pointing systems along with avionics.  It is used for on-orbit maintenance, repair, and retrieval of spacecraft.  The FSS 
was used on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) repair/revisit mission. 
 

A major operational cost reduction program has been underway over the past year, with a goal of reducing the Spacelab budget by 
30 percent.  That reduction has been achieved for FY 1995 and we are confident that additional savings will be found during  
FY 1995 to meet our goals for FY 1996 and FY 1997. 
 

Payload analytical integration is the responsibility of the Payload Projects Office at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and is 
supported by a contract with McDonnell-Douglas.  Physical payload integration and processing is the responsibility of the Payload 
Management and Operations Office at the KSC, and is supported by a contract with McDonnell-Douglas. 
 


MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Spacelab Missions 
 

Space Life Sciences Laboratory-2 (SLS-2)                             October 1993 
United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2)                          March 1994 
Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-1)                                       April 1994 
International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2)                        July 1994 
Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE-1)                        September 1994 
Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-2)                                       September 1994 
Atmospheric Laboratory for Application and Science (ATLAS-3)         October 1994 
Astronomy (ASTRO-2)                                                  March 1995 
Russian Space Station Mir (Mir-1)                                    May 1995 
United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2)                       September 1995 
Tether Satellite System Reflight (TSS-1R)                            February 1996 
United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-3)                          February 1996 
Life/Microgravity Sciences (LMS-1)                                   June 1996 
Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1)                              April 1997 
United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4)                          October 1997 
Space Life Sciences Laboratory-4 (Neurolab)                          February 1998 
 

Flight Hardware Utilized                FY 1994            FY 1995          FY 1996 
 

Long Module                                   2                  2                1 
Multi-Purpose Experiment Support 
	Structures (MPESS)                    1                                   1 
Pallets                                       1                  2 
Pallets Plus MPESS                            2                                   2 
Hitchhiker Experiments                        7                 10              TBD 
Get Away Special Payloads                    22                  7              TBD 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Two Spacelab module missions were flown in FY 1994, namely the Space Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) and the International Microgravity 
Laboratory (IML-2) missions.  In addition, three pallet missions, (Space Radar Lab 1 and 2 and the LITE) and the MPESS (USMP-2) 
were flown.  In addition to the support of these missions, analytical integration, configuration management, and software 
development for future flights were conducted.  The X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) antenna flown in conjunction with 
the SRL-1 mission was designed and developed by the German and the Italian aerospace communities.  The  
IML-2 mission flew numerous experiments which were developed by the ESA, National Space Development Agency of Japan 
(NASDA), the Canadian Space Agency, and the French Government.  Numerous foreign governments participated in the LITE 
mission by acquiring aircraft laser data simultaneously during LITE fly overs.  The National Institute of Health has participated in 
the middeck portion by flying approximately six middeck experiments in FY 1994 with more experiments scheduled to fly in the 
coming year. 
 

The FY 1995 Spacelab program funding reflects the program requirements to conduct Spacelab missions consistent with the 
manifest.  The Atlas-3 is the first mission flown in FY 1995.  Other missions to be flown include the Astro-2 pallet mission, the 
Space Shuttle-Mir (S/MM-1) module flight to the Russian Mir space station, the USML-2 module mission, numerous GAS payloads 
and three Hitchhiker bridges with ten Hitchhiker experiments. 
 

In FY 1996, Spacelab program will fly the following manifested missions:  the Tether Satellite System Reflight, USMP-3, S/MM-2 
pallet mission, the Life and Microgravity Sciences (LMS) module mission and several GAS and Hitchhiker payloads. 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                              TETHERED SATELLITE SYSTEM 
 

                                      FY 1994            FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                  (Thousands of Dollars)

Tethered satellite system reflight      7,400              7,400              3,800 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

To study the electrodynamic behavior of the satellite-tether-orbiter system as it interacts with the charged particles and electric and 
magnetic fields within the Ionosphere, and to complete verification of the capability and utility of a Space Shuttle-based tethered 
satellite system (TSS). 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The TSS is a cooperative program with Italy to provide a reusable space facility for conducting space experiments at distances up to 
100 kilometers from the Space Shuttle Orbiter while being held in a fixed position relative to the Orbiter.  During the demonstration 
mission flown in August 1992, the TSS verified its capability to provide a dynamically stable research facility, but a mechanical 
interference in the deployment system prevented full deployment of the tether and satellite and completion of the science mission.  
In response to an Italian Space Agency request to refly the mission, NASA conducted a reflight study, including an independent 
assessment of NASA's future use of tethered satellites.  The study concluded that a reflight mission could be readily accomplished 
and recommended several improvements to enhance the probability of success.  The independent assessment identified a number of 
significant and unique science and engineering objectives which can be accomplished using tethered satellites, and urged the 
continued development and utilization of the tethered technology.  NASA agreed to refly the TSS-1 mission in February 1996. 
 

NASA is responsible for overall program management, overall systems engineering and integration, orbiter integration, ground and 
flight operations, development of the deployment mechanism and provision of the non-European instruments (Office of Space 
Science funded).  NASA made substantial cost reductions in FY 1995 and FY 1996 by using in-house Marhsall Space Flight Center 
personnel to perform the TSS-1R integration and operations.  Italy is responsible for the design and development of the satellite and 
the European instruments being flown on the joint mission.  The United States Air Force sponsors one of the TSS-1R investigations.

 
 
 
 
 
 
MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

System functional test of deployer                       September 1994 (completed as scheduled) 
Deployer turnover from prime contractor to NASA          September 1994 (completed as scheduled) 
Deliver science instruments to KSC                       February 1995 
Begin Level IV experiment integration                    March 1995 
Satellite turnover from ASI/ALENIA to NASA               April 1995 
Begin simulation training                                August 1995 
Independent assessment of mission readiness              1st Qtr 1996 
Launch TSS-1R                                            February 1996 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

In FY 1994, the TSS was modified to correct TSS-1 anomalies and to enhance the mission success of TSS-1R.  In addition, the 
MSFC in-house personnel were trained to do TSS-1R integration and operations and this responsibility was transferred from the 
prime contractor.  In FY 1995, NASA will complete payload operations control center mission peculiar modifications, conduct 
simulation training and begin Level IV experiment integration.  After a final end-to-end communications test, the TSS-1R hardware 
will be installed in the Space Shuttle (STS-75) and launched in February 1996.  Following the mission, the hardware will be de-
integrated and either returned to Italy or stored for future NASA use.  


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                 PAYLOAD PROCESSING AND SUPPORT 
 

                                     FY 1994            FY 1995            FY 1996 
	                                         (Thousands of Dollars) 


Payload processing and support        85,100             36,300             30,300 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The primary goal for Payload Processing and Support is to provide the capability to safely and efficiently assemble, test, checkout, 
service, integrate and launch a wide variety of spacecraft and space experiments.  

 
STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Payload Processing and Support program provides the technical expertise, facilities and capabilities necessary to perform 
payload buildup, test and checkout, integration of multiple payloads, servicing, transportation to the launch vehicle, integration and 
installation into the launch vehicle, and launch.   Included in this program are operational efficiencies gained to date, as well as 
additional efficiencies to be gained to reduce cost and improve customer satisfaction.  Efficiencies already in place have reduced 
processing time and error rate.  Workforce reductions currently in place have not impacted schedule time, and the FY 1996 strategy 
includes plans to further reduce the workforce while maintaining or continuing to improve customer satisfaction trends.  
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 

 
Missions Supported                         FY 1994        FY 1995          FY 1996 
 

Space Shuttle Missions                           8              7                7 
Spacelab Missions                                6              4                4 
Hitchhiker Experiments                           7             10              TBD 
Get-Away Special Payloads                       22              7              TBD 
Spacehab                                         1              1                2 
Other Major Payloads                             4              5                3 
Expendable Launch Vehicles                       5             11                5 

 
Number of Payload Facilities Operating at KSC	10              6                6 
 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

In FY 1994, eight Space Shuttle mission payloads were processed successfully and on-time.  Payloads included Space Radar Lab 
(SRL-1,2), Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), Spartan 201-02, United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2), 
International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) and Hubble Space Telescope serving mission, Spacehab-2, and the Office of 
Aeronautics and Space Technology payload (OAST-2).  Additionally, customer payload processing support and processing facilities 
were provided for 22 major and secondary payloads.  Support to our International partners was provided on four of these missions.  
Equipment replacement included the complete replacement of the toxic fuel scrubber at the Vertical Processing and Payload 
Hazardous Servicing facilities.  The Kennedy Space Center Network Fiber Distribution Data Interface and the Engineering Data File 
Management systems were developed. 
 

In FY 1995, payload processing and support funding will provide launch and landing payload support activities for seven Space 
Shuttle missions and payload processing support and facilities for twenty-eight major and secondary payloads.  During FY 1995, 
payload processing and support will be provided to Atmospheric Laboratory for Application and Science (ATLAS-3), Tracking and 
Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-G), Spacehab-3, Astronomy (ASTRO-2), SPARTAN 201-3, United States Microgravity Laboratory  
(USML-2), and Space Shuttle-Mir (S/MM-1) payloads.  Four of the ten payload processing facilities will be closed prior to the end of 
the year to achieve program savings. 
 

The FY 1996 funding will provide payload processing and support for seven Space Shuttle missions and the necessary customer 
payload processing facilities and support for 18 major and secondary payloads.   The payloads to be processed in FY 1996 include 
not only those provided by American industries and universities, but also those provided in cooperation with our international 
partners.  The major payload that involves partner cooperation is the reflight of the Italian Tethered Space Satellite (TSS-1R).  Work 
will continue on the refurbishment of the instrument and control system and the environmental control system of the payload 
canister and transporter with completion anticipated within the fiscal year.  


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                ADVANCED PROJECTS 
 

                                      FY 1994            FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Advanced projects                       7,200             12,200             12,200 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The primary goals of the program are to continue to enhance crew safety for both the Space Shuttle and the Space Station, to 
pursue technology developments contributing to a reduction of Space Shuttle program costs, and to continue to implement flight 
and ground systems improvements.  Secondary goals of the program are to promote transfer of advanced technologies, significantly 
increase the number of cooperative agreements, promote environmental alternatives to incorporate compliance solutions and 
pollution prevention, support leading edge technology to enhance safety, operational capabilities and cost efficiencies, and to develop 
a fully capable, diverse and motivated workforce.  The Advanced Projects activity includes two major program elements:  the 
Advanced Operations program and the Advanced Space Systems program. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Advanced Operations program supports projects which improve ground and flight operations of current and future human 
spaceflight vehicles by identifying, advocating and demonstrating available technologies and processes which are more efficient, cost 
effective, reliable, have dual use potential, and meet safety and performance requirements.  The projects supported by the program 
are selected from a prioritized pool of candidate projects proposed by the operations Centers.  The selected projects will be developed 
to a prototype level and demonstrated to meet their objectives within three years.  Successfully-demonstrated projects will be 
transitioned to an operational program for implementation and to a private enterprise for commercial development.  Linkages to 
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) and to Small or Minority-Owned Businesses are sought and encouraged. 
 

Several Advanced Operations projects have been jointly funded, either in their development or their commercialization, by other 
government agencies such as the Department of Energy or the State of Florida, private industry in either cooperative agreements or 
Space Act Agreements, or other NASA offices such as the Office of Space Access and Technology.  The Advanced Operations program 
places a high priority on leveraging its limited funds through partnerships with other fund sources, public and private, to enhance 
its ability to achieve its goals. 
 

The Advanced Space Systems program conducts flight demonstration experiments to validate critical advanced technologies in a 
relevant environment.  The program identifies and demonstrates available technologies and processes which are efficient, cost 
effective, reliable, and meet safety and performance requirements.  Projects are matured to a protoflight level, utilizing existing 
carriers as testbeds for developing space flight hardware and operational processes to ensure their readiness to meet operational 
requirements.  Flight demonstrations also provide training for young NASA engineers and managers with early "hands-on" flight 
hardware experience. 
 

The Orbital Debris program is an international cooperative program jointly funded with the space agencies of Russia, Japan, and 
the European Space Agency.  NASA has a series of cooperative programs with other spacefaring nations to measure, model, and 
mitigate the orbital debris environment.  Other U.S. government agencies including the Department of Defense, the Department of 
Commerce, Federal Communication Commission, Department of State, and the Office of Science and Technology Policy rely on the 
products of the NASA Orbital Debris program to develop national and international policy relative to the mitigation of orbital debris.    
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 

 
The success of the Advanced Projects activities has been, and will continue to be, measured by the success of its projects.  Over 100 
projects have been supported in the past six years, most of which have been successful in delivering products which enhance the 
efficiency and reduce the cost of ground and flight operations.  The following events represent significant milestones in the 
successful completion of this program:  
 

Advanced Operations 

 
Deliver instrumentation              Enables electronic data sharing of instrumentation system component failure among all 
component failure data sharing       Mission Control Center (MCC) flight monitoring workstations. 
to the  MCC - 2nd Qtr FY 1995 
 

Deliver rendezvous operations        Provide computer-derived trajectory data related to rendezvous operations to all MCC flight 
data sharing to the MCC -            monitoring workstations. 
3rd Qtr FY 1995 
 

Deliver final version of Visual      Enables flight controllers in the MCC to visualize final phase of Space Shuttle/Mir docking 
Prox Operations System Software      utilizing tracking and trajectory data only. 
to the MCC - 4th Qtr FY 1995 
 

Migrate Mission Information	     Provides paperless documentation capability to the MCC and flight support offices at the 
System and Electronic                Johnson Space Center, to remote payload support offices, and to the flight vehicle. 
Documentation System to the 
MCC - 1st Qtr FY 1996 


Advanced Space Systems 
 

Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE)	     This flight demonstration will validate the microgravity sensitivity of key SFE subsystem 
Flight Demonstration Critical 	     components on an integrated basis.  An operational SFE would reduce the annual resupply 
Design Review - 1st Qtr FY 1996	     weight for the international Space Station by 12,000 pounds with an associated reduction in  
	                             logistics costs.   

 
International Space Welding          The ISWE will demonstrate the ability to perform contingency repairs to the international 
Experiment (ISWE) Critical           Space Station using an electron beam welding device developed by the Paton Institute in the 
Design Review - 2nd Qtr FY 1996	     Ukraine. 
 

SFE Flight Demonstration -	     This flight demonstration will verify the performance capability of the SFE subsystem in  
1st Qtr FY 1998	                     microgravity during the STS-87 mission.  
 

ISWE Flight Demonstration -          The capability of the Ukrainian Hand Tool to be utilized to weld Space Station materials and  
1st Qtr FY 1998                      structure will be demonstrated during the STS-87 mission.   
 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Advanced Operations accomplishments in FY 1994 include:  
 

The Miniature Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier - a component in the Permanent Measurement System at the Kennedy Space 
Center (KSC) which will result in the savings of approximately 4500 work-hours per year in transducer calibration time or 
approximately $180,000 per year when implemented, and which is being made available commercially through a joint collaboration 
of NASA, the State of Florida and private corporation. 
 

The Ground Processing and Scheduling System - a software tool developed to produce and distribute schedules for post-
landing/pre-launch processing of the Space Shuttles which is already saving the Space Shuttle support contractor at KSC 
approximately $400,000 per Space Shuttle mission and which was, in FY 1994, awarded the largest Space Act Award in NASA 
history for having spawned a new business and for its tremendous potential for commercial application. 
 

The Spacehab Intelligent Familiarization Trainer - an application of the previously-developed Intelligent Computer Aided Trainer 
which enabled the Spacehab program to avoid over two million dollars in the cost of developing a Spacehab trainer while still 
providing quality training for Spacehab crews. 
 

The EVA Electronic Cuff Checklist - an electronic replacement for the paper checklists carried by astronauts during space-walks 
which will, during the Space Station era, reduce the costs of producing and transporting paper procedures for the Station crew and 
will improve the efficiency of mission operations through improved flexibility, and rapid turnaround and update of procedures. 
 

The Distributed Earth Model and Orbiter System - previously supported by the Advanced Operations Program, and presented the 
Federal Leadership Award in FY 1994 for having enabled a savings of over $2 million in the cost of a visual orbital display for the 
Consolidated Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. 
 

In FY 1995 and 1996, the Advanced Operations program will continue to address its goals by supporting projects to enhance the 
safety of the Space Shuttle and Space Station crews with projects such as a microwave device for tracking space-walking astronauts 
and a virtual visualization tool for monitoring the final approach of the Space Shuttle to the Mir and the Space Station; projects to 
reduce costs and improve efficiency such as the Electronic Documentation Project and Advanced Data Management System which 
will reduce the amount of paper products required for flight and speed the process of document revision, approval, and distribution; 
projects to improve the monitoring of environmental impacts such as a buoy which optically checks water quality of the rivers 
around the KSC launch area; projects which encourage academic development in space related fields at the HBCUs such as 
Environmentally Safe Rechargeable Batteries for Space and Small Portable Mass Spectrometer Development; and projects which 
have technology transfer potential such as the Payload Guidance Transfer System and the Surface Defect Analyzer. 
 

In the Advanced Space Systems Program, a total of 15 successful flight demonstrations have been conducted.  Some examples of 
recent accomplishments include:   
 

The Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Flight Demonstrations (FARE-1) and (FARE-2), and the Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer 
(SHOOT) flight demonstration were flown on the Space Shuttle.  The FARE flight demonstrations were utilized to obtain essential 
low gravity fluid transfer data that are applicable to Space Station to increase the efficiency of fluid transfer operations and by the 
Space Shuttle to increase the safety and efficiency of extended duration flights.  The SHOOT flight demonstration not only 
demonstrated the feasibility of superfluid helium transfers on orbit at operational rates, but it also set the precedent for cryogenic 
payload safety on both Space Shuttle and Space Station.  The hardware, software and operational procedures developed as part of 
the SHOOT flight demonstration will result in future cost savings to other microgravity payloads.  The SHOOT cryogenic hardware 
components have already become industry standards.

 
The Small Expendable Deployers (SEDS-1 and SEDS-2) flight demonstrations, and the Plasma Motor/Generator (PMG) flight 
demonstration were tether applications experiments that were flown as secondary payloads aboard  Delta II launch vehicles.  The 
SEDS flight demonstrations proved the technology readiness of these low cost and safe systems which have promising applications 
for the routine deorbiting of Space Station materials and emergency medical samples as well as the placement of instruments into 
the upper atmosphere.  The SEDS experiments also demonstrated the feasibility of using these low cost tether applications testbeds 
for improving the efficiency of in-space operations.  The PMG flight demonstration proved the ability of the proposed Space Station 
plasma grounding techniques for maintaining the electrostatic potential  between the Space Station and the surrounding plasma 
medium.  The PMG also demonstrated the ability to use electrostatic tethers to provide thrust to offset drag in LEO space systems.  
The PMG also demonstrated the use of direct magnetic (non-rocket) propulsion for orbital maneuvering. 
The orbital debris program is directed at measuring the orbital debris environment, developing debris growth mitigation measures, 
and enhancing spacecraft protection and survivability.  A total of 2400 hours of observations of the debris environment reduced the 
uncertainty in that environment from some 300% to approximately 50%.  In addition, the first survey of the orbital debris 
environment at sun synchronous and geostationary attitudes was initiated.  These continuing measurements are the basis for 
studying and understanding future orbital debris mitigation measures which will result in lowering the cost of, as well as, improving 
the safety of the Space Shuttle and the international Space Station.  Geostationary orbital debris data is being utilized to develop 
cost effective debris mitigation techniques to protect vital geostationary assets. 
 

The Advanced Space Systems program will continue to address its stated goals for FY 1996 by supporting projects to enhance the 
safety and mitigate risk on the Space Shuttle and Space Station with projects such as the Space Station Static Feed Water 
Electrolysis System (to reduce logistics costs via increased closure of the life support system to generate oxygen), the Ukrainian 
Universal Hand Tool (to validate the Ukrainian-developed space-based electron beam welding capability for on orbit operations, and 
the Debris Capture Flight demonstration on Mir (to initiate in-situ environmental measurements in the planned Space Station 
environment)


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                          ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL BASE 
 

                                      FY 1994            FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                  (Thousands of Dollars) 

 
Engineering and technical base        180,400            165,600            171,700 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The focus of the Engineering and Technical Base (ETB) is to support the institutional capability to operate space flight laboratories, 
technical facilities, and testbeds; conduct independent safety, and reliability assessments; and to stimulate science and technical 
competence in the United States.  The ETB activities are carried out by the NASA Field Centers at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) 
including White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Stennis Space 
Center (SSC) and the Office of Space Flight at Headquarters.  The ETB provides the underpinning of the Centers' performance of 
research and analysis and testing tasks, to solve present problems, and to produce benefits to avoid high expenditures in developing 
programs, technologies, and materials.  The ETB empowers a core workforce to perform programs for NASA, other Federal and State 
agencies, reimbursable customers, commercial entities, and international agencies. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Office of Space Flight strives to sustain its institutional technical base and preserve a high degree of core capability and 
excellence.  The FY 1994 consolidation of activities identified ways to economize the resources committed to ETB and maintain  
benefits to the nation's major space flight program.  Over the next few fiscal years, the FY 1994 actions will continue to generate 
savings in information resources management and contract streamlining.  A prioritized core environment will be dedicated to multi-
program labs and test facilities, associated systems, equipment, and a full range of skills capable of response to research, testing 
and simulation demands.  
 

Mandatory equipment repair and equipment replacement will be assessed.  Software applications for multi-program analytical tools 
will be implemented.  Strategy to better manage the NASA investment in information processing resources will include aggressive 
actions to integrate and consolidate more ADP operations.   ETB will ensure synergism among major NASA engineering programs.  
Awards for education and research tasks will be granted to support educational excellence and research learning opportunities in 
colleges and universities.  Awards will also be granted to enhance teacher and faculty skills as they provide science, mathematics, 
engineering and technology education at the elementary, secondary and university levels.


   
MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Laboratory facilities (KSC)     Support 22 labs for approximately 121 applied research projects 
Continuing effort 
 

Laboratory facilities (JSC)     Support 37 labs including 32 science and engineering and 5 space and life sciences 
Continuing effort 
 

Laboratory facilities (MSFC)    Support 52 major core laboratory areas 
Continuing effort 
 

Propulsion Facility and Lab     Core environment to support customer base 
Infrastructure (WSTF)  
Continuing effort 
 

Safety and Mission Assurance    Validate Independent Assessments 
Analysis - 4th Qtr FY 1995 
 

Equipment Replacement Study     Prioritized Replacements and Upgrades 
4th Qtr FY 1995 
 

Information Resources           Consolidate Automated Data Processing (ADP) Operations 
Management (IRM) Five  
Year Investment Plan 
(MSFC)  - 4th Qtr FY 1995 
 

Best Business Practice Pilot    Test the Engineering Technical Analysis contract support to the 
Project (JSC) - 	        Shuttle Engineering Simulator (SES) area 
4th Qtr FY 1995
 

IRM Five Year Investment Plan   Consolidate ADP Operations 
(MSFC)  - 4th Qtr FY 1996 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

The institutional technical base accomplished numerous activities in FY 1994.  The JSC initiated the Best Business Practice pilot 
project to test the Engineering, Test and Analysis (ETA) contract support to the Shuttle Engineering Simulator (SES) area.  The test 
generated data shows nearly $1 million in savings could be realized over time in the SES area.  Benefits of the data will be 
incorporated in the ETA contract, such as consolidation of fragmented controls, a rebaseline of the negotiated contract value and 
renegotiated fee plans.  The JSC is implementing the pilot in seven other laboratory areas.  In addition, the JSC allocated 
institutional technical base support to 32 science and engineering and five (5) space and life sciences laboratories.  Laboratories 
prepared the Dual-Technology Flow Meter Testbed for identifying gases in deep-water wellhead; completed repairs on two network 
analyzers in the Microwave Integrated Circuit Laboratory; designed and fabricated new Source Antenna for use in the Anechoic 
Chamber, installed three S-Band Space Loss Simulator Area Racks in Electronic Systems Test Lab (ESTL); completed analyses of 
the Prism Stereo Vision, the Perception Laser Mapper and the Complex Object Grasp Test elements of EVA Robotics Helper and 
Retriever Task; provided helium skid support to Chamber using tie lines from Chamber A; installed and checked out 
instrumentation in High Temperature Superconductivity Lab, completed Phase 1 test of the Single Dexterous Arm/Hand and Phase 
2 Build; Second Dexterous Arm/Hand in the Hand Dexterous Anthropomorphic Robotics Testbed; completed man-rating capability 
of Chamber A, modifying the fire suppression and emergency systems; completed development of Electromagnetic Heart Catheter for 
Baylor Medical Center application; tested 4 Degree-of-Freedom Correlator in both Optical Tracking Correlator and  
6-Degree of Freedom Facility; replaced obsolete liquid nitrogen controls in Chamber A and helium controls in Chamber B32; and 
upgraded the Systems Integrated Research Facility including the Water Recovery System.  The ETB also provided the infrastructure 
for real-time mission support for flight anomalies and real-time and post-flight problem resolutions. 
 

The ETB enabled the WSTF to maintain its propulsion facility and laboratory infrastructure.  The WSTF performed maintenance and 
repair of its test stands, propellant and gas supply distribution systems, safety systems, data acquisition and control systems.  The 
core environment enabled WSTF to support a customer base with testing and evaluations of spacecraft materials, components, 
propulsion systems for safe human exploration and utilization of space.  It enabled WSTF to perform tasks for the Space Shuttle 
Orbiter, payloads, international Space Station, crew training, engineering and development, other Government agencies such as the 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Energy, and Transportation, and the aerospace and medical industry. 
 

With ETB funding, the KSC supports a core environment for 22 laboratories for 121 applied research projects.  The KSC solved 
programmatic issues with ETB participation in tasks resulting in a prototype of the air coupled advanced ultrasonic leak detector 
which located the leakage on the STS-65 flight, documentation of Window #6 micrometeoroid crack on the STS-60 flight, Launch 
Complex 39 (LC-39) pad meteorology instrumentation upgrade saved $1 million first time use, wind profiler instruments for the KSC 
and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, the first NASA/State of Florida/corporate partnership for technology transfer of the 
Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier, and a standardized transducer for all ground support equipment which included 6,000 
measurements and 23 transducer types.  The ETB enabled the KSC to eliminate potentially critical failures on the KSC fiber optic 
circuits and assisted the Shuttle Launch Processing System organization in understanding and properly using fiber optics for 
launch processing.  The KSC teamed with the MSFC and SSC to develop the improved hydrogen leak detector and collaborated with 
the SSC on flame detection systems.  The ETB supported upgrades to the LC-39 measurement system.  The ETB also participated in 
the development of landing aids for a lightning warning and prediction system, toxic vapor detectors and sensors to measure Space 
Shuttle tile waterproofing compound vapors. 
 

The ETB supported the KSC life sciences tasks.  The microbiological lab developed a unique method to functionally characterize 
microbes in nutrient solutions, soils and surface waters; the chemistry lab researched a process to identify mercury contamination 
in surface water; and the microscopy lab analyzed the root characteristics of plants grown on flight nutrient delivery systems. 
 

The MSFC allocated the ETB to 52 major core laboratory areas.  The ETB support enabled the Center's technical core capability to 
provide in-depth technical support for designs, developments, testing, mission operations and evaluation of launch vehicles, space 
transportation systems, space stations, and payloads.  The ETB enabled the MSFC to conduct research and development efforts 
related to engineering design, systems engineering, systems integration, material and process engineering, physical science 
research, test and evaluation, data analysis and system simulations.  Programs benefiting from the core environment were the 
Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), Solar X-ray Imager (SXI), Alternate Turbopump 
Development, Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor, international Space Station, Spacelab, Lightning Imager Sensor, Single-Stage-to-
Orbit, and Space Station Furnace Facility.  Specific accomplishments for the programs include analysis of the SSME fuel flowmeter, 
developed computer program that calculated the aerodynamic forces and moments on subsonic through hypersonic flight vehicles, 
generated the first geophysical data products for the Earth Observing System pathfinder, provided vacuum ultraviolet flux 
calibrations for paint recertification tests, and assessed the suitability of NASA treetops computer code for modeling the structural 
dynamics and point control of the AXAF-I observing satellite. 
 

The ETB participated in the SSC laboratory maintenance operations.  Although the size of the SSC institutional engineering 
capability is very minimal, the ETB enabled the Center to conduct advanced propulsion test technology research and development 
for government and commercial propulsion programs.  The SSC performed laboratory activities for major NASA shuttle programs, 
the Air Force National Aerospace reimbursable program, and Rocketdyne test operations.  The SSC core laboratory environment 
provided customers with gas and material analysis, non-destructive evaluations, standards and calibrations, environmental 
analysis, fluid component processing, maintenance and fabrication of welded structures and components, and machining and 
fabrication of mechanical structures and components.  The ETB enabled the SSC to complete advanced planning studies involving 
cost trade presentations for future facility utilization and technology development tasks such as the seal configuration tester 
prototype. 
 

The Research and Development (R&D) hardware fabrication and assembly services benefited programs such as the Crystal Growth 
Furnace, Composite Infrared Spectrograph, international Space Station, Super Lightweight Tank, Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell, 
Remote Manipulator System, Electromechanical Actuator, Japanese/American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment, Tethered Satellite 
System, and Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace.  Propulsion technicians prepared facilities to conduct testing 
in the Technology Test Bed, Hydrogen Cold Flow Facility, 4583 Test Cells, Solid Propellant Test Facility, Improved Hot Gas Facility, 
Test Stand (TS) 115, TS 116, TS 300 and TS 500.  Over 52,000 items of standards and test equipment were calibrated; instruments 
were serviced and repaired involving approximately 26 disciplines of mass, force, and temperature.  Nearly 25 million units of 
mission imaging workload were accomplished.  Over a thousand Non-Destructive Evaluations were performed by the KSC to support 
the Space Shuttle and payload processing schedules.  The ETB supported over 12,000 units of commodity sampling and an average 
of 5,000 units of chemical analysis at the KSC on propellants, aircraft fuels and gases.  The MSFC purchased predominately liquid 
nitrogen, the bulk of which was converted to gaseous nitrogen, and was distributed to the various test facilities and laboratories via 
an underground piping system.  Small amounts of liquid oxygen and helium were also procured. 
 

Under the ETB program, NASA empowered the institutional Safety and Mission Assurance (SRM&QA) contracted workforce to 
perform space flight activities at the JSC, the WSTF, the MSFC and the KSC.  The workforce are highly skilled personnel who are 
charged with responsibility to conduct assessments of conformance to reliability and quality standards.  The ETB resources also 
supports independent assessments of flight and test equipment and testing operations, including product assurance tasks for the 
international Space Station program.  Critical flight systems process training was accomplished. Certifications of pressure systems 
and contractors were also performed.  Surveillance of design manufacturing and testing of hardware and software were conducted to 
ensure compliance with NASA safety and mission assurance policy.  Problem trending, reliability trending and special safety 
assurance studies were also accomplished. 
 

Information resource management (IRM) processing achieved numerous efficiencies through the consolidation of mainframes at the 
MSFC and networks at the JSC; merger of the agency telecommunications; reorganization of ADP services and support contracts; 
consolidation of international Space Station and Space Shuttle user requirements; consolidation of site licenses for personal 
computer software; standardization of the MSFC data administration plan, central data dictionary and data naming; and 
standardization of the JSC, MSFC and SSC software and manual development.  In FY 1995, the ETB will participate in the Office of 
Space Flight IRM Five Year Investment strategy plan for FY 1995 through FY 1999 which will accrue tremendous savings to space 
flight ADP operations.  The IRM savings are expected to be at least 35 percent in the near-term and up to 50 percent in costs in the 
outyears.  
 

The JSC and the MSFC Engineering Computation Facility (ECF) Class VI Supercomputers operate major systems for engineering 
and scientific computer-intensive applications seven days a week.  The ECF provides the JSC and the MSFC with the ADP hardware 
and software to conduct thermal radiation analyses, computational fluid dynamics, structural dynamics and stress analyses, 
certification and engineering performance evaluation of flight and test data, and simulation aerodynamics.  The ETB class VI 
funding supports the efficiency actions identified by the NASA ADP Consolidation Center (NACC) project for FY 1994.  The NACC 
named the MSFC as the consolidation center to house the Class VI operations with the JSC Class VI relocating to MSFC.  The ETB 
will continue to support the NACC Class VI operations in FY 1995.  In FY 1996, the NACC Class VI operations will be moved to a 
user fee arrangement and extend the capability to other NASA Centers.  The MSFC and the JSC will continue to develop and process 
software applications under the new fee arrangements. 
 

In cooperation with the goals of the NASA Minority University Research and Education Program, the ETB enabled the space flight 
Centers to increase participation in programs to stimulate science and technical competence in the nation.  The ETB program 
empowered the Centers to award a total of 72 education and research grants to Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), 
Other Minority Universities (OMU), Teacher/Faculty enhancement programs, and the JSC University Research Program.  Examples 
of awards granted include supersonic gas-liquid cleaning systems; Houston Preparatory Initiative:  Scientific and Technical 
Instructions Focusing on Pre-College Underrepresented Minorities; Reliability of Damaged Space Structures from Vibration 
Measurements, and American Associate for Engineering Education Summer Faculty Fellowship Program. 
 

The ETB support to a core engineering environment is planned at the Centers in FY 1996.  A full range of workforce skills, analytical 
tools and facilities is planned to enable space flight institutional engineering to support the NASA programs and a customer base 
with design, development, test and evaluations, independent assessments, simulation, operations support, anomaly resolution, and 
systems engineering support.  A full range of technical operations support for standards and calibration, non-destructive evaluation, 
manufacturing and fabrication, sampling and analysis, gas supplies and operations, SRM&QA and independent assessments.  
Education and research awards will be supported.  Actions to eliminate costly duplication of capabilities is planned.  Results of the 
review of the ETB equipment replacement program should generate a course of actions for upgrades in FY 1996; other reviews such 
as ETB program-unique tasks performed by the science and engineering labs should also generate a course of action to implement 
in FY 1996 which may permit realignment of funding resources among the ETB functions. 

 


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