SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

                                FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 

                                       BUDGET SUMMARY

 
OFFICE OF LIFE AND MICROGRAVITY SCIENCES AND APPLICATIONS 
 
          

                             SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS


                                          
                                         FY 1994       FY 1995         FY 1996        
                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 

Life sciences 
    Research and analysis                 55,100        50,700          50,400	      
    Flight program                       131,700        90,000          84,000       
 
  
    Subtotal                             186,800       140,700         134,400 
 

Microgravity science research 
    Research and analysis		  18,400        30,400          30,200        
    Flight program                       156,600       101,500         109,700        
 

      Subtotal                           175,000       131,900         139,900 
 

Space shuttle/spacelab payload mission 
    Management and Integration           108,700       113,000          85,400


Aerospace medicine/occupational health    (2,700)        7,000           7,000         
 

Space station payload facilities                                                       
    Life science facilities	          24,000        42,900           53,900 
    Microgravity facilities               13,000        32,000           65,600 
    EXPRESS racks/lab support equipment                 15,600           17,800 
 
 
    Subtotal                              37,000        90,500          137,300 
 

       Total                             507,500       483,100          504,000 


                           SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

                                 FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 

                                       BUDGET SUMMARY 
 

Distribution of Program Amount by Installation 
 

                                         FY 1994       FY 1995          FY 1996 
                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Johnson Space Center                     130,800        98,300          108,900 
Kennedy Space Center                      27,900        20,900           19,400 
Marshall Space Flight Center             122,000       112,000          125,200 
Ames Research Center                      66,600        63,500           71,800 
Langley Research Center                    7,200           800            3,600 
Lewis Research Center                     74,400        75,900           82,700 
Goddard Space Flight Center                  500            --              300 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory                 16,200         2,500            8,000 
Headquarters                              61,900       109,200           84,100 
 

       Total                             507,500       483,100          504,000 



                           SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

                                FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 

OFFICE OF LIFE AND MICROGRAVITY SCIENCES AND APPLICATIONS 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The NASA Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications program leads the nation's efforts in space biological, physical and 
chemical sciences and aerospace medicine, supporting technology development, and applications using the attributes of the space 
environment to advance knowledge, to improve the quality of life on Earth, and to strengthen the foundations for continuing the 
exploration and development of space.  Major program goals are:  (1) understand the role of gravity in biological, physical and 
chemical systems, and (2) develop and provide technologies and research data essential to design and operate space-based systems, 
and to maximize the health, well-being and productivity of humans in the exploration and utilization of space. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications (OLMSA) at NASA Headquarters consists of four divisions:  the Life and 
Biomedical Sciences and Applications Division, the Microgravity Science and Applications Division, the Flight Systems Division, and 
the Aerospace Medicine and Occupational Health Division.  The OLMSA also manages the Space Station Payload Facilities 
development program. 
 

The program contributes to the creation of new scientific knowledge by studying the effect of the space environment on important 
biological, chemical, and physical processes.  The ground-based research programs support over 500 peer-reviewed Principal 
Investigators at over 217 universities and colleges over a diverse range of disciplines including human physiology, gravitational 
biology, materials science, fluids physics, combustion science, and biotechnology. 
 

The flight programs in life sciences and microgravity develop experiments to fly on orbiting spacecraft such as the Spacelab 
modules, Space Shuttle pallet payloads,  Space Shuttle middecks, the Mir Space Station and the International Space Station Alpha 
(ISSA).  The Flight System Division provides Headquarters program management for the mission planning and integration for all of 
these experiments as well as for additional attached Space Shuttle payloads developed by other NASA organizations. 
 

As NASA moves into the Space Station era, there will be a major transition from the current on-orbit experimentation program to 
the international Space Station.  The core of the Space Station program will be six major research facilities:  the Gravitational 
Biology Facility  (GBF), the Centrifuge Facility (CF), the Human Research Facility (HRF), the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF), 
the Biotechnology Facility (BTF) (which includes the Protein Crystal Growth experiment) and the Fluids/Combustion Facility (FCF). 
 
 

The Life Sciences Research and Analysis program supports ground-based research and definition studies in six major areas;   
(1) Space Physiology and Countermeasures, (2) Space Human Factors Engineering, (3) Environmental Health, (4) Space Radiation 
Health, (5) Advanced Life Support, and (6) Space Biology.  The Research and Analysis program also includes data archiving, 
laboratories, NASA Specialized Centers of Research and Training (NSCORTS), and joint activities with the National Institutes of 
Health (NIH) and the National Science Foundation (NSF).  Ground-based research relies on unique gravitational and simulation 
facilities such as centrifuges and parabolic aircraft. 
 

The Life Sciences Flight program, consists of the Space Shuttle/Spacelab flight experiments program, the NASA/MIR Research 
Program (NMRP), the Space Station Utilization program and other international cooperative efforts.  The flight experiments program 
selects, defines, develops and conducts in-space medical and biological research, and tests advanced life support and extravehicular 
technologies.  The broad variety of multi-user research facilities it develops is designed to support the life sciences community's 
needs of the future. 
 

The Microgravity Science Research and Analysis program supports ground-based research and definition studies for flight 
experiment candidates in five primary areas;  (1) Biotechnology, (2) Combustion Science, (3) Fluid Physics, (4) Materials Science, and 
(5) Gravitational Physics.  Ground-based research includes laboratories, drop-tubes, drop towers and parabolic aircraft. 
 

The Microgravity Science Flight program, consisting of a flight experiments program, the NMRP and the Space Station Utilization 
program, provides a wide range of experimental capabilities.  The flight program supports a broad variety of hardware experiments 
including, both unique one-of-a kind scientific experiments as well as multi-user research facilities, which will serve as the 
cornerstones of microgravity science and applications research in the future.  Experiments will be principally flown in the Space 
Shuttle, Spacelab, sounding rockets and/or other commercially-developed spacecraft. 
 

The Space Shuttle/Spacelab Mission Management and Integration program performs the mission planning, integration and 
execution of all NASA/Spacelab, the NMRP and attached Space Shuttle payloads.  The program includes integration of the scientific 
payloads into the various carriers, payload specialist training and system management and engineering development of flight 
equipment and software. 
 

The Aerospace Medicine and Occupational Health program is responsible for the maintenance of health, medical safety and 
productivity of our astronauts in space and for protecting and promoting the health and safety of all NASA employees.  The program 
also includes tele-medicine and global health applications projects.  This program also includes clinical medicine responsibilities 
that have been transferred from the Life Sciences Research and Analysis program. 
 

NASA is continuing to develop and broaden its cooperative research programs with Russia.  The keystone of those efforts is the 
Phase I NASA/MIR Research Program that includes seven missions to the Mir Space Station over the next three years.  This 
program will provide NASA with opportunities to conduct long-duration, on-orbit research in life sciences and microgravity sciences 
and space medicine. 
 

The continued development of the Space Station Payload Facilities will remain one of the highest priorities of NASA .  In addition to 
the six major facilities, NASA will develop Laboratory Support Equipment and Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space 
Station (EXPRESS) racks for the station, NASA has completed a major redesign activity of the Centrifuge Facility that will result in a 
simplified but highly capable facility that will be delivered to the Space Station three years earlier than the prior design and at a 
lower cost


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                LIFE SCIENCES RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

  
                                              FY 1994          FY 1995        FY 1996 
                                                         (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Life sciences research and analysis              55,100           50,700         50,400 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Life Sciences Research and Analysis program sponsors basic and applied research in biomedicine, biology, environmental 
science, and related technologies in support of the Agency's strategic goals.  The program goals are:  (1) to effectively use 
microgravity and the other characteristics of the space environment to enhance our understanding of fundamental biological 
processes; (2) to develop the scientific and technological foundations for a safe, productive human presence in space for extended 
periods and in preparation for exploration; and (3) to apply this knowledge and technology to improve our nation's competitiveness, 
education, and the quality of life on Earth. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Life Sciences Research and Analysis program supports applied research as well as basic research.  Its basic research activities use 
the unique weightless environment of space as a tool to learn about basic structures and functions of humans, other animals, and 
plants.  Its applied research activities enable the development of procedures or countermeasures to prevent the undesirable effects 
of space flight on humans.  Life Sciences Research and Analysis pursues its goals through ground-based research programs and 
projects at universities, NASA Centers and other Federal agencies including NIH.  It also finances specialized support facilities and 
technologies. 
 

The Life Sciences Research and Analysis program supports ground-based research in the following areas:  (1) gravitational research, 
(2) environmental and human factors research, and (3) advanced life support systems research.  Gravitational research in the 
biological, biomedical, environmental, and psychosocial sciences is composed of the space biology and the space physiology and 
countermeasures program areas.  Environmental and human factors research subdivides into the environmental health program 
area, space radiation health, and the space human factors area.  The advanced life support program consists of advanced life 
support and the advanced extravehicular activity systems areas. 
 

The Research and Analysis program also sponsors three additional specialized activities and services.  The Advanced Technology 
Development and Data Analysis activities respond to the defined needs of the space life sciences ground-based and flight programs.  
The Research and Analysis program's Education and Outreach activity informs the professional community about space life sciences 
activities, encourages students to consider careers in space life sciences, and sponsors development programs aimed at those 
already engaged in life sciences research careers. 


All sponsored research is peer-reviewed, consistent with revised and updated peer review policies implemented during FY 1994.  The 
program's peer review program is administered from Headquarters, and proposals submitted by NASA Field Center researchers are 
subjected to the same rigorous review standards as those of extramural researchers.  The Life and Biomedical Sciences and 
Applications program's procedures enable peer reviews of selected proposals to be performed under cooperative arrangements with 
the National Institutes of Health (NIH). 
 

The Space Biology program seeks to improve understanding of the role of gravity on biological processes by using a variety of 
gravitational environments (hypergravity, simulated hypogravity, and microgravity) as research tools or by determining the 
combined effects of gravity and other environmental factors on biological systems.  The program emphasizes research in cell and 
molecular biology, developmental biology, plant biology, and systems biology.  Its research includes plants or animals as subjects, as 
well as cell or tissue cultures. 
 

The Space Physiology and Countermeasures program conducts research that seeks to characterize and determine the mechanisms 
of the physiological changes in weightlessness, including those that threaten to limit the duration of human space missions.  It also 
develops integrated prophylaxis or rehabilitation methods that allow humans to live and work in microgravity, minimize the risk of 
returning to Earth's gravity, and optimize crew safety, well-being, and performance. 
 

The Environmental Health program seeks to understand the effects of spacecraft environments on humans, animals, and other 
organisms.  It attempts to specify, measure, and control these environments, and it develops standards and countermeasures, 
where necessary, to optimize crew health, safety, and productivity.  Research within the Environmental Health program includes 
four interrelated disciplines, each dealing with a specific aspect of the spacecraft environment: barophysiology, microbiology, 
toxicology, and water quality.  The program develops monitoring techniques, procedures, and standards for extended Space Shuttle 
missions and the international Space Station. 
 

The Space Radiation Health program conducts research needed to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of 
humans engaged in the development and exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge 
base to support possible future planetary exploration, and to predict the probabilities of deleterious health effects due to radiation 
exposure during human space activities.  The emphasis of this program is on mechanistic studies with the potential to enable 
extrapolation of scientific research results to human beings in space. 
 

The Space Human Factors program integrates knowledge about human capabilities and system engineering methodologies.  It 
develops new processes and procedures to enhance crew training and performance and to improve complex automated systems 
designs.  It also studies the psycho social issues of humans in isolated environments.  The program achieves its objectives, in part, 
by sponsoring or supporting Earth-based analog studies in extreme and isolated environments. 
 

The Advanced Life Support program develops advanced regenerative life support systems by combining biological, physical, and 
chemical processes capable of producing and recycling the food, air, and water needed to support long-term human missions in 
space in a safe and reliable manner.  Its projects and activities apply engineering sciences to the design of technologies that support 
and control physical-chemical and bioregenerative closed loop systems for clean air and potable water.  The program applies 
knowledge from the life sciences to grow, harvest, and process crop plants for flight crew consumption. 
 

The Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems program develops the technologies necessary to perform the EVAs productively, 
safely, and efficiently during future long-duration missions.  The EVA systems are defined as the operational hardware and 
operational procedures that allow safe, efficient, and productive crew activities in the proximity of a planetary habitat, a spacecraft, 
or an orbiting station.  The EVA hardware includes space suits, portable life support systems, and items such as foot restraints, 
tools, work stations, and interfaces.  These items, along with operational procedures and protocols, are candidates for advanced EVA 
systems technology development. 
 

The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) program sponsors multidisciplinary technology development activities that enhance 
the capability, reliability or quality of Life Sciences flight hardware.  The program solves technical problems that currently limit 
science return from existing flight equipment.  It enables new types of scientific investigations in space; promotes technology 
transfer of Life Sciences technology to industry; and establishes partnerships with industry, universities, and other agencies. 
 

The Data Analysis program stimulates the thorough analysis of data gathered during space flight and its Earth analogs.  This 
program sponsors extended analysis of data collected during space flight.  It supports life sciences data base and archive 
development, and promotes the development of special data analysis techniques, which promise to strengthen the analysis of data 
from space flight, such as mathematical modeling, computer simulation, artificial intelligence or statistical methods. 
 

The Life Sciences Research and Analysis program manages its projects, activities, and tasks from Headquarters and from the 
following NASA Centers:  the Ames Research Center (ARC), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC).  
Following the program’s adoption of revised peer review procedures during FY 1994, NASA returned the responsibility for extramural 
grants management to Headquarters.  Beginning in FY 1995, all the program’s peer-reviewed research and technology awards to 
extramural researchers will be managed and administered from Headquarters.  Center researchers will continue to perform 
intramural peer-reviewed research and technology projects and tasks, as well as applied research and technology tasks.  The 
Centers also maintain various specialized research facilities that support the investigations of extramural and intramural 
researchers alike. 
 

The American Institute of Biological Sciences will assist Headquarters in administering the program’s peer review processes until its 
contract with NASA expires in mid-FY 1995.  NASA will choose a successor contract in 1995 which will consolidate peer review for 
all peer-reviewed research and technology programs.  The ARC and the JSC receive support from the Bionetics Corporation and 
Krug Life Sciences, respectively.  The Dynamac Corporation was recently selected to support the KSC’s life sciences research and 
technology programs during the first quarter of FY 1995, with subcontracted support from Bionetics Corporation. 
 

Life Sciences Research and Analysis program resources support more than $5.0 million annually of collaborative activities with the 
NIH.  Life Sciences resources dedicated to joint NASA/NIH collaboration are likely to increase in future years, stimulated both by 
past collaborative efforts and by the recommendations of the NASA/NIH Interagency Advisory Committee.  Collaborative efforts 
between NASA and the NIH researchers are proceeding on a number of fronts.  The two agencies collaborate on such things as the 
Human Brain project, a collaborative effort focusing on neural science and informatics research.  NASA and the NIH will continue to 
provide mutual support to a NASA/NIH Specialized Center of Research and Technology (NSCORT) for Vestibular Research at 
Northwestern Medical Center in Chicago.  A sampling of other collaborative research and technology projects which NASA Life 
Sciences has underway with the NIH include several projects in cancer research, including a technology development task which 
aims to develop advanced digital mammography techniques.  The agencies are examining similarities between space flight and the 
aging process.  They are working together on neurological and behavioral sciences research, developmental physiology and human 
development research, and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and hematologic systems research.  The two agencies are supporting several 
activities designed to enhance the electronic information services available to life sciences researchers.  For example, SPACELINE, 
an on-line bibliographic database of space life sciences, should become available for use during FY 1995. 
 

The program participates with a variety of other organizations whose research interests intersect those of the Life Sciences Research 
and Analysis program.  Such organizations include the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology and the American 
College of Sports Medicine.  The program also reaches out to groups whose members are underrepresented in the life sciences 
research community, such as the Alaska Native Associations. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Release Life Sciences NASA Research Announcement           Ensure a steady source of peer-reviewed research and 
1st Qtr FY 1995                                            development tasks. 
1st Qtr FY 1996 
 

Complete 50 Life Sciences R&A tasks                        Ensure a steady flow of life sciences research benefits. 
FY 1994/FY 1995/FY 1996 
 

Complete 5-year performance period for NSCORTs/recompete   Conclude NSCORTs in Gravitational Biology, Bioregenerative 
4th Qtr 1995                                               Life Support, and Environmental Health. 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

FY 1994 was a period of significant activity for the Life Sciences Research and Analysis program.  The program's activities ranged 
from continued efforts to improve the quality of the science and peer review process to joint participation or sponsorship of science 
conferences and workshops with NIH, and successful demonstration of a number of promising new technologies. 
 

Collaboration or joint sponsorship of workshops and related activities during FY 1994 included a jointly sponsored workshop with 
the NIH's National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, where researchers gathered to discuss recent research results in 
cardiovascular, pulmonary, and blood functions.  Additional opportunities for life sciences researchers to present their research 
findings occurred through participation with such organizations as the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology, and 
the American College of Sports Medicine.  Successful collaboration with the National Science Foundation resulted in the 
establishment of the Life Sciences Research and Analysis program's ninth NSCORT.  The new plant biology NSCORT was 
established at Ohio State University.  It is composed of nine projects selected from 35 research proposals. 
 

The Advanced EVA System program is also co-sponsoring a program with the multiple sclerosis community that will continue 
NASA's efforts into the development of micro-climate technologies.  The goals of this project are to help establish cooling protocols 
for the multiple sclerosis patients and to coordinate a nationwide clinical study that will determine the medical efficacy of cooling for 
these patients. 
 

NASA, the Alaska Native Associations, the University of Alaska, and industry joined together in FY 1994 to plan for the development 
of appropriate systems, derived from NASA life support technologies, for waste handling and the purification of water for hygiene 
and potable uses appropriate to the unique conditions of rural Alaska. 
 

The first test of a new closed loop Integrated Air Revitalization System was conducted at the Johnson Space Center (JSC).  The test 
system consisted of a four-bed molecular sieve subsystem, a Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, a solid polymer 
electrolyte oxygen generation subsystem, and the associated hardware required to integrate the subsystems.  The test successfully 
demonstrated automated operation of an integrated life support system with capabilities beyond those presently available. 
 

A program was initiated during FY 1994 to develop advanced technology biosensors which will address NASA's future physiological 
monitoring needs.  These sensors have already generated considerable interest in the medical community and cooperative projects 
have been initiated with both the University of California, San Francisco medical center to use these sensors for monitoring fetal 
development and Cedars-Sinai for monitoring blood parameters. 
 

During FY 1995, the Life Sciences Research and Analysis program will complete the first competitive renewal of three NSCORTs.  
The Centers that will be selected following recompetition are in the areas of Gravitational Biology, Environmental Health, and 
Bioregenerative Life Support. 
 

FY 1995 program planning and outreach activities will include three major workshops.  The Neural plasticity workshop, to be  
co-sponsored with the Johns Hopkins University, will take place in February 1995.  It will summarize recent research findings in 
how neural structure and function can be altered by environmental and other stimuli.  It will point towards new research directions 
and potential applications in space and Earth.  A symposium on NASA and the Decade of the Brain, co-sponsored by the National 
Foundation for Brain Research, will be held in June 1995.  This symposium will survey the recent advances in the neurosciences 
and discuss how NASA can further the tremendous advances in the brain and behavioral sciences for the benefit of people on Earth 
and in space.  Finally, a workshop on environmental health will be conducted in the summer of 1995 in conjunction with the 
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).  This workshop will bring together leading investigators supported by 
the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and NASA, and it will result in recommendations on future joint initiatives and programs for 
NASA and the NIEHS. 
 

The Life Sciences Research and Analysis program in FY 1995 will provide extramural investigators with increased access to NASA-
unique facilities supported by NASA and other Federal agencies.  Specifically, the program will increase access to the 
Biocomputation Center, the Vestibular Research Facility and other radial acceleration facilities at the Ames Research Center, and 
the KC-135 and other biomedical facilities at the JSC.  Additionally, the program will initiate a study to evaluate and plan for 
advanced space suit systems necessary to reduce the risk of decompression sickness, and the program will begin developing more 
capable systems for long-duration and planetary missions. 
 

During FY 1996, the Space Biology program will focus on advancing fundamental knowledge in the biological sciences using the tool 
of gravity and microgravity.  The program will apply that knowledge to support NASA's goal of enabling human exploration of space 
and improving the quality of life on Earth through advances in medicine, agriculture, biotechnology, and environmental 
management. 
 

The Cell Biology program will attempt to answer questions on how gravitational information is transduced; how cells respond to 
both acute and long-term variations in gravity; and how gravity affects the composition, size, shape, and function of cells.  The 
Developmental Biology program will study the influence of gravity and microgravity on animal growth, development, reproduction, 
genetic integrity, life span, senescence, and subsequent generations of animals.  The Plant Biology program will conduct research to 
understand how plants perceive, transduce, and respond to a gravitational force.  It will elucidate the role of hypergravity and 
microgravity in developmental and reproductive processes in plants, and it will seek to understand the role of hypergravity and 
microgravity in the metabolism and transport processes in plants.  Finally, the Systems Biology program will study the ways in 
which organisms sense and integrate gravitational information, and how organisms facilitate orientation and locomotion.  The 
Systems Biology program will also test mechanisms of gravitational adaptation, and it will support research which attempts to 
determine the gravitational influence on genetic expression relating to physiologic function, such as rhythms, stature, locomotion, 
etc.  
 

The Space Physiology and Countermeasures program will continue to redirect its ground-based research emphases during  
FY 1996 from studies related to acute problems of short-term space flight to problems associated with extended stays in space, 
especially stays of 90 days to 180 days (i.e., up to the mission durations of the international Space Station).  The Space Physiology 
and Countermeasures program will fund both basic and applied research in studies of the applied effects of hypogravity and 
hypergravity.  Studies may include human subjects and other animal models.  The program will seek new techniques for the non-
invasive, inflight measurement of the variables that characterize all systems.  It will also address the development of an optimal 
exercise protocol for space flight that will provide an effective, comprehensive countermeasure for the various physiological and 
psychological systems, including cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neuromuscular function, fluid and electrolyte balance, and 
performance, while minimizing demands on crew time. 
 

The Environmental Health program in FY 1996 will conduct research that is relevant to the establishment of space flight 
environmental standards for human health and performance.  It will define physiological norms for atmospheric gases, identify 
toxicants and describe microbial populations (including their numbers, pathogenicity, or products).  The program will emphasize 
investigations of optimal nitrogen washout protocols and it will use ground-based studies to anticipate the effects of closed systems 
in space. 
 

The Radiation Health program in FY 1996 will support ground-based experimental radiobiology studies using proton and high-
energy heavy ion beams.  The highest priority will be assigned to studies leading to significant advances in understanding the 
mechanisms of radiation-caused carcinogenesis and in the reliability of interspecies extrapolation of radiobiological effects (in 
particular, extrapolation to humans). 
 

During FY 1996, the primary focus of the Space Human Factors program will shift from knowledge acquisition to knowledge 
application.  This shift will extend human factors support to operational areas and it will emphasize the improvement of processes 
and products.  The program will emphasize the identification and development of projects with clearly defined technology or product 
deliverables in the following five areas:  Advanced Displays and Controls Development; Human-Machine Function Allocation; 
Interactions Among Intelligent Agents; Intravehicular Activity; and Analog Studies. 
 

The primary emphases of the Advanced Life Support program during FY 1996 will be in the areas of solid waste processing, food 
processing and system studies.  Programmatic  relevance will be evaluated relative to these emphases.  Life Sciences Research and 
Analysis will also support additional system studies and the further development of the EVA system requirements.  Proposals in the 
following areas will be considered:  Mission Requirements Definition; EVA Human Factors; Physiological and Medical Requirements; 
EVA Task Requirements; Systems Studies; and EVA Mission Operations. 
 

The primary emphasis of the Advanced Technology Development program during FY 1996 will be on environmental sensors.  The 
program will also begin development of advanced implantable biotelemetry systems, advanced data handling, and advanced lighting 
systems.  Also of interest to the Advanced Technology Development program will be the development of new or improved methods for 
expanding the comprehensive database of chemical contaminants present in waste water and processed water produced by 
terrestrial-based, prototype water processor testing and development. 
 

Also during FY 1996, the Data Analysis program will concentrate on extended data analysis.  Secondary emphasis will be on the 
area of special data analysis techniques.  Because of resource constraints, the program will support projects related to data base 
and archive development only in cases where exceptional benefits to the scientific community or to NASA's life sciences data archive 
project will result. 
 

NASA plans to maintain the number of Life Sciences ground-based Principal Investigators in FY 1996 at approximately 220. The 
number of research proposals received is expected to reach 910 in FY 1996 and the number of major journal publications is planned 
to be at the 500 level for that same year.  


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                           LIFE SCIENCES FLIGHT PROGRAM 
 

                                     FY 1994         FY 1995          FY 1996 
                                               (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Flight experiments program           100,200          72,900           59,000 
NASA/MIR research program             31,500          16,600           20,800 
Space station utilization program         --             500            4,200 
 

     Total                           131,700          90,000           84,000 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Life Sciences flight experiments program systematically manages and supports investigations with living systems which require 
access to the unique characteristics of low-Earth orbit.  The program secures timely space flight opportunities for the space 
investigations it sponsors.  The program uses microgravity and the other characteristics of the space environment to enhance 
understanding of fundamental biological processes.  In addition, the program's flight research and technology develops the scientific 
and technological foundations for a safe, productive human presence in space for extended periods. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Life Sciences flight experiments program strives to endorse and develop the highest-quality research and technology.  The 
program solicits a steady stream of new research and technology investigations, manages and supports them during pre-flight 
definition, development, and through post-flight.  The program relies upon peer reviews to determine which science research and 
technology to endorse.  Its peer review process in recent years has become a cooperative enterprise with the National Institutes of 
Health (NIH).  Cooperative enterprises such as those with the NIH and other external partners ensures that only the highest ranked, 
peer-reviewed research and technology projects receive flight opportunities. 
 

The Life Sciences flight program provides a balanced and robust series of flight opportunities.  The program delivers human-assisted 
or human-subject flight opportunities aboard the Space Shuttle.  The program also sponsors research opportunities aboard 
unmanned vehicles.  The program uses Spacelabs that fly in the Space Shuttle cargo bay as well as Space Shuttle small payloads.  
As the nation approaches the era of the international Space Station, the Life Sciences flight program will begin taking advantage of 
longer-duration flight opportunities aboard the Russian Mir space station.  NASA/MIR Research program investigations will enable 
the Life Sciences flight program to conduct research, develop technologies, and help mitigate the risks of long-duration space flight.  
In the Space Station era, crews will remain on orbit for as long as 180 days at a time; the Life Sciences flight program will provide 
enabling technologies to take maximum advantage of this long-duration opportunity. 
 

To reinforce its science objectives and to ensure safe human presence in space, the Life Sciences flight program develops and 
demonstrates applied technologies.  Successful application, for example, of the advanced life support technologies which the Life 
Sciences flight program develops will enable crews engaged in long-duration flights to recycle food, air, and water more effectively 
and economically.  It will enable crews to grow, harvest, and process crop plants for their own consumption.  The Life Sciences flight 
program's applied technologies programs will enable the development of advanced facilities and other resources for use aboard the 
Space Station.  The Life Sciences flight program also develops technologies, experiments, and protocols which promise to minimize 
risks to crew health. 
 

The Life Sciences flight program's Spacelab flight opportunities develop and support investigations in the areas of biology, 
physiology, environmental, psychosocial, and neurological sciences.  Flight program funding enables necessary pre-flight planning, 
development, and support for selected investigations.  Program resources provide for post-flight services and appropriate data 
analysis and distribution, including the development of specialized databases and archiving services to ensure that flight research 
findings and results are widely available to the research community. 
 

Spacelab opportunities for Life Sciences (SLS) become available about every two-three years.  The next scheduled life sciences 
Spacelab flight, in the third quarter of 1996, is the Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission (LMS); the last scheduled life sciences 
Spacelab mission is Neurolab, scheduled for the second quarter of FY 1998.  One of the important benefits of the LMS mission is 
that it will provide the flight opportunity for numerous investigations which had been scheduled to fly on the SLS-3, which was 
canceled.  The Neurolab mission will conduct basic research in behavior, communication, sensory disorders, brain development, 
learning and memory, and rehabilitation and restoration of function. 
 

The Life Sciences flight program also relies upon Space Shuttle small payload opportunities to supplement those afforded by 
periodic Spacelabs.  The objectives of small payload flights are to provide scientists and researchers with opportunities to fly their 
research quickly and economically, via the Space Shuttle middeck.  The science conducted may be in plant biology, developmental 
biology, cellular research, human factors, and performance disciplines.  Most of the research uses existing flight hardware.  Small 
payload opportunities demonstrate hardware or develop research techniques in advance of upcoming Spacelab, NASA/MIR Research 
Program (NMRP), or Space Station missions.  NASA anticipates that, once the Space Station becomes operational, small payload-
class investigations will migrate to the Space Station's EXPRESS rack program. 
 

The Life Science flight program will conduct long-duration science aboard the Russian Mir space station, and it will conduct science 
investigations on the Space Shuttle rendezvous missions to Mir.  NASA plans seven Space Shuttle missions to Mir, with the last 
scheduled for the last quarter of FY 1997.  Life Sciences will also support research investigations in environmental monitoring and 
countermeasures aboard NASA/Mir.  These investigations will emphasize musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, regulatory physiology, 
and neuroscience research, along with plant biology and other fundamental biology research. 
 

Program resources will enable life sciences researchers to use the Biorack facility in the NMRP.  The Biorack facility, previously 
developed by the European Space Agency (ESA), will fly on three of the seven scheduled Space Shuttle flights to the Mir.  The 
Biorack will be accommodated inside the pressurized Commercial Middeck Accommodations Module (CMAM), owned by Spacehab, 
Inc.  Biorack researchers will investigate cellular functions and developmental processes in plant and animal tissues.  In particular, 
Biorack investigators will evaluate how cells respond to gravitational changes. 
 

NASA will also use Mir to perform flight experiments in environmental control and advanced life support, in space station crew 
health care systems, and in extravehicular activity (EVA).  These investigations will reduce technical, schedule, and cost risks 
associated with the development and operation of the Space Station. 
 

In cooperation with the Russian Space Agency (RSA), the Life Sciences flight program conducts primate biological experiments on 
unmanned biosatellites.  The unmanned Bion series of biosatellites flies biological and radiation measurement experiments in near-
Earth orbit.  Since 1973, the Republic of Russia has launched ten biosatellites; the U.S. has participated in the last eight missions.  
The major objectives of the Bion investigations are to study the biological effects of microgravity and radiation on living systems; to 
evaluate living systems' adaptation to microgravity and other characteristics of space; and to evaluate the fundamental 
characteristics of living systems, using gravity as a variable.  Bion primate missions last up to fourteen days. 
 

The participating Centers in life sciences research include the Johnson Space Center (JSC), which leads in the development and 
support of life sciences investigations in the areas of space physiology and environmental and human factors, and advanced life 
support.  The Ames Research Center (ARC) leads the program's development of space biology research investigations, advanced life 
support, and it plays the primary life sciences role in the development of primate investigations scheduled for launch aboard the 
Bion biosatellite missions.  Both NASA Centers participate on Spacelabs, small payloads, NMRP, and the Space Station.  The 
Kennedy Space Center (KSC) manages life sciences payload integration, provides pre- and post-flight support, manages advanced life 
support facilities and demonstrations, and it manages small payload investigations. 
 

NASA's Centers obtain services from a variety of support contractors to fulfill their obligations to life sciences programs and 
disciplines, although Agency efforts to recompete and consolidate technical and support contracts are altering the mix of firms 
represented at the Centers.  Martin Marietta supports hardware and payload development tasks at JSC and at ARC.  Lockheed 
Engineering and Sciences Corporation also supports payload development at ARC.  KSC recently selected Dynamac, Inc. for a new 
seven-year contract for the support of payload processing and life sciences facilities support.  The previous contractor, the Bionetics 
Corporation, will support the KSC in a subcontract role.  The ARC also has plans to consolidate its contractor support; a new 
consolidated support contract at that Center will be awarded during FY 1995. 
 

The Life Sciences Flight program seeks opportunities to enhance its science research and technology development activities by 
promoting cooperative ventures with external entities and researchers.  Mutually beneficial cooperative agreements lead to better 
science, better dissemination of science results, or more economical ways of doing business. 
 

For example, on the LMS mission the Department of Defense will fly a new cell culturing system, and ESA will fly the Torque 
Velocity Dynamometer for the first time to conduct musculoskeletal and combined musculoskeletal and neurophysiological 
experiments.  On the Neurolab mission, twelve of the thirty-four investigators selected for definition are international; the 
international space agencies of Canada, Europe, France, Germany, and Japan are participating.  Domestic Neurolab participation 
will come from NIH, which is playing a leading role in Neurolab science management and development.  Other domestic Neurolab 
participants include the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Office of Naval Research. 
 

Aside from the program's Spacelab missions, international and domestic partners play vital roles in the Life Sciences Flight 
program's small payloads program.  The French, Russian, German, and Canadian Space Agencies represent 10% of the small 
payloads principal investigator population.  The small payloads program uses flight hardware provided by other Federal Agencies, 
such as the Walter Reed Army Institute for Research, along with hardware from Canada, Germany, and others. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 


The first phase of the NASA/Mir Research      During an American astronaut’s ninety-day stay aboard the Mir spacecraft,
Program (NMRP) launches to Mir - 3rd          NASA Life Sciences will conduct up to twenty-two musculoskeletal, 
Qtr FY 1995 				      cardiovascular, regulatory physiology, and neuroscience investigations.


Second phase of NMRP begins -                 NMRP will conduct long-duration science aboard the Mir space station, 
1st Qtr FY 1996                               emphasizing musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, regulatory, physiology, and 
                                              neuroscience research, along with plant biology and other fundamental biology 
                                              research.  NASA Life Sciences will also take advantage of this program to 
                                              develop new technologies, enhance capabilities for on-orbit environmental 
                                              monitoring, and expand basic knowledge of the effects of EVA on humans.  


Spacehab, Inc.’s Commercial Middeck           NASA Life Sciences research on Biorack will investigate cellular functions and 
Augmentation Module, outfitted with the       developmental processes in plant and animal tissues.
ESA’s Biorack and a suite of life sciences 
experiments, will fly to Mir - 
2nd Qtr FY 1996 
4th Qtr FY 1996 


The Life and Microgravity Sciences (LMS)      The LMS flight will support the non-Rhesus science which had been scheduled 
Spacelab mission flies on STS-78 -            to fly on the SLS-3 mission.  The mission will support musculoskeletal and  
3rd Qtr FY 1996                               behavior and performance investigations and build on the research results of 
                                              the successful SLS-1 and SLS-2 missions. 


The U.S. will share 50% of the science        Bion 11 will accommodate the Rhesus investigations which had been 
from the Bion 11 mission -                    scheduled to fly on SLS-3.  The Bion 11 will conduct muscle physiology and 
3rd - 4th Qtr 1996                            immunology science investigations, along with bone and regulatory physiology 
                                              investigations. 


Multiple life sciences small payloads will    Twenty-eight NASA Life Sciences small payload investigations will conduct 
fly on shuttle flights -                      research in musculoskeletal physiology, plant biology, and developmental 
FY 1995                                       biology.  The Life Sciences small payload program is a critical component in 
FY 1996                                       NASA Life Sciences collaborative research with the National Institutes of 
                                              Health.
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Flight Experiments Program 
 

The Life Sciences Flight program payloads were carried on the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) Spacelab mission, 
which flew in July 1994.  Eighty-two experiments were flown on IML-2, of which forty-two were jointly sponsored by NASA and 
NASA's international partners.  The Life Sciences program directly supported four peer-reviewed IML-2 investigations, along with 
thirteen Detailed Supplementary Objectives.  Program resources will fund data analysis during FY 1995, and researchers will begin 
publishing their flight results during FY 1996. 
 

The Extravehicular Activities (EVA) Systems program will initiate a study during FY 1995 that will identify technologies and prepare 
a proposed development plan for a next-generation EVA system.  The major objectives of the initiative will be to increase the 
productivity of EVA systems, to help reduce overall EVA hours on Space Station, and to reduce EVA system maintenance and 
logistics costs. 
 

During FY 1995, the program will proceed with plans to fly the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) mission.  Payload definition 
and development will proceed with all scheduled investigations, including those which have been remanifested on LMS from the 
canceled SLS-3 flight.  In addition, a gas analyzer and body mass measurement device will fly on LMS.  FY 1995 and FY 1996 
resources will upgrade previous versions of these devices, and the pulmonary science they support will build on the science 
sponsored on SLS-1, which provided the first detailed studies of the lung under resting conditions. 
 

A total of 174 research proposals were submitted during FY 1994 in response to the July 1993 Announcement of Opportunity for 
Neurolab.  The National Institutes of Health (NIH)'s Division of Research Grants conducted the peer reviews of all 174 international 
and domestic research proposals.  Thirty-four of the highest ranking proposals were selected for definition.  Eight investigator 
teams, two of which are being led by the NIH science managers, will use FY 1995 resources to complete the research definition 
phase.  During the third quarter of FY 1995, the NIH will conduct an interim review of the thirty-four investigators selected for 
definition, and NASA will then select the researchers for the Neurolab flight.  NASA will use FY 1996 resources to support the 
investigators it selects for flight, and it will develop the hardware its researchers need.  Also during 1995 and 1996, the NIH will 
provide ground-based support to some of the U.S. Neurolab investigators. 
 

FY 1995 and FY 1996 resources will support the 48 investigators participating in the life sciences small payloads program.  The NIH 
provides additional support to many of these investigators.  The typical small payloads researcher participates for three years, 
following selection for flight (two years of research prior to flight, and another to analyze the resulting flight data).  During FY 1995, 
life sciences will fly twenty-eight small payload investigators.  The twenty-seven will conduct research in musculoskeletal physiology, 
in plant biology, and in developmental biology.  During FY 1996, the Life Sciences Flight program will fund the NIH-Cells 5 series 
with two investigators and the NIH-Rodent 3 series, which is a verification payload for Neurolab.  It will fly the Aquatic Research 
Facility, belonging to the Canadian Space Agency and will fly a number of other human performance and plant biology experiments. 
 

NASA plans to maintain the number of Life Sciences flight Principal Investigators (PI's) in FY 1996 at 171.  Twenty-two of the 171 in 
FY 1996 will be involved with the Space Station.   Forty-five major flight investigations and 11 small payload investigation are 
planned to be flown in FY 1996. 
 

NASA/MIR Research Program 
 

FY 1995 funding will support the development and delivery to Russia of flight hardware for manifesting on two Progress resupply 
vehicles and a Spektr science module.  These will dock with the Mir prior to the end of the third quarter of FY 1995.  An American 
astronaut will fly to the Mir in the spring of 1995 for a ninety-day stay; during the stay, NASA will sponsor up to twenty-two 
musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, regulatory physiology, and neuroscience investigations. 
 

Also in FY 1995, Space Shuttle-71 and Space Shuttle-74 will fly to the Mir, marking the end of Space Station Phase IA and the 
beginning of Phase IB, respectively.  A total of 105 research proposals have been submitted in response to a life sciences 
Announcement of Opportunity for NMRP.  NASA has selected fifty-three proposals for definition, and anticipates that it will select 
the NMRP investigations for flight early during the second quarter of FY 1995. 
 

SpaceHab, Inc.'s CMAM module, outfitted with the ESA's Biorack and a suite of life sciences experiments, will fly to Mir for the first 
time on Space Shuttle-76 midway through FY 1996.  Life Sciences released a NASA Research Announcement in early FY 1995 to 
solicit Mir/Biorack research investigations.  An international panel, including the U.S. will conduct peer reviews of the Biorack 
proposals late in FY 1995.  Life sciences FY 1995 resources, including the U.S., will also support the outfitting of the Priroda module 
for a November 1995 flight to Mir.  The experiment hardware it contains, along with that delivered earlier in 1995, will be used by 
NASA astronauts throughout the remainder of the NASA/Mir program. 
 

In support of the Space Station program and to take maximum advantage of the NASA/Mir opportunity, life sciences experimenters 
will use Space Shuttle flights to Mir to develop new technologies, enhance capabilities for on-orbit environmental monitoring, and 
expand basic knowledge of the effects of EVA on humans.  In the life support area, NASA will adapt urine processing and 
atmospheric revitalization hardware designs for use as flight experiments.  In-house and off-the-shelf designs are being pursued for 
Crew Health Care System experiments in water and air quality monitoring, and crew restraints during medical procedures.  NASA is 
also developing a new technology for measuring crew susceptibility to the bends during the EVA.  Four of these environmental 
systems, life support, and technology development experiments will be launched in FY 1996, with remaining experiments scheduled 
for the FY 1997 phase of the NMRP. 


Bion Program 
 

During FY 1995 the Life Sciences flight program will develop flight hardware and supporting equipment necessary to conduct 
experiments on two Rhesus subjects on the Bion-11 biosatellite mission.  The Bion-11 launch window will cover the period  
August 1 through November 15, 1996.  This mission will fly the primate experiments from the canceled SLS-3 mission.  It will 
accommodate muscle physiology and immunology science investigations, along with bone and regulatory investigations.  The 1995 
resources will support 50% of the primate science and resulting data analysis.  During FY 1996, NASA may exercise a contract 
option for a Bion-12 mission.  The Bion-12 mission would fly during the summer or fall of 1998 and complete the SLS-3 primate 
studies. 
 

Space Station Utilization Program 
 

FY 1995 resources for Space Station science development and utilization will allow initiation of a number of activities during 
the year and accelerate them during FY 1996.  Program resources will support the further development of relationships with 
the research community that will use the Space Station facilities.  The program will resolve environmental questions that 
may affect the research program and will evaluate system upgrade alternatives.  A main thrust of Life Sciences Space Station 
activities during the period ahead will be to support researchers who will use chronic centrifugation and who have in 
experience in the microgravity environment, in order to understand cellular and systemic gravitational responses and 
adaptation.  Investment in this community of researchers should result in more mature and sophisticated experiments on 
the Space Station for the Gravitational Biology and Centrifuge Facilities.  The program will work during the period to set 
firmer requirements for the Space Station atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and will apply its findings to the Space Station 
life support system enhancements. 
 
 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                           MICROGRAVITY SCIENCE RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS 
 

                                         FY 1994         FY 1995        FY 1996 
                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Research and analysis                     18,400          30,400         30,200 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Microgravity Science Research and Analysis program is designed to establish the intellectual underpinning of the flight 
program.  In order to do this, a multidisciplined, research program has been established in the areas of biotechnology, combustion, 
fluid physics, materials science and other special topics in physics such as critical point phenomena at low temperatures, and 
gravitational physics.  These ground-based experiments, coupled with a set of experiments selected for flight, comprise a compelling 
and coherent strategy for utilization of the space environment to obtain understanding of basic physical phenomena and processes, 
quantify effects and overcome limitations imposed by gravity on the observation and evaluation of selected phenomena and 
processes, develop technologies related to the requirements of the research, and expand, centralize and disseminate the research 
data base as widely as possible to the U.S. research and technology community. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

In the context of the Microgravity Science and Applications program's mission to develop and utilize the scientific potential of space, 
ground-based research serves two purposes:  first, to find and refine concepts for space experiments; and second, to create a 
framework of knowledge and expertise in which the full scientific value of space experiments can be realized.  The Research and 
Analysis (R&A) program, through its support of ground-based research, provides the context from which strong, well-defined flight 
experiments emerge, in which results are interpreted and given scientific meaning, and from which much of the scientific and 
technological value of space research is transmitted to society.  By far the greatest single element of the R&A budget (over 80%) is 
funding to research grants and contracts awarded through competitive peer review, with over 90% of this funding going to external 
investigators all across the United States.  The remaining R&A funds are used at NASA Centers of Excellence to provide the essential 
principal investigators and supporting infrastructure.  NASA set out at the beginning of the 1990's with the goal of building a 
research program in the microgravity sciences that would engage the talent and energy of the nation's scientists and engineers to 
develop the potential of space for research in physical, chemical, and biological processes.  Having established a strong foundation 
for this effort over the last several years through a series of highly successful research solicitations, NASA is working with its 
community and the participating NASA Field Centers to define and build a dynamic, coherent research program capable of driving a 
new generation of flight investigations in the coming decade, the beginning of the space station era. 
 
 
 
Microgravity research introduces a new dimension, the space environment, to research conducted in well-established scientific and 
technological areas.  The disciplines participating in microgravity research which are the core of current thrusts in science and 
technology are:  (1) Biotechnology; (2) Combustion Science; (3) Fluid Physics; (4) Materials Science; and (5) Selected Studies in 
Gravitational Physics. 
 

The Biotechnology program focuses on protein crystal growth, a critical element of structural biology and rational drug development, 
and tissue culture technology, exploring the cellular response to low stress environments in a technology central to contemporary 
biomedical research.  Experiments in space have demonstrated that gravity influences (and sometimes disrupts) protein crystal 
growth and that reduced gravity can result in improved crystal characteristics.  Improved data from protein crystals will allow 
scientists to better understand the protein’s structure.  In principle, such information could eventually be used to improve the 
efficiency of rational drug design.  Similarly, growing normal and cancerous mammalian tissues is a technology with enormous 
medical benefits and applications.  Fluid flows found in conventional bioreactors cause shear forces that break apart or damage cell 
clusters.  In a bioreactor developed to study how cells behave in various fluid flows and low shear environments, researchers have 
found that cells aggregate and allow the study of how cells join together to form tissue. 
 

The Combustion Science program focuses on a ubiquitous physicochemical phenomenon responsible for producing 85% of the 
world's energy as well as a significant fraction of atmospheric pollution, resulting in continuing hazard to life and property on Earth 
and in space.  Combustion reactions release heat.  Under gravity’s influence, this heat release causes a flow as the heated gas rises.  
By reducing this flow in a low gravity environment, important problems such as soot formation in flames, the spreading of fires, the 
burning of hydrocarbons and limits of flammability can be studied in very fundamental ways. 
 

The Fluid Physics program studies the properties and motions of liquids and gases, providing a conceptual framework in which to 
understand the role of gravity in physical processes, and a foundation for advances in a spectrum of technologies, from chemical 
processes to power generation and geotechnical engineering.  Scientists study how fluids flow under different conditions, how energy 
affects fluid flows and many other important scientific and practical issues.  Investigators seek the ability to make accurate 
predictions of how heat and mass are transported in mixtures of fluids and vapor, with profound implications for production and 
control processes on Earth and in future space engineering applications. 
  

The Materials Science program examines the relationship between processing, structure and properties, and strives to acquire the 
basic scientific knowledge required to develop new generations of high performance materials in areas including electronic and 
photonic materials, glasses and ceramics, and metals and alloys.  Materials can be divided into crystalline (a certain long range 
order on the atomic scale) and non-crystalline or amorphous (no long range order).  The properties of a material are largely 
determined by the structure of the material, and is greatly influenced by the process used in forming the material.  Gravity-driven 
phenomena can play a huge role in this triangle of properties/processing/structure.  Utilization of the low gravity environment to 
give insight into materials and materials processing, may result in improvements to production methods and materials on Earth. 
 

Selected studies in Gravitational Physics, including the study of critical phenomena, low temperature physics and other phenomena 
where the space environment can make possible measurement of physical constants with levels of accuracy that challenge the 
understanding of contemporary theories in physics.  Reduction and control of the forces due to gravity allow investigations to probe 
into the depths of physical variables to levels that allow the verification of universal theories which can then be used in a great 
many fields of physics with much greater confidence. 
 

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the lead center for the materials science portion of the program and the protein crystal 
growth and biological separations part of the biotechnology program.  The Johnson Space Center (JSC) leads research in the cell 
culture portion of the Biotechnology discipline.  The Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has responsibility for the fluid physics and the 
combustion science disciplines.  The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is the lead center for the low-temperature physics and 
gravitational physics portion of the program. 
 

Contractors are utilized in the role of science support at the centers.  They are responsible for understanding the science of the 
investigators they are assigned to monitor, and to assist the external scientists in the utilization of unique facilities at the centers 
required to carry out some of the low gravity experimentation. 
 

The strategy NASA has devised for achieving excellence in microgravity research is to reach out to the national resources in 
academic and industrial organizations, and join strong researchers with NASA expertise in microgravity experimentation.  The 
foundation of the effort to engage national scientific resources is the release of solicitations, NASA Research Announcements 
(NRA's), directed to research disciplines, inviting proposals for research and flight experiment concepts.  The proposals selected for 
funding from the assessment by peer panels of technical experts of scientific and technical merit and need for the microgravity 
environment.  By soliciting for research across a discipline, rather than for specific missions, NASA allows easier entry into the 
microgravity program for researchers with strong merits but limited experience with the space program.  The first of these 
discipline-directed NRA's was released in 1989.  Since then, seven NRA's have been released, and over 900 proposals have been 
received. 
 

Through collaboration with domestic and international science communities, the program has sought to obtain concrete as well as 
synergistic investments by other participants.  In the area of biotechnology, NASA has joined with the National Institutes of Health 
(NIH) to obtain laboratory space, diagnostic equipment, and skilled researchers to accelerate the transfer of NASA-developed 
bioreactor technologies to the broader science community.  Through joint cooperative agreements with INTRACELL and the Eli Lily 
companies, NASA's MSFC has acquired market-valued protein derivatives and diagnostic equipment which support both industrial 
and government sponsored research in areas of protein crystal growth. 
 

Letters of agreement with Japan and Canada have improved the research facilities available to U.S. ground-based principal 
investigators.  The Japanese have made their highly sophisticated 10-second drop tower facilities available to a broad range of U.S. 
combustion science investigators.  The Canadian Space Agency has developed and offered to the U.S. a large vibration isolation 
mount that can be used in U.S. parabolic aircraft to provide an improved lower gravity environment on the aircraft which is an 
integral part of the ground-based research program. 


MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Complete 19 peer-reviewed studies in      A summary assessment of the results of these studies, which focus on 
Biotechnology --                          macromolecular crystal growth as well as cellular response to low stress 
Sept. 1996                                environments, will be included in the Annual Program Task and Bibliography 
                                          NASA Technical Memorandum for FY 1996. 


Complete 31 peer-reviewed studies in      A summary assessment of the results of these studies, which focus on 
Combustion Science --                     processes of ignition, propagation and extinction during combustion in a low 
Sept. 1997                                gravity environment, will be included in the Annual Program Task and 
                                          Bibliography NASA Technical Memorandum for FY 1997.   


Complete 60 peer-reviewed studies in      A summary assessment of the results of these studies, which include aspects 
Fluid Physics --                          of fluid dynamics and transport phenomena affected by the presence of gravity, 
Sept. 1996                                will be included in the Annual Program Task and Bibliography for NASA 
                                          Technical Memorandum FY 1996.  
 

Complete 20 peer-reviewed studies in Low  A summary assessment of the results of these studies, which include critical 
Temperature/Gravitational Physics --      phenomena, low temperature physics and other phenomena where significant 
Sept. 1995.                               advantages exist for studies in a low gravity environment, will be included in 
                                          the Annual Program Task and Bibliography NASA Technical Memorandum for 
                                          FY 1995.  


Complete 50 peer-reviewed studies in      A summary assessment of the results of these studies, which include electronic 
Materials Science --                      and photonic materials, glasses and ceramics, and metals and alloys, will be 
Sept. 1996                                included in the Annual Program Task and Bibliography for NASA Technical 
                                          Memorandum FY 1996.   


Complete 5 peer-reviewed ATD projects --  A summary assessment of the results of these studies will be included in the 
Sept. 1995                                Annual Program Task and Bibliography NASA Technical Memorandum for  
                                          FY 1995.  
 

Complete 5 peer-reviewed ATD projects --  A summary assessment of the results of these studies will be included in the 
Sept. 1996                                Annual Program Task and Bibliography NASA Technical Memorandum for  
                                          FY 1996.   
 
ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

In FY 1994, approximately 80 investigations that had been selected for funding from over 300 proposals received in 1993, began as 
new projects.  The second NRA for biotechnology was released in FY 1994, with proposal evaluation and funding planned to 
commence in FY 1995.  Two discipline conferences, (fluid physics and materials science) with over 300 participants at each, were 
held in the summer of FY 1994.  The participants reviewed the results of ongoing research and discussed opportunities prior to the 
release of NRA's in early FY 1995.  These conferences provide an important forum for new researchers to become acquainted with 
microgravity research.  The low temperature physics community also held a workshop in FY 1994, to share concepts for 
microgravity research and to continue to define this evolving area of science. 
 

Reflecting the growth experienced by the program and the rising visibility of microgravity research in FY 1995, NASA expects to 
experience the largest annual volume of microgravity research proposals to date.  Already this year, the fluid physics and materials 
science disciplines have released their second announcements (the first for each was released in August 1991), and the combustion 
science discipline will release its third.  NASA anticipates receiving over 700 proposals in response to these NRA's.  To strengthen 
the ability of NASA Field Centers to support the increasing numbers of investigators interested in conducting microgravity 
experiments, NASA will be improving its field center resources in 1995, bringing new and refurbished facilities on line.  A major 
expansion of research activity in biotechnology is planned for FY 1995 with the additional funding provided for the NASA/National 
Institutes of Health cooperative activity, with large growth in the tissue culture program.  A number of proposals from research 
teams for innovative multidisciplinary approaches to biotechnology research, with potential awards of approximately $750,000 per 
year, are also being evaluated for FY 1995 support. 
 

The FY 1996 request accommodates support of the selection from the 1994 fluid physics, materials science, and combustion science 
NRA's.  Low temperature physics will solicit proposals through the fluid physics NRA.  As these disciplines are entering a period of 
consolidation following vigorous growth in the early 1990's, only modest budget increases are planned that will allow for discipline 
maturation.  The investigations under support at this point will define the first phase of space station microgravity research.  
Further growth in these disciplines is planned toward the end of the decade, when it is anticipated that space station research will 
grow in scope and intensity.  An NRA for biotechnology is planned for FY 1996. 
 

The principal objective for the R&A program in FY 1996 will be to integrate the investigations selected through the three solicitations 
released in FY 1995 into the ongoing efforts of the microgravity program.  NASA will be working with large numbers of external 
researchers to define flight experiments with high scientific merit, and with advisory groups as well as the community at large to 
achieve the focus and coherence required of a strong, productive flight program.  A productive research program also requires 
dynamic flexibility, to keep pace with the progress of scientific and technological knowledge, and in FY 1996 NASA will continue to 
stimulate new concepts for microgravity research through its plan for discipline conferences.  The FY 1996 Biotechnology NRA will 
provide a definitive opportunity for experiments in tissue culture research and protein crystal growth prior to the launch of the 
space station. 
 

NASA plans to increase the number of Microgravity Sciences ground-based Principal Investigators to 260 in FY 1996. The number of 
research proposals  received is expected to be 200 in FY 1996, with approximately 480 major journal publications anticipated. 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 

 
                                MICROGRAVITY SCIENCE FLIGHT PROGRAM 
 

                                      FY 1994             FY 1995              FY 1996 
                                                   (Thousands of Dollars) 


Flight experiments program           (140,300)             78,400               84,200 
NASA/MIR research program             (10,200)             11,300                9,300 
Space station utilization program      (6,100)             11,800               16,200 
 (Construction of facilities                                                    (3,000) 
  - microgravity development complex)
 

   Total                             (156,600)            101,500              109,700 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The primary goal of the Microgravity Science Flight program is to advance fundamental scientific knowledge in physical, chemical, 
and biological principles and to enhance the quality of life on Earth by conducting scientific experiments in the low-gravity 
environment of space.  The results derived from conducting experiments in the Space Shuttle, the Russian Space Station Mir, and 
the international Space Station will spark the imagination of the growing academic and industrial science community, enhance the 
nation’s technological and industrial base, and foster international cooperation. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACCOMPLISHING GOALS 
 

Over the last decade, NASA has established an active scientific program in microgravity research using the Space Shuttle.  As the 
program moves toward the next century, the focus will shift toward using the Space Station.  The strategy for accomplishing the 
goal is to continue to pursue the development and flight of the most scientifically worthy experiments in the Space Shuttle and 
evolving to the Space Station by using the Russian Space Station to mitigate risk in scientific, technological, logistical, and 
operational planning.  The objective of the Microgravity Science Flight program is to provide flight experiment opportunities for a 
range of scientific investigators in the areas of biotechnology, combustion, fluid physics, materials science, and selected 
investigations in other phenomena which can benefit from conducting the experiments in the low-gravity environment of Earth 
orbit.  The Flight Experiments program provides hardware for experiments for a wide range of flight opportunities in the Space 
Shuttle middeck, Spacelab, Space Shuttle cargo-bay experiments, the Russian Mir, and the Space Station.  The experiments range 
from small hand-held single experiments to multirack facility-class experiment hardware accommodating several investigators.  The 
program includes selection definition and development, in-flight operational support and data analysis and archival for all 
Microgravity flight experiments. 
 
 

The Flight Experiments program enables the development of an appropriate infrastructure, experiment apparatus, flight 
opportunities, and advanced technologies to meet the peer-reviewed science requirements.  Experiments are developed in all major 
disciplines, science operations are supported, and flight gathered data and samples are analyzed.  The Flight Experiments program 
also fosters cooperative activities with organizations to combine the research goals of the organizations and create results from flight 
experiments which have eluded researchers on Earth prior to this point. 
 

The NASA/MIR Research program seeks to mitigate risk in scientific, technological, logistical, and operational planning for the use 
of the international Space Station, characterize the microgravity environment on Mir, and conduct specific U.S. investigations in 
microgravity science and application research disciplines.  The principal parts of the program are the modification of the Space 
Shuttle experiment apparatus; flight samples, science operations, and data analysis/procedures so they can be used on the Mir by 
U.S. investigators. 
 

The Space Station Utilization program supports the users to make it a unique laboratory for the U.S. scientific and technology 
community.  The utilization program will support the development of flight experiments, the funding of U.S. Principal Investigators, 
ground-based facilities, and science operations in the biotechnology, combustion, fluid physics, biotechnology, and material science 
disciplines.  When coupled with the Microgravity Space Station Payload Facilities, the NMRP and the Flight Experiments program, 
these programs constitute the Flight Program activities necessary to sustain the Microgravity Science Research program in the 21st 
century. 
 

The Cell and Tissue Culture program is lead by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) , with contractor support from Krug Life Sciences 
Corporation.  Both the fluid science and combustion science programs are led by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC), with contractor 
support from Native American Services Corporation.  The materials science and protein crystal growth programs are led by the 
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with support from Teledyne-Brown Engineering.  The low-temperature fundamental physics 
and gravitational physics programs are led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). 
 

The European Space Agency (ESA) developed the Spacelab module that is used in the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory (USML) series, 
Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS), and Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.  In addition, our international partners 
developed nearly all of the experiment apparatus that flew on International Microgravity Lab-2 (IML-2) and was shared by both 
international and U.S. investigators.  The Spacelab glovebox that will fly on USML-2 was developed by ESA and, in exchange for U.S 
use of this glovebox on USML-2, NASA will fly two units of the ESA Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility (APCF) in the middeck 
of the Space Shuttle.  Both U.S. and European investigators will use the APCF on this quid-pro-quo agreement with ESA.  In 
addition, there is an agreement being negotiated with ESA for additional flights of the APCF.  Each flight would be for two APCF 
units with a total of 96 protein crystal growth cells where the U.S. investigators would get 48 cells.  NASA and ESA are jointly 
conducting a definition study of the Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principal (STEP) experiment, which will be a candidate for an 
ESA mission in the 2001-2003 time frame.  The Japanese Space Agency developed a large isothermal furnace that flew on IML-2 
with investigators from Japan and the U.S.  This furnace will be reflown on MSL-1 with U.S. and Japanese investigators.  The 
National Institutes of Health (NIH) has invested billions of dollars of ground-based research in cell culturing.  The NASA/NIH 
agreement on use of NASA’s bioreactor technology allows NASA to take advantage of these investments and analysis base to extend 
the understanding of structure and functions applicable to cell culture flight experiments using the NASA developed bioreactor. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

USML-2  Launch --                        USML-2 will focus on the physics of crystallization, fluid dynamics and 
4th Qtr FY 1995                          biotechnology.  Investigations will be continued from the highly successful 
                                         USML-1 mission (6/92) as well as new investigations chosen since that time.   
                                         Four investigators will study important aspects of crystal growth from the melt 
                                         and vapor using the newly upgraded Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF).  Studies 
                                         on surface tension driven convection will be expanded past those conducted on 
                                         USML-1 using the modified Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment 
                                         (STDCE), and observations of drop dynamics will be confirmed using the Drop 
                                         Physics Module (DPM).  The Spacelab Glovebox will conduct seven new 
                                         glovebox investigations chosen in 1992.  The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell 
                                         (GFFC) will take greatly expanded data during the mission.  



USMP-3  Launch --                        The USMP-3 mission will focus on experiments in Microgravity Materials 
2nd Qtr FY 1996                          Science.  The French Principal Investigator of the MEPHISTO project will study 
                                         transport and kinetics of Tin-Bismuth alloys, as well as the influence of small 
                                         disturbances to the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle, in order to 
                                         expand the range of information produced from the previous USMP missions.  
                                         A modified version of the Advanced Automated Directional Solidification 
                                         Furnace (AADSF) will be used to conduct a new investigation on crystal growth 
                                         of semiconductor alloys in which temperature-driven and composition-driven 
                                         convection cannot be simultaneously reduced in Earth’s gravity.  the 
                                         Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) will conduct statistical studies 
                                         of dendritic crystal growth to provide additional information for interpretation 
                                         of the results from the previous mission.  In addition, new U.S. Glovebox 
                                         Facility will be flown in the Space Shuttle middeck to conduct several new 
                                         glovebox investigations in microgravity combustion science and spacecraft fire 
                                         safety. 


LMS Launch --                            The Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) mission will be the first  flight of the 
3rd Qtr FY 1996                          ESA Advanced Gradient Heating Furnace (AGHF), a new furnace facility 
                                         available to NASA to conduct town materials science investigation selected in 
                                         1992 on the physics of multiphase solidification.  Several ESA investigations 
                                         will also be conducted.  The Bubble, Drop and Particle Unit (BDPU) will be 
                                         modified and used to conduct two new types of experiments on this mission.  


Spacelab Mir (SL-M) Launch --            Mir missions will focus on expanding the current Shuttle-based research 
3rd Qtr FY 1995                          program and provide a transition to long-duration missions on the 
                                         International Space Station.   Their objectives are to: (1) reduce the technical 
                                         risk associated with construction and operation of the International Space 
                                         Station.  Microgravity research during the Mir 1 mission will focus on the 
                                         characterization of the acceleration environment of the Mir complex which will 
                                         be used to support  researchers with  a profile of the acceleration levels present 
                                         during the performance of their experiments.  This characterization will 
                                         contribute to microgravity experiment strategic planning for later Phase 1 
                                         activities and vibroacoustics control planning activities in preparation for 
                                         Phase II and III.   NASA's biotechnology programs support research with 
                                         potential technological impact on medical, pharmaceutical, and agricultural  
                                         industries.  Positive results would impact such areas as rational drug design 
                                         and testing, disease control and treatment, and improve and protect 
                                         commercially important crops.  The Mir missions provide a unique opportunity 
                                         to advance biotechnology research with multiple and long-duration protein 
                                         growth experiments which could not be supported in the short time periods of 
                                         the Shuttle missions.  The first of these experiments will be the GN2 
                                         Dewar/Freezer.  



NASA/Mir 2 Launch --  1st Qtr FY 1996    These missions will focus on expanding the current Shuttle-based research 
NASA/Mir 3 Launch -- 2nd Qtr FY 1996     program and provide a transition to long-duration missions on the 
NASA/Mir 4  Launch -- 4th Qtr FY 1996    International Space Station.   Their objectives are to:  (1) reduce scientific risk 
                                         and enhance long duration experiment performance and science utilization for
                                         the International Space Station; (2) conduct combined international space 
                                         operations and joint space technology demonstrations; and (3) provide early 
                                         opportunities for extended scientific, technologic and engineering research and 
                                         testing.


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Flight Experiments Program 
 

During FY 1994, two major microgravity missions were conducted:  the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2) and the 
second IML-2.  The USMP-2 successfully completed four major experiments and demonstrated the effectiveness of “telescience,” (i.e. 
conducting science experiments by remote control).  This is extremely important preparatory work for the Space Station.  The 
results of the materials science, fluid physics and biotechnology experiments will add to the understanding of specific physics and 
science phenomena.  On both missions, the space acceleration environment was characterized with acceleration monitoring 
systems.  The IML-2 mission involved the Space Shuttle transporting the ESA Spacelab module to orbit where International- and 
U.S.-developed experiment apparatus was used.  The IML-2 mission flew 82 experiments, of which 42 were jointly-sponsored by 
NASA and the international partners. 
 

During FY 1995, the USML-2 mission is planned.  The mission uses the Spacelab with U.S.-developed experiment apparatus and 
U.S. Principal Investigators (PI’s).  In addition to USML-2, research will be conducted in four biotechnology and one combustion 
middeck experiments during FY 1995. 
 

FY 1996 funds are required to continue experiment payload development for use in the Space Shuttle middeck, Spacelab, and Space 
Shuttle cargo bay for future missions.  These include the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) mission, the Microgravity Science 
Laboratory (MSL-1) mission and the USMP series of missions.  During FY 1996, the LMS and USMP-3 missions will be conducted.  
Also, the funds support the flight Principal Investigators and the data analysis during and after the mission’s completion.  NASA 
plans to fund 40 Microgravity Sciences flight Principal Investigators in FY 1996, encompassing 106 major flight investigations and 9 
small payload investigations.  
 

In FY 1996, funding is required to modify and expand the existing Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Building 4493 into the 
Microgravity Development Complex (MDC).  This new project will consolidate and focus microgravity materials science, 
biotechnology and glovebox flight experiment activities, reducing total MSFC science facilities and costs, and provide a facility for the 
in-house assembly and test of the large Space Station Furnace Facility payload.  The MDC will house flight instrumentation prior to 
launch, the complementary ground-based research hardware, and the User Operations Facility for MSFC microgravity science 
payloads.   
 

NASA/NIH Program 
 

During FY 1994, NASA’s Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications and the NIH’s Institute of Child Health and Human 
Development entered into an inter-agency agreement regarding Biomedical and Behavioral Research.  The NIH has invested billions 
of dollars in tissue culturing activities, and NASA has achieved a breakthrough in the engineering of tissue which allows for cellular 
growth, aggregation, and the development of in vivo-like structures through use of the NASA-developed bioreactor.  Funds for this 
program enable the continued collaboration of the two agencies, the accelerated transfer of NASA bioreactor technology to NIH and 
the external research community, and the identification of tissue culture experiments which would benefit from being conducted in 
a low-gravity environment.  An agreement was reached in FY 1994 to transfer the bioreactor technology to the Institute of Child 
Health and Human Development to conduct research on the AIDS virus cultured in lymph nodes.  This initial pathfinder 
collaboration is planned to continue through FY 1998. 
 

The cell culture technologies and protein crystal growth results will receive the major emphasis for the next 5-6 years, but it is 
anticipated that many other areas of cooperation will evolve from preliminary results.  Over the past years, NASA has explored many 
aspects of the growth of protein crystals and the development of tissue culturing technologies which offer great promise.  Similar 
types of efforts are being explored with several other institutes.  This program will stimulate the joint agreements with other Federal 
agencies. 
 

Low-Temperature Research 
 

In FY 1996, the objective is to continue the integrated microgravity low-temperature science ground and flight program, with 
emphasis on low-cost, increased university and industry involvement, advanced technology development, and transfer of this 
technology for commercialization.  Emphasis is placed on public and student involvement.  Additional funding has been allocated for 
two flight experiments.  The first flight will be for the peer-reviewed and selected experiment to study the thermal conducting 
behavior of liquid helium under non-equilibrium conditions.  The second will be a continuation of the low-temperature research 
activities selected in the peer review process.  These experiments will be the third and fourth in a series of low-temperature science 
flights.  The funding provides for the experiment development and mission operations for the experiments which will be conducted 
in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. 
 

NASA/MIR Research Program 
 

During FY 1994, the Space Accelerations Measurement System (SAMS) was delivered to Mir and recorded the acceleration levels on 
the Russian space station.  The first Space Shuttle docking mission with Mir will take place in FY 1995, when a protein crystal 
growth experiment will be delivered to Mir.  In addition, the remainder of the microgravity experiment apparatus planned for Mir will 
be delivered to Russia for installation in the Priroda module and subsequent Shuttle flights. 
 

During FY 1995, the Space Shuttle will dock with Mir three times and the Priroda module will be launched and attached to Mir.  
Most of the U.S. experiments will be located in the Priroda, utilizing the Space Shuttle to transport experiments, samples and data 
to and from the Mir.  The continued NASA/Mir program will include the launch of U.S. hardware to Mir and support of science 
operations for the experiments. 
 

Space Station Utilization Program 
 

The program consists of planning and integration activities, developing operations support procedures, and developing experiment 
unique research hardware for ISSA.  The first major consolidated operations and utilization plan, developed using inputs from 
microgravity hardware developers and planners, will be assembled in FY 1995 and further refined in FY 1996.  To prepare for 
microgravity operations on the Space Station, work continues to define operational requirements and develop telescience 
techniques.  Operational capability for microgravity research will be developed at MSFC, JSC, and LeRC.  In FY 1995, the LeRC will 
support several microgravity experiments on two Space Shuttle missions and on the Mir Space Station.  In FY 1996, the LeRC will 
continue to operationally support experiments on the Space Shuttle and conduct a telescience demonstration.  As the operational 
era of the Space Station moves closer, the program focus in FY 1996 will shift toward experiment development and planning with 
specific emphasis in the combustion and fluids disciplines. 
 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                       SPACE SHUTTLE/SPACELAB MISSION MANAGEMENT AND INTEGRATION 
 

                                             FY 1994          FY 1995        FY 1996 
                                                      (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Space shuttle/spacelab mission management 
  and integration                            108,700          113,000         85,400 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goals of this program are twofold:  (1) provide physical, analytical, and operations integration support to achieve NASA mission 
objectives for the science and technology communities; and (2) ensure integrated scientific, technological, and commercial user 
advocacy and coordination of requirements for the next generation of space laboratories. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

In order to meet the program goals and objectives, NASA performs the mission planning, integration, and execution of all NASA 
Spacelab, Spacehab, NASA/MIR Research Program (NMRP), and other attached Space Shuttle payloads to carry out a wide variety of 
space research.  The program also supports the common small science payloads that use locker spaces in the Space Shuttle's lower 
crew compartment.  Activities include system management and engineering development of flight support equipment and software; 
development of interface hardware; payload specialist training and support; integration of the science payloads with the Spacelab 
system; payload flight operations; and data dissemination to experimenters.  Mission management activities are dependent upon the 
specific mix of missions in a particular year. 
 

In addition, through this program, NASA carries out systems engineering efforts to develop and evaluate strategies and processes for 
satisfying current and future research mission objectives.  These tasks not only address the current Space Shuttle/Spacelab 
mission integration processes, but, based on this knowledge base, they define and support new effective and efficient processes and 
tools for carrying out integrated research advocacy, requirements coordination, mission planning and operations for future space 
platforms.  In particular, the program is investigating ways to apply the engineering and operations lessons learned in the Spacelab 
program and the NMRP to the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) program to achieve greater efficiencies. 
 

The principal NASA Centers which conduct activities in support of this program are the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Kennedy 
Space Center (KSC), and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).  In FY 1996,  JSC will provide the analytical integration and 
operations level project management support for the NMRP missions.  The KSC will provide the physical hardware science payload 
integration project management support for the NASA science payloads on the individual Space Shuttle flights.  MSFC will provide 
the analytical integration and operations level project management support for the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) and the 
United States Microgravity Payload (USMP)-3.  In FY 1996, the primary contractors that will be supporting the program at the 
centers are:  Martin-Marietta Services, Inc. at JSC; the McDonnell Douglas Corporation's Payloads Ground Operations Contract 
(PGOC) at the KSC; and Teledyne-Brown Engineering at MSFC.  At JSC, Martin-Marietta provides payload mission integration 
support for the missions managed by the JSC.  At KSC, the primary PGOC functions include:  processing flight hardware 
experiments for Spacelab and partial payloads, manifest scheduling and work control support, logistics support and sustaining 
engineering modifications to facilities and systems, and computational services for the Payload Operations Computer Network.  At 
MSFC, Teledyne-Brown provides payload mission integration support for the missions managed by MSFC. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

The most significant measure of performance is the provision of an integrated system that ensures successful accomplishment of 
the science payload objectives.  Although not directly responsible for the success of a particular experiment, the mission 
management organization is responsible for ensuring that all necessary planning and integration of the collected set of instruments 
have been comprehensively completed and fully coordinated so that the experimental hardware in concert with flight crew 
performance and ground control direction have the opportunity to conduct the planned science activities.  Science payload 
objectives vary considerably depending upon the type of mission supported (module missions, pallet/MPESS missions or Space 
Shuttle middecks) and the type of scientific investigations performed (microgravity, life sciences, earth and stellar observations).  
Depending upon the type of payload, performance is measured in terms of the number of primary missions, the number of middeck 
missions, and the number of hours of science payload operations actually performed. 
 

For the missions conducted in FY 1994, mission management performance has been highly successful: 
 

Astro-2 Launch -                  This Spacelab pallet mission is a reflight of the ultraviolet portion of the Astro-1 
2nd Qtr FY 1995                   astrophysics Spacelab payload, which flew in December 1990.  It consists of three 
                                  experiments which are conducted by three separate and complementary ultra- 
                                  violet telescopes. 
 

Spacelab Mir  (SL-M)  Launch -    This Spacelab module mission will offer an opportunity to perform research 
3rd Qtr FY 1995                   aboard the Space Shuttle and the Russian Mir space station while the two are 
                                  docked together. The research to be performed will be in the fields of life 
                                  sciences and microgravity science. The mission will also allow for a better 
                                  understanding of Russian medical monitoring, countermeasures and 
                                  operational medicine programs. Important insight into space station operations 
                                  will be gained through the joint operations.  


USML-2  Launch -                  The objectives of this Spacelab module mission are to conduct scientific and 
4th Qtr FY 1995                   technological investigations in materials, fluids, combustion and biological 
                                  processes and to explore potential applications of space for commercial 
                                  products and processes. Fifteen investigations have been base-lined for the this 
                                  mission, as well as seven additional U. S. investigations to be conducted in the 
                                  USML-2 Glovebox facility provided by the European Space Agency in a quid pro 
                                  quo arrangement. 


USMP-3  Launch -                  This Spacelab pallet mission will perform materials processing and other 
2nd Qtr FY 1996                   experiments in the microgravity space environment with inflight monitoring of 
                                  phenomena, sample production, and postflight analysis of samples. Such 
                                  activities are expected to significantly advance the basic knowledge of materials 
                                  science and help develop better products and technology for use on Earth and 
                                  in space.


LMS Launch  -                     This Spacelab Module mission will perform scientific investigations in the fields 
3rd Qtr, FY 1996                  of material science, fluid physics, protein crystal growth, and biotechnology. 
                                  Human and plant studies and a subset of investigations previously planned for 
                                  SLS-3 will also be conducted. 


NASA/Mir 3  Launch -              Life sciences research on Biorack will investigate cellular functions and 
2nd Qtr, FY 1996                  developmental  processes in plant and animal tissues.  Microgravity objectives 
NASA/Mir 4  Launch -              will be focused on reducing scientific risk and enhancing long duration 
4th Qtr, FY 1996                  experiment performance and science utilization in preparation for ISSA. 
                                  Mission Management and Integration functions will be performed by Spacehab, 
                                  Inc. 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

In FY 1994, the Space Shuttle/Spacelab Mission Management and Integration program successfully managed the five Spacelab 
missions that were scheduled for completion: the second flight of Space Life Sciences (SLS-2), the second flight of the US 
Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2), the flight of the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-1), the second flight of the International 
Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2), and the flight of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE-1). 
 

In the first quarter of FY 1995, two additional Spacelab missions were successfully supported by the program:  the second flight of 
the SRL-2 and the third flight of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3).  Three additional Spacelab 
missions are scheduled to be completed within the remaining months of FY 1995:  the second flight of the Astronomy mission 
(ASTRO-2), the second flight of the US Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2) and the Spacelab-Mir (SL-M), the first of the seven-flight 
NASA/MIR Research Program. 
 

Mission management activities in support of missions planned for FY 1996 have also commenced for the remaining flights in the 
NMRP as well as for the LMS.  Long-term mission planning efforts have also been initiated in support of the Space Station. 
 

In FY 1994 and FY 1995, the program conducted two separate comprehensive reviews with the intent of streamlining its operational 
procedures and achieving substantially lower costs for the mission management of the Spacelab programs.  The Process Action 
Team for Spacelab Mission Management identified a number of cost reduction activities at the Center-level management and 
integration organizations.  Those cost reductions have generated savings of over $14 million.  The Spacelab  
Re-Engineering Team was chartered in the fall of 1994 to review the program and to further streamline the processes and reduce 
the mission management budget.  The team has nearly completed its work and will recommend improved processes which are 
expected to generate additional savings in mission management. 
 

Mission management activities in FY 1996 will continue with the launch of several module missions LMS, NASA/Mir 3 and 
NASA/Mir 4 and a key microgravity pallet mission (USMP-3).  Successful preparation and launch of the LMS mission in FY 1996 will 
require a highly-accelerated schedule of mission management events.  Other mission planning efforts will also be performed in 
support of the final three flights of the NMRP, the first flight of the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 and the fourth flight of the 
USMP-4.  In the third quarter of this year, NASA will begin the conduct of continuous on-orbit research aboard the Mir with U.S. 
and Russian astronauts.  Space Station planning and integration efforts will intensify as the First Element Launch date of the Space 
Station approaches (December 1997). 
 

In FY 1996, systems engineering efforts will continue to support methodologies for advocacy and coordination of U.S. research 
requirements vis-a-vis carrier programs and implementation of processes and tools for mission planning for U.S. payloads on future 
space platforms, primarily the phase II and III of the international Space Station. 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                AEROSPACE MEDICINE AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH 
 

                                                  FY 1994          FY 1995          FY 1996 
                                                            (Thousands of Dollars) 


Aerospace medicine and occupational health         (2,700)           7,000            7,000 
 

PROGRAM GOALS  
 

The Aerospace Medicine and Occupational Health program goals are to:  (1) provide for the health care and well-being of all NASA 
employees in their ground- and space-based work environments; and (2) promote applications of knowledge gained and technologies 
developed in the public and private sectors. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Aerospace Medicine and Occupational Health program leads the Agency in the areas of Aerospace Medicine, Global Health 
Applications and Occupational Health.  The primary objective of the Aerospace Medicine program is to maintain the health and 
productivity of astronauts, thus  increasing the probability of success of flight missions.  The scope of work includes the refinement 
of standards and requirements for operational medicine in support of space flight; provision of ground-based medical support for 
human space flight mission operations; and ensuring development of hardware, training, and protocols for maintaining clinical care 
readiness on-board spacecraft. 
 

The Global Health Applications program transfers the NASA knowledge and technology of aerospace medicine and occupational 
health to a variety of domestic and international endeavors that contribute to national competitiveness, education, and quality of 
life.  This work is accomplished via publications and use of other media to inform others of our aerospace medicine and occupational 
health practices; promoting the incorporation of these practices in educational curricula; and transferring the technologies 
developed for medical care of space flight crews to terrestrial health care applications such as the use of tele-medicine to improve 
the access to health care in rural and underserved areas and to support medical responses to disaster-stricken areas both in the U. 
S. and abroad. 
 

The Occupational Health program establishes policies and manages implementation of NASA-wide occupational and environmental 
health programs and services.  These include provision of immediate medical care for acute illnesses, accidents and injuries in the 
workplace; controlling and responding to exposure of employees to toxic materials, hazardous environments and harmful physical 
agents in the workplace; implementing state-of-the-art preventive medicine and wellness programs; and assuring Agency compliance 
with legal and regulatory requirements for occupational health. 
 

The Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Headquarters are the principal centers involved in the Aerospace Medicine program.  The JSC 
will manage the tele-medicine efforts in support of mission operations, and the medical applications activities.  Funding will be 
provided to the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) to support Spacebridge to Russia.  Wright State University and the University of Texas 
Medical Center are the major contractors for the Aerospace Medicine program. 
 

The Russian Space Agency is providing some of the infrastructure in support of U.S. astronaut medical health monitoring for the 
Space Shuttle/Mir missions. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

                                                        FY 1994       FY 1995      FY 1996 
                                                         ACTUAL          PLAN         PLAN 
 

No. of workers' compensation claims filed                   301           286          295 
No. of days to process workers compensation claims       8 days        7 days       6 days 
No. of papers/presentations at national meetings             20            24           29 
 

U.S./Russian Medical Policy Board -       This establishes the U.S./Russian Medical Policy Board which validates 
2nd Qtr, FY 1995                          medical requirements, standards, protocols, and flight rules for all joint 
                                          U.S./Russian missions. 


First Draft International Space Station   This effort initiates the documentation of the medical requirements for flight 
Medical Requirements -                    crew performance and well-being and the requirements for conduct of medical 
4th Qtr, FY 1995                          research needed for extension of on-orbit stay time or for other specific crew 
                                          health related issues. 


Operational Tele-medicine System -        This effort establishes the configuration of the operational tele-medicine system 
4th Qtr, FY 1995                          and initiates its use in support of flight crew activities. 


Medical Risk Assessment -                 This effort completes a comprehensive risk assessment and review of known 
2nd Qtr, FY 1996                          medical requirements in support of international space station mission 
                                          activities. 


Global Medical Network -                  This effort provides NASA-support to the development and operations of the 
4th Qtr, FY 1996                          global medical network for telemedical transactions involving other national 
                                          and international organizations. 



ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

FY 1994 accomplishments included successful completion of the international Tele-medicine Demonstration program (Spacebridge 
to Moscow) and sponsorship of the Second NASA/Uniformed Services University of Health Services (USUHS) International 
Conference on Tele-medicine.  Programs were initiated with the Pan American Health Organization and the Third World Foundation 
to support disaster preparedness and response, enable epidemiological data collection, and provide worldwide access to critical 
medical information (World Medical Network).  The Advanced Communication Technology Satellite experiment was successfully 
executed to demonstrate small Earth station use for high resolution image transfer (via a fiber optic opthalmascope).  A 
comprehensive tele-medicine demonstration was presented to members of the Congress.  A program to identify specific NASA high-
speed computing, advanced image processing, and data transmission capabilities which have potential for application to health care 
problems was also initiated in FY 1994. 
 

Epidemiological studies evaluating long-term consequences of space flight and analog (medical) populations were continued.  
Medical technologies and procedures for development of inflight medical care were evaluated in zero gravity and static testbeds.  The 
Wright State University Aerospace Medicine Residency program graduated 6 physicians who are eligible for Board Certification in 
this highly specialized field.  These clinical medicine responsibilities support Shuttle Operational Medicine and were transferred to 
the Aerospace Medicine and Occupational Health Division in 1994 with the applicable funding from the Life and Biomedical 
Sciences and Applications Division.   
 

FY 1995 plans for the program include:  (1) establishing computer connectivity, voice/fax, and video conferencing capabilities with 
Russia and the Ukraine to enable consultations in that those regions; (2) supporting development of the Pan American Health 
Organization/Third World Foundation global medical network; (3) developing a network of medical experts for all telemedical 
transactions (e.g., flight crew or disaster recovery); (4) completing the development of the Star City  (Russia) tele-medicine system; 
(5) initiating the clinical and academic testing of the Clinical Practice Library of Medicine, a computer-based medical library; (6) 
initiating a comprehensive risk assessment and review of medical requirements for space flight during long duration NASA/MIR 
Research Program (NMRP) and the international Space Station missions; (7) initiating the development of medical requirements for 
research in order to ensure the timely availability of adequate procedures, protocols and countermeasures to maintain and enhance 
human health and performance during extended duration missions; (8) providing operational medical support for Space Shuttle 
missions and long duration NMRP missions; and (9) establishing a Joint Medical Policy Board and developing joint medical 
operations requirements documents for the NMRP missions.   
 

FY 1996 plans are to continue development and utilization of the operational tele-medicine system for medical consultations 
between U.S. and Russian sites and provide operational medical support for missions on NMRP and Space Station.  The program 
will also:  (1) develop medical risk assessments and requirements in preparation for Space Station; (2) conduct clinical testing of the 
Clinical Practice Library of Medicine with extensive field evaluation at NASA Centers; (3) finalize development and initial operation of 
the global medical network in support of all telemedical transactions; (4) develop and refine the NASA high-speed computing and 
medical imaging applications for transfer to the health community; and (5) initiate collaborative efforts with national and 
international agencies to apply NASA-derived technology for health applications.  



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                                     SPACE STATION PAYLOAD FACILITIES 
 

                                              FY 1994           FY 1995          FY 1996 
                                                         (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Life sciences payload facilities               24,000            42,900           53,900 
Microgravity payload facilities	               13,000            32,000           65,600 
EXPRESS racks/laboratory support equipment         --            15,600           17,800 
 
 

       Total                                   37,000            90,500          137,300 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The international Space Station will be the world's premier facility for studying the role of gravity on biological, physical and 
chemical systems.  NASA plans to utilize the Space Station as an interactive laboratory in space to advance fundamental scientific 
knowledge and to contribute new scientific discoveries for the benefit of the United States and to accelerate the rate at which it 
develops beneficial applications derived from long-term duration, space-based research.  The program will deliver the capability to 
perform unique, long-duration, microgravity-dependent, space-based research in cell and developmental biology, plant biology, 
human physiology, biotechnology, fluid physics, combustion science, materials science and benchmark physics. 


STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

As one of the primary NASA users of the Space Station, the Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications program sponsors a 
robust program to develop flight experiment apparatus, ground-based facilities and operations protocols needed to make the Space 
Station's unique capabilities available to the United States.  The program includes life sciences payload facilities, microgravity 
payload facilities, laboratory support equipment and EXPRESS rack development. 
 

Life Sciences Space Station Payload Facilities 
 

The Life Sciences Space Station Payload Facilities program will develop three important hardware facilities:  Human Research 
Facility (HRF), the Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF), and the Centrifuge Facility (CF). 
 

The HRF project will define and develop space flight research hardware to serve a number of closely related objectives.  The HRF 
hardware suite will enable the standardized, systematic collection of data from the Space Station's crew members, which the 
medical and research community will require in order to assure crew health.  Once verified on-orbit, the HRF will also be used to 
conduct basic and applied human research and technology experiments. 
 

The GBF project will design, develop, and conduct the on-orbit verification of Space Station research equipment to support the 
growth and development of a variety of biological specimens, including animal and plant cells and tissues, embryos, fresh and salt 
water aquatic organisms, insects, higher plants, and rodents.  The GBF will support specimen sampling and storage, as well as 
limited analysis activities.  The GBF's modular design will accommodate the incremental development of experiment capabilities, in 
a manner consistent with evolving ground and flight science needs of the research community. 
 

The CF project will design, develop, and conduct on-orbit performance verification of two habitat holding systems, a two-and-a-half 
meter diameter centrifuge rotor, centrifuge glovebox and a service system rack.  The project will also develop a biotelemetry system 
to support ground-based data analysis of in-flight experiments. 
 

To ensure that the GBF and CF projects develop high-yield science, the projects have established a science working group of leading 
scientists in cell, developmental, and plant biology.  The science working group is composed of leading researchers from universities 
and government (National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the NASA).  The working group 
represents the science community to the facilities projects, helps the projects define requirements, reviews hardware design 
concepts, and they perform and review science tests to refine science requirements. 
 

Several of NASA's Centers lead the development of the component projects funded within the Life Sciences Space Station Facilities 
program.  The Johnson Space Center (JSC) will lead the development of the HRF.  The Ames Research Center (ARC) will lead the 
development of the GBF and the CF.  The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) will provide support to the ARC during the development of 
the GBF and will also provide payload integration services prior to the launch of the facilities and their experiments. 
 

Life Sciences is working closely with contractors to develop the ISSA facilities.  The HRF development effort will be managed 
primarily as an in-house effort at the JSC but will be supported primarily by Martin-Marietta and Krug Life Sciences.  Martin-
Marietta will provide project engineering and related services in support of HRF hardware development and modification.  Krug Life 
Sciences will support science requirements development and definition at the JSC.  Although the GBF and the CF projects will rely 
upon different procurement strategies, both projects will rely heavily upon support contractors.  The Bionetics Corporation will 
support science definition and development for both the ARC projects, but the two projects will adopt different hardware engineering 
and development strategies.  Martin-Marietta (or a successor) will support an in-house the ARC development effort for the GBF; the 
CF project anticipates that it will select and direct a prime contractor to develop the major CF hardware components. 
 

The Life Sciences Space Station Facilities program actively pursues international participation.  For example, the GBF project has 
contacted the space agencies of Japan, Germany, and Canada soliciting participation in the development  of an aquatic habitat.  A 
multilateral users working group, consisting of representatives from all the major ISSA participating countries, has agreed to 
principles for eliminating unnecessary duplication of laboratory support hardware.  NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) 
also have a bilateral agreement to develop four flight copies of a -80o C freezer.  The program will pursue other agreements of this 
sort in order to increase the science returns and the economies of the ISSA program. 


Microgravity Space Station Payload Facilities 
 

The Microgravity Sciences Space Station Payload Facilities program will develop three major facilities for the Space Station:  the 
Biotechnology Facility (BTF), the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), and the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF).  These 
facilities, coupled with investigator-class payloads, will support a wide array of research in biotechnology, combustion science, fluids 
science, materials science and gravitational physics. 
 

The BTF supports protein crystal growth and studies on the maintenance and response of mammalian tissue cultures in a 
microgravity environment.  The facility will provide a support structure as well as integration capabilities for individual 
biotechnology experiment modules.  Its modular design will provide the flexibility to accommodate a wide range of experiments in 
cell culturing and protein crystallization.  The facility will accommodate changes in experimental modules and analytical equipment 
in response to changes in science priorities or technological advances. 
 

The FCF supports research on interfacial phenomena, colloidal systems, multiphase flow and heat transfer, solid-fluid interface 
dynamics, and condensed matter physics, and definition of the mechanisms involved in various combustion processes in the 
absence of strong buoyant flows.  The facility core will provide common support systems for both the combustion and the fluids 
modules.  The Fluids Module Experiment Rack will be designed to accommodate several multi-purpose experiment modules that are 
individually configured with facility-provided and experiment-specific hardware to support each fluids experiment.  The Combustion 
Module will house a combustion chamber that is equipped with ports to allow an array of modular diagnostic systems to view the 
experiment. 
 

The SSFF is used to study underlying principles necessary to predict the relationships of synthesis and processing of materials to 
their resulting structures and properties.  The facility core, which will provide the main interface to the Space Station services, will 
consist of furnace subsystems common to many types of investigations.  The experiment modules will be composed of multi-user or 
investigator-unique modules that will be designed for high reliability and long life.  NASA will be able to reconfigure the modules and 
will have capability of on-orbit reconfiguration to support many different types of investigations.  It is anticipated that cooperative 
efforts with the international science community will assist in the development of some discipline-specific furnace modules for use 
by the U.S. science community, thus leveraging the hardware development investments undertaken by NASA. 
 

The microgravity facilities projects follow a standard plan of conducting the early, definition phase “in-house” at the managing NASA 
Field Center, with a decision made at the end of the definition phase on the method of pursuing full scale development (e.g., “in-
house” or by competition and award to an external contractor).  The BTF project is led by JSC, with contractor support from Krug 
Life Sciences Corporation.  This project is currently in the early definition phase and plans are for JSC to design the BTF and 
compete the fabrication, assembly, test and integration. 
 

The FCF is led by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC), with contractor support from Native American Services Corporation.  This 
project is currently in the early definition phase and plans have not yet been defined for the full scale development phase.  The SSFF 
is led by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).  This common or “core system” project is currently in the full scale development 
phase as an in-house project, with selected fabrication, testing and support services tasks under competitively-awarded contracts.  
The experiment module projects are currently in the early definition phase, with plans to complete and contract the full scale 
development of modules as they complete definition phase. 
 

The microgravity facilities projects actively pursue international participation.  For example, the first International Workshop on 
Furnaces for the international Space Station was held in Europe in June 1993, with participation of NASA, DARA/DLR, NASDA, 
CSA, ESA and CNES.  From this workshop, NASA proposed joint scientific and equipment programs with both ESA and CNES 
whereby they would provide Furnace Experiment Modules for the NASA SSFF.  A follow-up workshop is planned in February 1995 
in the United States.  A similar workshop is also in preparation for the fluid physics and combustion communities in the United 
States in April 1995.  NASA and ESA also have a bilateral agreement in principal to develop a Microgravity Sciences Glovebox whose 
capabilities are specified by NASA and will be available for use by all international Space Station microgravity science researchers.  
As part of this agreement, ESA has proposed to develop new generation protein crystal growth experiment apparatus and share use 
of it with NASA.  This will complement equipment planned for the BTF. 
 

Express Racks and Laboratory Support Equipment 
 

In addition to the major facility-class payload facilities, NASA plans to fly smaller, less complex payloads on the Space Station which 
will typically have more focused research objectives and shorter development time cycles.  The EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of 
Experiments to Space Station) rack project provides a means for accommodating these smaller payloads.  The EXPRESS rack will 
enable a simple, streamlined analytical and physical integration process for small payloads by providing standard hardware and 
software interfaces.  The project includes a precursor flight of an EXPRESS rack in FY 1997 on the MSL-1 Spacelab mission.  
EXPRESS racks will be available to support initial payload operations in the U.S. Laboratory on the ISSA. 
 

The laboratory support equipment (LSE) which the program will finance includes such items as the ISSA refrigerators and freezers, 
dosimeters, incubators, electro-magnetic shielded locker, micro-mass measurement device, microscopes, gloveboxes, and fluid 
handling tools.  LSE will be shared with other Space Station users.  The items are managed by the NASA Field Center responsible 
for leading development of the Space Station Payload Facility which will be the primary user of the LSE.   
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

HRF Preliminary Requirements Review       This review establishes the project development plan and ensures that 
Rack 1 - 3rd Qtr, FY 1995                 research/science objectives have been properly translated into statements of 
                                          requirements. 


HRF Preliminary Design Review -           This review establishes the "design-to" baseline and ensures that it meets the 
Rack 1-1st Qtr, FY 1996                   project baseline requirements. 10 % of the flight drawing should be complete at 
                                          this stage.  


GBF Critical Design Review -              This review verifies the suitability of the design in meeting the specified 
Rack 1 - 4th Qtr,  FY 1996                requirements and establishes its "build-to" project baseline. 
                                          90 % of flight drawings should be complete at this stage. 


CF RFP for Centrifuge Hardware            This milestone marks the release of the Request for Proposal for the Centrifuge 
Procurement - 2nd Qtr, FY 1995            Hardware.


CF Hardware Development Contract Start    Contract Start Date will initiate the Design, Development and Testing of the 
Date - 1st Qtr,  FY 1996                  Centrifuge Hardware.


BTF Critical Design Review -              This review verifies the suitability of the design in meeting the specified 
4th Qtr, FY 1996                          requirements and establishes its "build-to" project baseline. 
                                          90 % of flight drawings should be complete at this stage 

FCF Core System Conceptual Design         This review establishes the conceptual design  of the hardware so that  the 
Review - 1st Qtr,  FY 1995                follow-on Phase B can be initiated.


FCF Core System Requirements Definition   This review establishes full scale development plans required for go ahead for 
Review - 2nd Qtr, FY 1996                 development.


SSFF Core System Preliminary Design       This review establishes the "design-to" baseline and ensures that it meets the 
Review - 1st Qtr,  FY 1995                project baseline requirements. 10 % of the flight drawing should be complete at 
                                          this stage. 


SSFF Core System Critical Design          This review verifies the suitability of the design in meeting the specified 
Review - 2nd Qtr, FY 1996                 requirements and establishes its "build-to" project baseline. 
                                          90 % of flight drawings should be complete at this stage. 


EXPRESS RACK/MSL-1 Delivery to KSC -      At KSC the initial EXPRESS Rack that will fly on MSL-1 integrated with the 
3rd Qtr, FY 1996                          initial payload and processed in preparation for launch in FY 1997.



ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Life Sciences Space Station Payload Facilities 
 

Human Research Facility 
 

During FY 1994, NASA established the HRF’s project objectives, conducted Phase A/B studies to identify and select technologies for 
use in the project, established project organizations, support infrastructures, databases, and began building relationships with the 
Space Station Project office.  An Integrated Product Development Lab (IPDL) was established at JSC during the year to support 
prototype development of various hardware components for the HRF and for other Space Station-era flight development projects.  
Prototype engineering and testing has been initiated at the IPDL facility. 
 

The HRF project considered various procurement and development strategies during FY 1994 and determined that existing life 
sciences flight hardware can support the project’s research requirements adequately.  The project will modify flight hardware during 
FY 1995 and beyond.  It will develop some new hardware, but the project has determined that no prime contracts for major 
hardware development will be necessary during the project’s life.  JSC plans to rely upon its in-house contractor, Martin-Marietta, 
for hardware engineering and development support. 
 

During FY 1995, the HRF project's efforts will concentrate on finalizing the science requirements by taking advantage of a newly-
formed science working group.  The project will begin modification and development of an HRF "Rack 0" to fly the Space Station 
precursor research on the last two NASA/MIR Research Program flights.  The project will develop procedures for conforming to 
Russian policies and procedures related to biomedical monitoring and countermeasures.  During FY 1996, the HRF project will work 
toward the deployment of four racks of research hardware:  one in FY 1999, one in FY 2000, and two racks in FY 2004. 
 

Gravitational Biology Facility 
 

The GBF project proceeded with Phase A/B studies for the space and ground segments during FY 1994.  The project achieved 
considerable progress in defining its science requirements during the year.  A number of science questions which the project 
formulated during the year will precede hardware prototyping and development in subsequent years.  Through year-end 1994, the 
GBF project had awarded eleven peer-reviewed studies to universities, small businesses, and NASA Specialized Centers of Research 
and Training (NSCORTs).  By year-end, the project had also initiated several collaborative studies with other NASA Field Centers and 
the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (a Center for Commercial Development of Space). 
 

In FY 1995, the GBF activities will focus on the development of detailed system specifications for equipment and system-level 
designs for both the space and ground segments.  A system requirements review and a system design review are scheduled for the 
second and fourth quarters of FY 1995, respectively.  FY 1996 efforts will provide for the completion of the initial design of the first 
rack of the GBF hardware.  The GBF will conduct a preliminary design review for the first rack during the second quarter of the 
year, and it will proceed with detailed rack design during the remainder of the year.  FY 1996 resources will also support the 
development of habitat science evaluation hardware for tests by members of the science community, prior to critical design review in 
the fourth quarter.  These science tests will evaluate science utility of the GBF habitat designs.  The GBF project will conduct a 
systems requirements review for the second GBF rack, and the project expects to complete Phase B studies for the second rack by 
the end of the year.  The first complement of GBF hardware (Rack 1) is currently scheduled to launch to the ISSA during FY 1999 
followed by a second suite of hardware (Rack 2) in FY 2000. 
 

Centrifuge Facility 
 

The CF project’s FY 1994 activities deviated considerably from previous project milestones and plans.  The project’s design, resource 
estimates, and procurement schedules all changed following an intensive Headquarters/Ames Research Center (ARC) joint review of 
the project.  By year-end 1994 the Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications Advisory Committee had endorsed the changes 
derived from the year’s review.  In June of the year, the Associate Administrator for Life and Microgravity Sciences canceled a 
procurement solicitation for Centrifuge hardware development, and the project had altered project milestones and activities to 
conform to the revised project direction. 
 

The revised CF project has reduced its resource requirements by more than $100 million during the remainder of the development 
period (FY 1995 through FY 2000), compared to previous estimates.  The new project schedule accelerates the centrifuge launch by 
three years and, although the project design has been simplified, NASA believes that essential science capabilities will be preserved.  
As an example of the improvements generated by the 1994 CF redesign, the project has agreed to collaborate with the GBF in the 
development and financing of plant habitats.  Likewise, the CF project will draw on work already underway at the ARC to reduce the 
requirements and improve the performance of Advanced Animal Habitats. 
 

During FY 1995, the CF project will develop and release a new solicitation for the Centrifuge procurement, continue in-house 
hardware development and test bedding, and proceed with science requirements definition.  The project expects to release a new 
procurement solicitation before the start of the third quarter of the year.  Habitat components will be the focus of hardware 
development activities during the year, and conceptual designs will be completed for such things as an active mass-balance for the 
Centrifuge rotor.  A rodent metabolism study being performed by the Bioenvironmental research Laboratory at the University of 
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign will be completed, as will the rodent acoustic tolerance testing being done at San Jose State 
University.  In response to requirements specified by the CF/GBF science working group, a variety of new studies will be initiated. 
 

The CF project will select the new hardware development contractor early in FY 1996.  Consistent with the project’s procurement 
approach, the new prime development contractor will build the centrifuge rotor, the habitat holding racks, and the support rack.  
The CF project expects to complete the facility-level preliminary requirements review during FY 1996, and the project will continue 
to support science studies to evaluate and improve upon hardware designs and configurations.  The centrifuge rotor and service 
system are now scheduled to launch to the ISSA during FY 2001.  The first habitat holding facility rack will launch during FY 2000. 
 



Microgravity Space Station Payload Facilities 
 

Biotechnology Facility 
 

In FY 1994, the BTF project conducted a functional review to identify requirements from investigators.  An engineering model of the 
facility was developed along with a smaller version to be supplied to the investigators to solidify the design.  The facility simulators 
were delivered early in FY 1995 to investigators for test and check out.  An independent assessment of the facility will be held in 
March 1995.  A requirements workshop and the Requirements Definition Review are scheduled for late in the year.  In FY 1996 the 
BTF experiment control computer will be on Mir to control cell and tissue culture experiments.  The Mir precursor flights will reduce 
the risk in the design and development of full facility operations for Space Station.  The BTF project will conduct its Critical Design 
Review near the end of FY 1996.  The current launch readiness date for the BTF is the fourth quarter of 1998. 
 

Fluids/Combustion Facility 
 

In FY 1994, the FCF completed Phase A studies on the fluids module.  The precursor to the first facility combustion module entered 
the design and development phase to be prepared for flight on MSL-1 (FY 1997).  The conceptual design for the fluids module for the 
FCF was held in December 1994.  The first combustion module design is based on a Space Shuttle combustion module that will 
hold its transition review in March 1995.  The first international workshop to identify possible cooperative experiment module 
development in fluid physics and combustion science will be held in April 1995.  An independent assessment of the facility will be 
held in April.  The combustion and fluids modules for the FCF will both hold their Requirements Definition Review in December 
1995.  After successful completion of the review, the facility will proceed to the design and development phase.  The current launch 
readiness date for FCF and the first fluids module is the third quarter of 1999. 
 

Space Station Furnace Facility 
 

Full scale development of the SSFF was initiated in early FY 1994.  The facility conducted a successful Preliminary Requirements 
Review and completed the definition phase for the first two furnace modules.  The first international workshop to identify 
cooperative furnace developments was held with the Space Station international partners in Nordwijk, Holland.  The Preliminary 
Design Review was held for the SSFF core.  An independent assessment of the facility was held in September 1994.  Agreements will 
be negotiated with the ESA and the French Space Agency for the development of additional furnace modules for the facility.  A 
second international workshop to further refine cooperative furnace developments is scheduled for February 1995 in Huntsville, 
Alabama.  The SSFF core will be fabricated after the Critical Design Review in December 1996.  Modifications to the U.S. Spacelab 
furnace to allow it to be the first U.S. furnace module in the facility will begin in early 1996.  The current launch readiness date for 
the Core facility and the first instrument rack is June 1999. 
 


EXPRESS Rack Development 
 

In FY 1995 detailed design will be completed and assembly and test will be underway for the initial EXPRESS rack that will be flown 
on MSL-1.  Detailed design will continue for the EXPRESS rack configuration planned to fly on the Space Station.  Testing and 
integration of the MSL-1 EXPRESS rack will be completed in FY 1996, and the rack will be delivered to the KSC for payload 
integration and launch processing.  Design will be completed for the Space Station EXPRESS rack configurations and assembly of 
hardware will be underway for qualification and acceptance testing.  The delivery date for the EXPRESS rack planned for use on 
MSL-1 is April 1996.  The delivery date of the first Space Station EXPRESS rack is February 1998.

                                            


SAT 2