SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

                                    FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 
 
                                          BUDGET SUMMARY 
 

OFFICE OF MISSION TO PLANET EARTH                                       MISSION TO PLANET EARTH 

 
                                 SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS


                                                   
                                                        FY 1994         FY 1995         FY 1996          
                                                                 (Thousand of Dollars) 
 

Earth observing system...........................       392,876         591,100         591,100         
Earth observing system data 
    information system...........................       188,158         230,600         289,800          
Earth probes.....................................        96,426          81,600          36,900          
Payload and instrument development...............        25,900          19,500           4,900         
Applied research and data analysis...............       317,140         344,300         308,400          
Global observations to benefit the environment...         [300]           5,000           5,000          
Advanced communications technology satellite.....         3,000           2,300              --         
Launch services..................................        26,500          48,700          88,000          
Construction of facilities.......................        18,000          17,000          17,000        
    (Earth systems science building).............       (12,000)        (17,000)        (17,000) 
    (Langley Research Center distributed  
    active archive center).......................       (6,000)            (--)            (--) 
 

    Total........................................     1,068,000       1,340,100       1,341,100 
 


                                   SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY 
 
 
                                       FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 

                                             BUDGET SUMMARY 
 

OFFICE OF MISSION TO PLANET EARTH                                        MISSION TO PLANET EARTH 
 

                                     SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS 
	 
 

                                                        FY 1994           FY 1995        FY 1996 
                                                                  (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Distribution of Program Amount by Installation 
 

Johnson Space Center.............................           167               --              -- 
Kennedy Space Center.............................            75              100             100 
Marshall Space Flight Center.....................        12,904            8,600           9,600 
Stennis Space Center.............................            80              500             400 
Ames Research Center.............................        37,723           37,400          33,900 
Langley Research Center..........................        31,720           60,600          48,800 
Lewis Research Center............................        19,103           40,600          66,300 
Goddard Space Flight Center......................       747,075          836,000         883,400 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory........................       105,055          204,900         157,100 
Headquarters.....................................       114,098          151,400         141,500 
 

	Total....................................     1,068,000        1,340,100       1,341,100 
 


 
                                       SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY  
 

                                             FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES  

 
OFFICE OF MISSION TO PLANET EARTH 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The overall goal of the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) program is to understand the total Earth system and the effects of natural 
and human-induced changes on the global environment.  To preserve and improve the Earth's environment for future generations, 
people around the world need to base policies and decisions on the strongest possible scientific understanding.  The vantage point of 
space provides information about the Earth's land, atmosphere, ice, oceans, and biota that is obtainable in no other way.  In concert 
with the global research community, the MTPE program is utilizing space to lead the development of knowledge required to support 
the complex national and international environmental policy decisions that lie ahead.  The MTPE Earth Observing System (EOS) will 
establish the foundation for a new, innovative approach to global environmental monitoring and climate prediction.  The outcome of 
MTPE's policy-relevant, global environmental science focus will help to insure a strategic advantage for American enterprise. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The scientific discipline associated with MTPE's activities is Earth system science, which has strong elements in the atmospheric, 
oceanic, hydrological, ecological, and solid Earth sciences but integrates them in a way that the full range of couplings in the Earth 
system can be addressed.  Earth system science is a young discipline, and MTPE investigators and programs make a significant 
contribution to its emergence as a field of scientific endeavor.  The collection of global data to characterize the Earth system is a 
cornerstone of the MTPE program.  Comprehensive measurements are being made covering the land, atmosphere, ice, bodies of 
water, and biota. Data must be collected for extended periods of time due to the long time constants associated with the changing 
Earth system.  Future data will be integrated with previously obtained data to enable study of the long-term evolution of the Earth 
system.  The MTPE program is strongly committed to analysis and interpretation of archived data.  Data gathering and analysis will 
be accompanied by theoretical and modeling efforts which provide the framework for the interpretation of data and for quantitatively 
testing our understanding of how the Earth system works. 
 

The MTPE program develops Earth observing spacecraft and instruments, acquires data, and disseminates these data, information, 
and scientific understanding throughout the world.  Along with predictions, data and information from the MTPE program form the 
basis for decision-making on complex, environmental policies.  NASA brings to the field of Earth system science the ability to 
observe the Earth globally from space.  The MTPE program provides the space-based assets, complimentary aircraft, balloons and 
in-situ capabilities, and the scientific capabilities to interpret the data for modeling, prediction, and assessment needs.  Resultant 
data, information, and scientific understanding must be provided to all classes of users, including but not limited to the Earth 
science community.  Policy makers, environmental decision-makers and resource managers, industrial planners, social scientists 
and the general academic community, educators, and interested individuals must have effective access to Earth science data and 
ideas so that difficult decisions about managing the global environment can be made on an informed basis.   
 

MTPE products form the basis for public education, as well as for training future generations of scientists and engineers.  
Communication to the general public is important so that people can effectively participate in the national decision making process 
and can understand the complex economic and environmental tradeoffs that may be required.  Training of future generations of 
Earth scientists, fully representing the diversity of the United States, is inspired and facilitated by the data and ideas developed by 
the MTPE. 
 

The MTPE program contributes directly to American economic growth and competitiveness through the scientific products we deliver 
as well as by developing and infusing spacecraft instrument and information system technologies to enable new scientific 
investigations.  Methods used by MTPE to obtain, interpret, and distribute Earth system data and information must be cost-effective 
and be at the cutting edge of science and technology.  The MTPE utilizes technology that is currently available and works to develop 
and infuse needed new technologies.  MTPE investigators work to develop technologies and products that have multiple uses 
including those which will help ensure continued economic competitiveness for the United States.  People are benefiting today from 
MTPE products.  This includes farmers, foresters, fishermen, land-use managers, etc., who currently utilize the weather prediction 
and remote sensing capabilities.  Global environment is playing an increasing role in global business.  Leading the international 
effort on global environment helps ensure a level playing field for enterprise. 
 

The MTPE program consists of the Earth Observing System (EOS), the EOS Data Information System (EOSDIS), a series of Earth 
probe satellites, additional payloads flown on the Space Shuttle, specialized aircraft and balloons, and a focused scientific 
investigation program that provides the scientific understanding necessary to accomplish the MTPE goals. 
 

Upcoming activities over the next two years in the Mission to Planet Earth program include, in the Earth probes program, launch of 
the first Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Earth probe in FY 1995, and launch of the NASA Scatterometer and TOMS 
instrument on the Japanese Advanced Earth Observing System (ADEOS) spacecraft in FY 1996.  Launch of the Ocean Color Mission 
is also expected in FY 1995.  The mission operations and data analysis program within MTPE will begin operations of the Earth 
probes satellites and processing of the data received from them and the Ocean Color Mission, in addition to maintaining activities 
for currently orbiting satellites and recently completed space shuttle missions.  The instrument and payloads development program 
will be focused on Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) post-
mission activities.  Within the Earth Observing System, critical design reviews will be held for the AM-1 spacecraft and Landsat-7 
spacecraft in FY 1995, and for the SeaWinds spacecraft in FY 1996.  The EOSDIS will release Version 1 FY 1996, and prepare for 
the release of Version 2. 
 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                            EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM 
	 

                                                        FY 1994          FY 1995         FY 1996 
		                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

AM series........................................       198,759          260,800         202,200 
PM series........................................        50,100           88,800         127,300 
Chemistry........................................         2,200           10,300          27,700 
Special spacecraft...............................        20,925           85,500          69,700 
(Space station attached payload - SAGE III.......          (--)             (--)         (4,100) 
Algorithm development............................        46,792           58,300          85,400 
Landsat-7........................................        74,100           87,400          78,800 
 

    *Total.......................................       392,876          591,100         591,100 
 

* Total cost information is provided in the Special Issues section 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The overall goal of the Earth Observing System (EOS) is to advance the understanding of the entire Earth system on a global scale 
by improving our knowledge of the components of the system, the interactions between them, and how the Earth system is 
changing.  The EOS will study the atmosphere, oceans, cryosphere, biosphere, land surface and solid Earth, particularly as their 
interrelationships are manifested in the flow of energy and in the cycling of water and other chemicals through the Earth system. 
 

The EOS program mission goals are:  (1) To create an integrated, scientific observing system emphasizing climate change, that will 
enable multidisciplinary study of the Earth's critical, life-enabling, interrelated processes; (2) To develop a comprehensive data and 
information system, including a data retrieval and processing system; (3) To serve the needs of scientists performing an integrated 
multidisciplinary study of planet Earth and to make MTPE data and information publicly available; and, (4) To acquire and assemble 
a global database for remote sensing measurements from space over a decade or more to enable definitive and conclusive studies of 
Earth system attributes. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The EOS contributes directly to accomplishing the goal of understanding global climate by providing a combination of observations 
made by scientific instruments, which will be integrated with the EOS spacecraft, and the data received, archived, processed, and 
distributed by the Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS).  The selection of scientific priorities and data 
products responds directly to the United States Global Change Research Program global change science priorities and the 
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) assessment of the scientific uncertainty associated with global change. 
 

The three main EOS spacecraft that will support observations by the scientific instruments include the morning (AM), 
afternoon (PM), and Chemistry series.  Beginning in 1998, 2000, and 2002 respectively, a satellite in each series will be flown for a 
period of six years in order to obtain, at a minimum, a data set that will span fifteen years.  Additional observations will be provided 
by the Landsat-7 mission in 1998.  Data continuity for the Landsat program will be maintained by flying an advanced technology 
Landsat instrument on the AM-2 mission in 2004.  Within the special spacecraft program, flight of the Altimetry-Radar and 
Altimetry-Laser satellites, as well as the SAGE-III, SeaWinds, ACRIM, Ocean Color, and CERES instruments will depend on a 
combination of domestic and international participation by the Japanese, Europeans, and Russians. 
 

International participation is a highly valued element of the EOS program.  Understanding global climate requires a global effort.  In 
addition to the fiscal benefits from integrating our complimentary science programs, it is critical to ensure that the world's decision 
makers have a common body of information that is credible and well-understood. 
 

EOS program planning began in 1983 with the definition of the science and mission requirements by the EOS Science and Mission 
Requirements Working Group (SMRWG).  The SMRWG charter was to examine the major Earth science questions for the 1990's and 
to define the requirements for low-Earth-orbit observations needed to answer these questions on a comprehensive multidisciplinary 
basis.  The SMRWG's report, issued in 1984, listed five basic recommendations concerning Earth science in the 1990's: 

 
    •   A program must be initiated to ensure that the present time series of Earth science data are maintained and continued.  
        Collection of new data sets should be initiated. 
 

    •   A data system that provides easy, integrated, and complete access to past, present, and future data must be developed as 
        soon as possible. 
 

    •   A long-term research effort must be sustained to study and understand these time series of Earth observations. 
 

    •   The EOS program should establish an information system to carry out those aspects of the recommendations that go beyond 
        existing and currently planned activities. 
 

    •   The scientific direction of EOS should be established and continued through an International Scientific Steering Committee. 
 

The Earth System Sciences Committee (ESSC) was appointed in November 1983 by the NASA Advisory Council to consider 
directions for NASA's Earth-sciences program.  The committee's report, issued in May 1986, recognized EOS as the centerpiece of 
the future Earth sciences implementation strategy.  It stated the following goal of Earth system science:  "To obtain a scientific 
understanding of the entire Earth system on a global scale by describing how its component parts and their interactions have 
evolved, how they function, and how they may be expected to continue to evolve on all time scales."  It also identified the following 
challenge to Earth system science: "To develop the capability to predict those changes that will occur in the next decade to century, 
both naturally and in response to human activity." 
 

The successor to the SMRWG, the EOS Science Steering Committee (SSC), continued the definition of the EOS program and 
provided an overall implementation strategy in its report issued in 1987.  Concurrent with the SSC work, NASA included the EOS 
program under a broader Agency initiative termed Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE), which included other efforts such as the Earth 
Probe Missions and NASA's participation in the International Geosphere Biosphere Program (IGBP) and the World Climate Research 
Program (WCRP).  By proceeding to carry out the recommendations of the SMRWG and the ESSC, including EOS, the SSC argued 
that it would be possible to move from a single-discipline research mission to a comprehensive mission addressing all aspects of the 
Earth as a system.  Thus, the concept of an Earth system was adopted as the EOS scientific thrust. 
 

An Announcement of Opportunity (AO) to solicit proposals for EOS investigations was issued in January 1988.  The EOS program 
objectives were based on the requirements and goals of the SMRWG, SSC, and ESSC.  In responding to the AO, proposers could 
offer to do Interdisciplinary (ID) studies to carry out integrated Earth system research leading to the development of comprehensive 
Earth system models, to be members of research facility teams (formed to provide scientific guidance for the development of the 
research Facility Instruments (FI's) and to analyze and interpret data from them), or to be Principal Investigators (PI's) of proposed 
instruments and data products.  The EOS selection process was completed in February 1989, with the selection of six Team Leaders 
(TL's) and 93 Team Members (TM's) for the 6 NASA research FI's, 24 Instrument PI's, and 29 Interdisciplinary Team PI Leaders to 
participate in the definition phase of the EOS program.   
 

The EOS Investigators Working Group (IWG), formed in 1989, consists of PI's (Instrument and Interdisciplinary), and TL's to provide 
scientific advice and guidance for the program.  The program scientist (from NASA Headquarters) and the senior project scientist 
(from GSFC) co-chair the IWG.  The working bodies of the IWG include twelve science panels.  The chairpersons of each of these 
panels, together with the program scientist and senior project scientist, constitute the Science Executive Committee (SEC) of the 
IWG.  Membership on the panels is generally open to all EOS investigators, including co-investigators on any EOS investigation and 
members of EOS FI teams.  Scientists outside the group of EOS investigators are also included in the various panels. 
 

The IWG plays a leading role in defining the overall science thrust for the EOS program.  It coordinates the research efforts and 
provides guidance and advice to the EOS program and project, as appropriate, concerning all major scientific issues.  It will meet 
regularly throughout the lifetime of the program. 
 

The EOS study project was established at GSFC in 1983.  During the Phase A and B study periods, GSFC and the Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory (JPL) performed mission, data system and spacecraft studies resulting in a conceptual design of a dual series of 
spacecraft missions that would satisfy the EOS requirements.  The spacecraft were designated EOS-A and EOS-B, with GSFC and 
JPL having the respective managerial responsibilities.  Following the EOS Non-Advocacy Review (NAR), held in June 1989, 
management responsibilities for the EOS-B series, as well as the project management role for the execution phase of EOS, were 
transitioned to GSFC.  The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which was an FI to be launched on EOS-B, was identified as an 
independent mission, to be managed by JPL, and a candidate for separate program approval. In 1990, responsibility for development 
of the platform was transferred from the Space Station Program to EOS.  EOS management became centralized within the EOS 
Project at GSFC.   
 

The EOS program was approved by Congress as an FY 1991 budget initiative.  The payload for the first flight (EOS-A1) was selected 
in January 1991, following Conceptual Design and Cost Reviews (CDCR's) of the selected instruments and IWG Payload Panel 
recommendations on scientific priorities and synergism.  The baseline flight segment consisted of two series of large observatories, 
EOS-A and-B, in 1:30 PM ascending, sun-synchronous orbit, launched by a Titan-IV with Solid Rocket Motor Upgrades (SRMU's) 
from the Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC).  Each observatory had a 5-year life and each was to be replaced twice to 
provide a 15-year mission.  The budget runout through FY 2000 was $17 billion. 
 

The National Research Council (NRC) advises the federal government through reports of reviews it conducts using its various 
committees, which involve the broad community of science and technology experts.  Prior to the EOS new start approval in FY 1991, 
their report, "The U.S. Global Change Research Program: An Assessment of FY 1991 Plans" provided a critical review of the EOS 
program. 
 

In the July 1991, report, "Assessment of Satellite Earth Observation Programs 1991," the NRC was in general agreement with the 
EOS plan for the large EOS-A observatory and its selected payloads.  It expressed concern that the total EOS budget size could lead 
to potential delays, noted data gaps in key areas, and endorsed the MTPE Earth probe concept.  These reviews were the beginning of 
a series of reviews and evaluations of the program to ensure the proper scientific return on the EOS investment. 
 

As part of the FY 1992 budget process, the Committees on Appropriations directed NASA to restructure the EOS program to: 
 

•   Focus the science objectives of EOS on the most important problem of global change (i.e., global climate change). 
 

•   Increase the resilience and flexibility of EOS by flying the instruments on multiple, smaller platforms rather than a series of 
    large platforms. 
 

•   Reduce the cost of EOS through FY 2000 to $11 billion. 
 

In the summer and fall of 1991, NASA conducted a restructuring of the program to meet the Congressional mandate.  This process 
included an independent review by the External Engineering Review Committee, which issued its report in September 1991.  The 
process also involved assessment by the scientists who will use the data from EOS, including both the EOS IWG and the EOS 
Payload Advisory Panel.  The EOS project at GSFC conducted studies to determine how the EOS instruments could most effectively 
be configured on small spacecraft.  In December 1991, the NASA Administrator reviewed and approved the restructured EOS 
program, and in March 1992, NASA submitted its report on the restructured program to Congress.  Congress approved the 
restructured program in 1992. 
 

Recognizing that the subsequent budget environment would not support the complete and timely implementation of the 
restructured EOS program described in the March 1992, report to Congress, the NASA Administrator directed that the Program be 
rescoped with a goal of further reducing its costs through FY 2000 by 30 percent to $8 billion.  The EOS reassessment was 
completed in June 1992, satisfying the 30 percent reduction by capitalizing on efficiencies, reducing at-launch science data 
products, by rephasing work, by increasing international participation, and by deleting the High-Resolution Imaging 
Spectrometer (HIRIS) flight instrument. 
 

In the 1995 Congressional budget cycle, the EOS budget was reduced by $758.5 million through FY 2000, $7,243.4 million of which 
$131.3 million was due to a funding responsibility transfer.  The past year has been spent fully defining a program that would 
satisfy the principle objectives within the constrained funding profile.  The EOS rebaselining effort, with the following results, is 
reflected in this budget submission. 
 

•   Preserve the scientific integrity of EOS and Mission to Planet Earth. 
 

•   Preserve the measurement complement of the first mission in each series. 
 

•   Preserve the launch dates for AM-1, PM-1 and Chemistry-1. 
 

•   Phase EOSDIS development to support missions through FY 2000. 
 

•   Restore reserves to a prudent level. 
 

•   Incorporate appropriate technology advancements. 
 

•   Fit within annual funding guidelines for the EOS program. 
 

•   Replace major spacecraft at six year intervals. 
 

Public Law 102-555 returned the development, operations and data distribution of the Landsat-7 program to the federal government 
in 1992.  It established the Landsat Program Management (LPM) team comprised of the Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA.  
DOD was responsible for the acquisition of the satellite and NASA was responsible for the development of the ground system.  In the 
fall of 1993, DOD withdrew from the program.  At the direction of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), the Office of 
Science and Technology (OSTP) initiated a review and restructuring of the Landsat-7 Program.  Under Presidential Decision 
Directive (PDD)/NSTC-3, the Land Remote Sensing Strategy was established.  This strategy implemented a program management 
structure for the Landsat-7 Program, which made NASA responsible for development of the satellite, instrument and ground system, 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) responsible for operations, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in 
conjunction with the EOSDIS Land Process Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC), responsible for data archive and 
distribution. During the EOS rebaseling process, the Landsat-7 program was integrated with EOS. 
 

The EOS science has been reorganized.  The funding to support the activities of the EOS instrument investigators and 
interdisciplinary science investigators has been moved to research and analysis.  The science algorithm development and 
maintenance remains in the EOS budget. 
 

Within NASA, GSFC is responsible for development and operation of the EOS remote sensing spacecraft, instruments (whether at 
GSFC or other NASA centers), and data and information system for the conduct of Earth science investigations using the data from 
all Earth-observing sources.  An MTPE Office has been established within the Office of the Director at GSFC to provide overall 
management, guidance, and coordination of the EOS activities. 
 

AM Series 
 

The global climate change research emphasized by the AM instrument data set will include cloud physics, atmospheric radiation 
properties, and terrestrial and oceanic characteristics.  Because the AM series primarily observes terrestrial surface features, a 
morning equatorial crossing time is preferred to minimize cloud cover over land.  The primary contractors associated with the 
program are Martin Marietta Astro Space (MMAS) for the AM-1 spacecraft, Hughes Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) for the 
Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument, TRW for the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) 
instrument, (the instrument will also be flown on the TRMM and PM Series spacecraft, and as a flight of opportunity), and Martin 
Marietta for the AM-1 Atlas Centaur/IIAS launch service.  The Multi-Angle Imaging Spectrometer (MISR) instrument is being built 
in-house at JPL and the Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter (EOSP) instrument for AM-2 is being built in-house at the Goddard 
Space Flight Center (GSFC).  The Japanese will be providing the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer 
(ASTER) instrument and the Canadians the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument for the AM-1 
spacecraft. 
 

PM Series 
 

The PM series will focus on atmospheric temperatures and humidity profiles, clouds, precipitation, and radiative balance; terrestrial 
snow and sea ice; sea-surface temperature and ocean productivity; soil moisture; and the improvement of numerical weather 
prediction.  With the emphasis of the instrument complement being cloud formation, precipitation, and radiative properties, an 
afternoon equatorial crossing is more suitable for acquiring the data.  The primary contractors associated with the program are 
LORAL, in conjunction with JPL, for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument, and Aerojet General Corporation for the 
Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) instrument.  The European Space Agency will be providing the MIMR instrument for 
the PM-1 spacecraft. 
 

Chemistry Series 
 

The Chemistry series will study atmospheric chemical species and their transformations.  The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer 
(TES) and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments are being built in-house at JPL.  The Japanese will be providing the 
Chemistry International Instrument (CII) and the United Kingdom will be providing the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder 
(HIRDLS) instrument for the Chemistry-1 spacecraft. 
Special Spacecraft 
 

The Special Spacecraft will study atmospheric aerosols, ocean circulation, ice-sheet mass balance, ocean biomass and productivity, 
cloud physics, atmospheric radiation properties, ocean surface stress, and lightning.  Ball Aerospace is responsible for developing 
the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE-III) that will fly on the Space Station and will take advantage of both solar and 
lunar occultations to measure aerosol and gaseous constituents of the atmosphere.  The Russians will support flying a SAGE-III 
instrument in 1998 and another SAGE III will fly aboard the Space Station in 2000.  The Japanese will be providing their Advanced 
Earth Observing System II (ADEOS II) spacecraft for the SeaWinds instrument.  Depending on the outcome of the evaluation of each 
party's proposal, either the Navy or CNES will be a participant in flying the first Altimetry Radar mission.  There remain a number of 
instruments in the Special Flights Program that are also identified as flights of opportunity (i.e. Ocean Color, SOLSTICE, and 
CERES).  It has been assumed under the recent EOS rebaselining that these instruments will fly on an as yet undetermined 
domestic or foreign mission. 
 

Landsat 
 

The Landsat Program will continue to provide substantially cloud-free, sun-lit land surface imagery for detecting and characterizing 
regional and global change.  The primary contractors are MMAS for the Landsat-7 spacecraft, SBRC for the Enhanced Thematic 
Mapper Plus (ETM+), and McDonald Douglas for the Landsat-7 Delta 2 launch service.  NOAA will be responsible for operating the 
satellite and the USGS will archive the data. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 


Preliminary Design Reviews:         Confirms that the proposed project baseline is comprehensive (meets all 
PM-1 April 197                      program-level performance requirements), systematic (all 
Chemistry-1 March 1998              subsystem/component allocations are optimally distributed across the system), 
SeaWinds May 1995                   efficient (all components relate to a parent requirement), and represents 
                                    acceptable risk. 


Critical Design Reviews:            Confirms that the project system, subsystem, and component designs, derived 
AM-1 January 1995                   from the preliminary design, is of sufficient detail to allow for orderly hardware 
PM-1 April 1998                     and software manufacturing, integration, and testing, and represents 
EOS Chemistry-1 June 1999           acceptable risk.  Successful completion of the critical design review freezes the 
SeaWinds December 1995              design prior to actual development. 
Landsat-7 September 1995 


Instruments Delivered:              Confirms that the fabrication, integration, certification, and testing of all system 
AM-1 Last Instr. February 1997      hardware and software conforms with their requirements and is ready for 
PM-1 Last Instr. December 1998      recurring operation.  Throughout system development, testing procedures or, as 
Landsat-7 December 1996             appropriate, engineering analysis have been employed at every level of system 
Aerosol SAGE-III (Russian)          synthesis in order to assure that the fabricated system components will meet 
December 1997                       their requirements. 
SeaWinds March 1998      


Algorithm Development (Version 2):  Confirms that the second version of the science software necessary for the 
EOS AM-1 June 1997                  production of the standard data products for each mission has been developed 
EOS PM-1 December 1999              and is ready to support launch. 
Chemistry-1 December 2001 
Aerosol SAGE-III (Russian)
December 1997 
Altimetry Radar-1 December 1998 
Altimetry Laser-1 July 2002 


Launch Readiness Date:              Verifies that the system elements constructed for use, and the existing support   
AM-1 June 1998                      elements, such as the launch site, space vehicle and booster, are ready for  
PM-1 December 2000                  launch. 
Chemistry-1 December 2002 
Landsat-7 December 1998 
Aerosol SAGE-III (Russian) 
December 1998 
Altimetry Radar-1 December 1999 
Altimetry Laser-1 July 2003 



ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

During FY 1994, the AM-1 entered its Critical Design Review (CDR) phase.  The U.S.-supplied instruments began CDR with the 
Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in December 1993, followed by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging 
Spectrometer (MODIS) in 1994.  The spacecraft component and subsystem CDR's and the AM-1 launch vehicle selection were 
conducted during the third quarter of FY 1994.  These activities will lead to the system-level AM-1 CDR in FY 1995. 
 

Phase B studies of the PM-1/Chemistry-1/AM-2 common spacecraft observatories were extended in FY 1994 in order to consider 
alternative configurations that would allow for the use of a medium-sized launch vehicle. The extended studies came to a successful 
close with the Request For Proposal (RFP) released in August 1994.  Activity on the instruments include the continuation of Phase B 
studies, particularly the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), which is considered a technologically demanding effort.  Notable progress 
has been achieved on the cooler development in support of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument, and successful 
demonstrations at more than one cooler vendor were conducted during FY 1994.  Other activities include a search for an alternative 
source for the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) or equivalent instrument (originally to be provided by an international partner). 
 

Algorithm activity, especially within the AM-1 program, included progress in defining the standard data products to be produced by 
EOS.  A baseline set is now currently documented within the EOS Project Plan, and was verified by the investigators in FY 1994.  
The algorithms, which interpret the radiance data into geophysical parameters, entered the early design stage, paced by design 
maturity of the instruments and the delivery of the product generation system tool kits from EOS Data Information 
System (EOSDIS).  During FY 1994, the MTPE program had significant changes made to its involvement with the Landsat-7 
program. In addition to supporting the in-house ground system development, NASA has now assumed responsibility from the DOD 
to acquire the Landsat spacecraft and ETM+ instrument.  Responsibility for Landsat operations will be assumed by NOAA, while 
data archiving and distribution through the EOSDIS will be carried out by the USGS.  A joint management plan with NOAA and the 
USGS was signed in August 1994, establishing responsibilities of each partner agency, and the Landsat data policy was signed by 
NASA, NOAA and USGS in 1994.   
 

Most activity during FY 1995 will be concentrated on the final design of the AM-1 spacecraft, the flight of opportunity instruments, 
and the science algorithms.  On AM-1, NASA will complete the CDR's for the spacecraft subsystems and instruments, so final 
designs can be verified at the system-level CDR in the second quarter of FY 1995.  Also in FY 1995, the flight software CDR will be 
completed.  In FY 1995, assembly of subsystem components will be completed for the power, electrical, thermal control, guidance, 
and navigation.  NASA will test the subsystems in preparation for spacecraft integration and test in FY 1996. The flight units of two 
of the U.S.-made instruments (MODIS and CERES) will also complete assembly and test. Calibration of the engineering model of 
Multi-Angle Imaging Spectrometer (MISR), the third U.S. instrument, will be accomplished, and parts for the protoflight unit will be 
procured.  Phase B and preliminary design activities will continue on the instruments planned for the PM-1 and Chemistry flights. 
 

Two EOS flight of opportunity instruments will be delivered to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in FY 1995, the 
protoflight unit for CERES and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS).  A third flight of opportunity instrument, SeaWinds (formerly 
called NASA Scatterometer II) will complete instrument subsystem (i.e., antenna, power supply) CDR's in preparation for the 
instrument CDR in FY 1996, for delivery to the Japanese Advanced Earth Observing System II (ADEOS II). 
 

The AM-1 science teams will deliver the preliminary "beta" version of the science algorithms to the EOSDIS.  In addition to the funds 
appropriated to NASA in FY 1995, the DoD has been directed by Congress to transfer $25 million to NASA, for the Landsat program.  
In FY 1995, the Landsat-7 spacecraft completed a Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and has a Critical Design Review (CDR) planned 
for the third quarter.  A system requirement review (SRR) for the ground system is also planned for 1995.   
 

Funding is needed in FY 1996 to support integration and test of the spacecraft and instruments for AM-1, award of the common 
spacecraft contract, and fabrication of several flight of opportunity instruments.  On AM-1, all subsystems for the spacecraft will be  
completed and integrated in FY 1996.  Instrument delivery for integration on the spacecraft will begin with the MODIS instrument in 
early 1996, followed by ASTER, CERES, MOPITT, and MISR.  Version 1 of the AM-1 science algorithms will also be completed in 
FY 1996. 
 

With the contract for the common spacecraft awarded in FY 1995, the PM-1 spacecraft will be undergoing a thorough evaluation of 
its subsystem and system level designs in preparation for the Preliminary Design Review in early FY 1997. 
 

Within the EOS flights of opportunity, the engineering model for the SeaWinds instrument will undergo integration and test during 
FY 1996.  The engineering and protoflight model for the SAGE-III instrument will be in development phase during FY 1996. 
 

Version 2 of the science software needed for the EOS instruments on the TRMM mission will be completed in FY 1996 in support for 
the mission launch in 1997. 
 

In FY 1996, the instrument will be delivered and spacecraft integration begun, with the ground system CDR to occur during the first 
quarter of the year. 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                    EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM DATA INFORMATION SYSTEM 
 

                                                        FY 1994         FY 1995         FY 1996 
                                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

*Earth observing system data 
    information system...........................       188,158         230,600         289,800 
 

*   Total cost information is provided in the Special Issues section 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goals for the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) are the development and operation of a highly integrated system 
which can produce the data and information products from the EOS, to preserve these and all other Mission to Planet Earth 
environmental observations for continuing use, and to make all these data and information easily available for use by the research, 
education, government agencies and all those who can benefit from them in making economic and policy decisions.  The EOSDIS is 
critical to achieving the goals of Mission to Planet Earth by enabling the public to benefit fully from our increased understanding 
and observations of the environment.   
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS  
 

EOSDIS provides data archive and distribution for all Mission to Planet Earth data and information.  All EOS instrument data and 
information products will be processed and distributed by the EOSDIS system.  The command and control of the EOS spacecraft 
and instruments is part of EOSDIS. 
 

By making available NASA's current data and information from Mission to Planet Earth program today, the research community and 
the public are served by EOSDIS.  This is being accomplished through an initial version of the system, implemented at nine 
Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC) and through cooperative efforts with NOAA, the USGS, and international partner space 
agencies.  Major development of the next two versions of the system are under way to improve service to users, incorporate new 
technologies, and prepare for the first flights of EOS instruments in 1997 and the EOS AM-1 spacecraft in 1998.  The EOSDIS is 
employing an evolutionary design to enable adaptation to changes in user needs and technology.  The design is also modular 
allowing the replacement of individual components without costly overall system changes or disruptions in service.   
 

NASA is making extensive use of prototypes to assure that EOSDIS will effectively meet the needs of the satellites and users.  A limited 
amount of technology development and adaptation is focused specifically on meeting EOSDIS evolutionary needs while relying on 
other programs at NASA and other agencies to fund needed technology development efforts of a more generic nature.  The 
development of pathfinder data sets using currently available data to produce long-term records of environmental change continues.  
The pathfinder efforts provide better understanding of the processes involved in production of such products while supporting on-
going research efforts. 
 

The EOSDIS development has been divided into four major components: the EOS Data Operations System (EDOS) developed by TRW, 
the EOS Communications System (ECOM) developed in-house by GSFC using Computer Sciences Corporation and Allied Signal, the 
EOSDIS Core System (ECS) developed Hughes Applied Information Systems, and the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's).  
The EDOS receives the raw data stream from the satellites, separates the data by instrument, and performs the initial processing and 
back-up archiving.  The ECOM delivers the real time data to and from the operations control centers and the science data to the 
DAAC's.  The ECS includes the flight operations segment, the communications and systems management segment, and the science 
data processing segment providing satellite and instrument command and control, the hardware and software for data product 
generation, archival, and distribution, and the systems to integrate all EOSDIS operations.  The EOSDIS Independent Verification & 
Validation (IV&V) contract is with Intermetrics Systems Services Corporation. 
 

The nine DAAC's process the raw data from the satellites into useful products, handle all user product searches, requests, and orders, 
and distribute data and information directly to the user community via the national information infrastructure and through other 
means.  The DAAC's also permanently archive all Mission to Planet Earth data and information for future use.  To better serve the 
user community, each DAAC focuses on the data needs of a specific segment of the user community.  Any user may access the entire 
Mission to Planet Earth data holdings from any DAAC as well as gaining access to affiliated systems at other agencies nationally and 
internationally.  Each DAAC is guided by a users working group. 
 

The nine DAAC's are: 
 

•   Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Facility, University of Alaska Geophysical Institute, Fairbanks, Alaska 
 

•   Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 
 

•   Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 
 

•   Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 
 

•   Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia 
 

•   Marshall Space Flight Center, University of Alabama at Huntsville, Alabama 
 

•   National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 
 

•   Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U. S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 
 

•   Socio-Economic Data and Application Center, Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), 
    Saginaw, Michigan 

 
The EOSDIS Version 0 allows direct access to some data holdings from the United States Geological Survey and National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Administration.  Relationships with Canada, Japan, and several European countries have been established for the 
exchange of data for EOSDIS.  Many multi-agency efforts, in addition to the NASA EOSDIS, make environmental data available to 
the public, especially in the Interagency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change and the Federal Geographic Data 
Committee.  The agencies include the United States Geological Survey, Department of Energy, National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, the United States Department of Agriculture, the Department of Defense, the 
Department of the Interior, and the White House. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Release Version 0                   Support the design and development of EOSDIS Version 1    
August 31, 1994 


EOSDIS Version 1 February 1996      Support the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 


EOSDIS Version 2 November 1997      Support the launch of the AM-1 mission 


EOSDIS Version 3 December 1999      Support the launch of the PM-1 mission 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

To demonstrate the basic EOSDIS design concepts prior to the award of the major contracts, a prototype EOSDIS system (Version 0) 
has been developed.  Version 0 was released to the public on August 31, 1994.  Version 0 links to all of the DAAC's except the 
Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN).  The Version 0 includes basic interoperability protocols to 
allow users to search and retrieve data from multiple DAAC's.  Version 0 also links to a NOAA and a USGS system.  Basic functions 
include:  data searching across DAAC's, product generation, browse functions, and a graphical user interface. Version 0 offers the 
first Earth science view of aggregate DAAC holdings.  Several of the DAAC's inherited existing, on-line data systems. Version 0 can 
successfully navigate fourteen of these heritage data systems.  The DAAC's have already begun migrating the contents of these 
systems into the EOSDIS.  A pathfinder program reprocesses old data from NOAA, DOD, and NASA instruments into long term 
global and regional data sets.  The lessons learned from Version 0 development feed directly into the ECS.   
 

The ECS systems design review was held in June 1994.  Three tool kits were released to aid the scientists to integrate their product 
algorithms into the DAAC's.  Three engineering packages (i.e., prototypes) were also released to demonstrate and test certain 
interoperability aspects of the EOSDIS design.   
 

The ECS preliminary design review will take place in the second quarter of FY 1995.  Also in FY 1995, the Version 0 and CIESIN will 
be linked, and another engineering package and tool kit will be released.  Most ECS activities lead to the release of Version 1 but 
some support Version 2.  A systems requirements review for Version 2 will occur in the second quarter of FY 1995.  Except for 
Version 0, the releases of EOSDIS have been timed to support the launches of major EOS satellites. 
 

The release of EOSDIS Version 1 in February 1996, will support the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in 
August 1997.  TRMM will produce an order of magnitude more data than that currently handled by Version 0.  The second half of 
FY 1996 will focus on test and integration between the TRMM and EOSDIS. Throughout FY 1996, preparation for the release of 
Version 2 will continue. 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT  


                                            EARTH PROBES


                                                   FY 1994       FY 1995          FY 1996 
                                                         (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

NASA scatterometer...............................  17,095         15,400            3,900 
Total ozone mapping spectrometer.................  13,805         14,900            8,500 
Tropical rainfall measuring mission..............  65,526         51,300           24,500 
 

    *Total.......................................  96,426         81,600           36,900 
 

*   Total cost information is provided in the Special Issues section 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Earth probes program is the component of Mission to Planet Earth that addresses specific, highly-focused mission requirements 
in Earth science research.  The program was designed to have the flexibility to take advantage of unique opportunities presented by 
international cooperative efforts or technical innovation, and to complement the Earth Observing System by providing the ability to 
investigate processes that require special orbits or have unique requirements.  The currently approved Earth probes are the Total 
Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT), and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

NSCAT 

 
Because winds are a critical factor in determining regional weather patterns and global climate, the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) 
has been developed to measure near-surface wind speeds and directions over the global oceans every two days, under all weather 
and cloud conditions.  The NSCAT data will be useful for both oceanography and meteorology, and will permit the first global study 
of the influence of winds on ocean circulation, providing data on the effects of the oceans on the atmosphere and improved marine 
forecasting on winds and waves. The lead Center for this program is JPL, and the main contractor for the instrument development is 
the Harris Corporation. 
 

When NSCAT was first initiated in October 1984, it was planned for launch aboard the Navy Remote Sensing Satellite (N-ROSS).  
After final cancellation of N-ROSS in March 1988, NSCAT was selected in August 1989, for flight on the Japanese Advanced Earth 
Observing System (ADEOS).  Since a majority of the instrument design had been completed during the period that NSCAT was to fly 
on N-ROSS, the past few years of the program have centered on making design changes to the instrument so that it can be 
accommodated on the ADEOS spacecraft and completing the instrument.  The NSCAT launch is planned for February 1996. 


TOMS 
 

The TOMS program will continue the high-resolution global mapping of total atmospheric ozone concentrations on a daily basis.  
The scientific objectives are to measure the long-term changes in total ozone and to verify the chemical models of the stratosphere 
used to predict future trends.  The TOMS flights build on the experience that began in 1978 with the launch of a TOMS instrument 
(Flight Model 1) on Nimbus-7 and continues with the TOMS instrument (Flight Model 2) on the Russian Meteor-3, launched in 1991.  
As with the earlier developments, GSFC has the responsibility for flight project development, and post-launch mission operations 
and data analysis.  Prime contractors are Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for the TOMS instruments and Pegasus launch 
services, and TRW for the TOMS Earth Probes spacecraft.  The TOMS program consists of a set of instruments (Flight 
Models 3, 4, and 5, designated FM-3, FM-4, and FM-5) and one spacecraft for launch on a Pegasus expendable launch vehicle in 
mid FY 1995 (FM-3).  The FM-4 is planned for launch on the Japanese ADEOS satellite in February 1996.  The FM-5 will be 
completed in 1995 and is planned for a cooperative mission with Russia in the year 2000.   
 

TRMM 
 

The latent heat released during precipitation is a significant factor in the large-scale computer models used to predict weather and 
climate change, yet two-thirds of the global rainfall occurs over the tropics where ground-based rain measurements are scarce.  The 
TRMM objective is to obtain a minimum of three years of climatologically significant observations of tropical rainfall.  In addition, 
TRMM will provide precise estimates of the vertical distribution of latent heat in the atmosphere.  The TRMM data will be used to 
understand the ocean-atmosphere coupling, especially in the development of El Niño events, which form in the tropics but whose 
effects are felt globally, causing floods in some areas, yet droughts in others.  GSFC has the responsibility for flight project 
development, and post-launch mission operations and data analysis.  The contractors for the instruments are Hughes Santa 
Barbara Research Center for the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS), and Hughes Space and Communications for the TRMM 
Microwave Imager (TMI).  The TRMM Phase A study was completed in July 1988, and Phase B completed in February 1991.  Award 
of major contracts began in May 1992. 
 

Japan (NASDA) is an active partner with all three Earth Probes, providing the ADEOS spacecraft and H-II launch vehicle for the 
TOMS (FM-4) and NSCAT, and the Precipitation Radar instrument and H-II launch vehicle for TRMM.  Russia will also be a critical 
partner for the last of the three TOMS Earth Probes missions, providing the Meteor-3 spacecraft and launch vehicle. 
 

In house NASA studies and planning for new technology Earth probes will begin in FY 1996.  The goal of the new technology Earth 
probes is reduction of the weight and cost of future Earth probes thus lowering flight mission costs while improving hardware and 
software performance capabilities.  The goal will be accomplished by establishing access to all technical achievements by industry, 
academia, and government, covering the cross-cutting technology areas of power and propulsion, materials and structures, 
operations, robotics, instruments, electronics, and control. 
 
 
 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Launch of TOMS Flight Model 3           Pegasus XL/L1011 launch.  Turnover of TOMS to the GSFC mission operations 
July 1995                               and data analysis team expected thirty days after launch, with data calibration 
                                        and validation completed successfully.  Exact date of this launch is dependent 
                                        upon the successful return to flight of the Pegasus XL/L1011. 


Launch of TOMS Flight Model 4 & NSCAT   Launch as planned aboard the Japanese ADEOS spacecraft and H-II launch 
February 1996                           vehicle aboard ADEOS.  Turnover of TOMS and NSCAT to the respective mission 
                                        operations and data analysis teams at GSFC and JPL thirty days after launch, 
                                        with data calibration and validation completed successfully. 


Launch of TRMM                          Launch as planned aboard the Japanese H-II launch vehicle, with turnover of 
August 1997                             TRMM operations and data analysis to TRMM ground system and Science Data 
                                        and Information System (TSDIS) at GSFC thirty days after launch, with data 
                                        calibration and validation completed successfully. 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

In FY 1994, the TOMS Flight Model 3 and the spacecraft were integrated, tested and prepared for launch.  Due to the failure of the 
Pegasus-XL during the STEP-1 launch attempt on June 27, 1994, the TOMS launch has been delayed until mid-FY 1995. Assembly, 
test and integration of the TOMS and Scatterometer instruments for ADEOS was completed in preparation for delivery to Japan.  
Due to delays in signing the ADEOS Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), the TOMS and Scatterometer instrument deliveries 
were delayed until November 1994.  TRMM observatory subsystem and system Critical Design Reviews (CDR's) were completed in 
FY 1994.  The project completed spacecraft flight structural fabrication and assembly, and test program.   
 

NSCAT and TOMS Flight Model 4 instruments are currently undergoing integration and testing in Japan, with the launch date 
planned for February 1996.  Development of the NSCAT science data processing system will continue at JPL.  TRMM will complete 
instrument integration and testing, spacecraft subsystems assembly, test and installation, and begin the observatory integration 
and testing.  The FY 1995 funding plan for TOMS Flight Model 3 assumes launch of the instrument no later than July 1995.  If the 
launch cannot be made by then, an operating plan change will be necessary.  If TOMS is launched before the end of July 1995, any 
available funds will be used to maintain development of the Flight Models 4 and 5. 
 

In FY 1996, TOMS Flight Model 4 and NSCAT will undergo final integration and test aboard the Japanese ADEOS spacecraft, in 
support of the February 1996, launch.  Development of the TOMS Flight Model 5, planned for launch aboard a Russian spacecraft 
following the ADEOS mission, has proceeded on schedule and is beginning integration and test.  Integration and test of the TRMM 
observatory will continue through FY 1996, along with development of the TRMM science data and information system.  Installation 
of the last instrument, the Japanese Precipitation Radar, and comprehensive performance testing will also be completed in FY 1996.   



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                         PAYLOAD AND INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT 
 

                                                       FY 1994         FY 1995        FY 1996 
                                                                (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Atmospheric payloads.............................       12,062           7,600          1,100 
Solid Earth payloads.............................       13,838          11,900          3,800 
 

    Total........................................       25,900          19,500          4,900 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The instrument and payloads development program has two parts, the atmospheric payloads program and the solid Earth payloads 
program, each with its own goals.  Together, the two programs provide measurements crucial to the understanding of the role of the 
Earth's atmosphere and surface during global change.  The goals of the atmospheric payloads program are to provide information 
related to the chemical constituency and dynamics of the Earth's atmosphere, and to provide highly calibrated measurements 
against which other measurements, particularly satellite data, can be compared.  The goal of the solid Earth payloads program is to 
demonstrate the technology and algorithms needed to make multi-frequency, multi-polarization active radar measurements of the 
Earth's surface (i.e., land, sea, and ice). 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Space Shuttle offers a unique capability to undertake short-duration flights of instruments.  The Mission to Planet Earth 
program has incorporated this capability into the Shuttle/Spacelab payload development in these important areas:  design, early 
test, and checkout of remote sensing instruments for long-duration, free-flying missions and short-term atmospheric and 
environmental data gathering for basic research and analysis where long-term observations are impractical.  Instrument 
development activities have supported a wide range of instrumentation, tailored for both Space Shuttle and airborne missions.  
 

Atmospheric Payloads 
 

Within the atmospheric payloads program, the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) instrument, which is a gas filter 
correlation radiometer built at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), has been designed to measure the levels of carbon monoxide in 
the troposphere and the extent of inter-hemispheric mass transport of carbon monoxide in the lower atmosphere.  With its flights 
aboard the SRL missions, it has provided the first observations of the global seasonal variations of carbon monoxide in the Earth's 
atmosphere.   
 

In addition to supporting the SRL missions, the atmospheric payloads program has been focused on the recent Atmospheric 
Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) mission. The objective of this mission was to provide a uniquely detailed 
examination of the middle atmosphere (stratosphere) and its energy input from the Sun, with detailed measurements made for the 
first time in the Southern Hemisphere in late fall. Measurements of global stratospheric temperatures and trace-gas concentrations 
were taken, and solar energy emissions and variability were examined.  As part of this mission, the following four U.S. instruments 
were flown: the Active Cavity Radiometer-1 (ACR-1), built at JPL,  Atmosphere Trace Molecules Observed by Spectroscopy (ATMOS), 
built at JPL, the Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM), built at the Naval Research Laboratory, and Shuttle Solar 
Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) instrument, built at GSFC.   
 

The ACR-1 is designed to aid in the study of the Earth's climate and the physical behavior of the sun by making solar constant 
measurements.  The objective of the ATMOS experiment is to make detailed measurements of gaseous constituents (i.e., hydrogen 
chloride, water, ammonia, and methane) in the Earth's atmosphere by using the technique of infrared absorption spectroscopy.  The 
data will help determine the compositional structure of the upper atmosphere, including the ozone layer and its spatial variability on 
a global scale.  The SUSIM is designed to make very accurate measurements of the sun's ultraviolet radiation, which is the primary 
sources of energy for the Earth's atmosphere.  The SSBUV instrument provides correlative measurements with Solar Backscatter 
Ultraviolet (SBUV/2) instruments, which fly on NASA and NOAA spacecraft, and helps resolve any data reliability problems resulting 
from calibration drift of those instruments, used to measure the amount and height distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere.   
 

The Light Direction and Ranging (LIDAR) Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE), built at LaRC, is an advanced technology Earth 
atmospheric sensing experiment within the atmospheric payloads program, flown aboard the ER-2 aircraft.  The objective of this 
instrument is to obtain water vapor measurements with better resolution and accuracy than current instruments.  These 
measurements will support studies in global hydrology, meteorology, radiation budget, climate and atmospheric transport, and 
chemistry. 
 

Solid Earth Payloads 
 

Within the solid Earth payloads program, activities have been focused on the development and launch of the Shuttle Imaging Radar-
C (SIR-C), which was the primary component of the first and second Shuttle Radar Laboratory (SRL) missions.  The SIR-C, in 
combination with the X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) contributed by Germany and Italy, is an Earth-imaging, multiple-
frequency system that collected data over approximately 50 million square kilometers.  The main contractor for the SIR-C radar 
instrument was Ball Aero Space.  Scientists are using the data to make detailed studies of the Earth, including many regions which 
have not previously been well characterized due to vegetation, cloud, or sediment cover.  These radar studies will lead to a 
understanding of ocean and land surface, and subsurface processes on a global scale.   
 

International cooperation has been notable within the payloads programs.  As part of the ATLAS-3 mission, three international 
instruments were flown:  an instrument to measure the solar constant, contributed by Belgium;  the Millimeter-wave Atmospheric 
Sounder, from Germany; and an instrument providing solar spectrum measurements, contributed by France.  Germany and Italy 
have also been major participants of the SRL missions with the contribution of the X-SAR. 


 MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 


LASE                            LASE will be flown again aboard the ER-2 aircraft from Wallops Island, VA and 
February/July 1995              from Houston, Texas. 


SRL data records complete       Data processing of data from two SRL missions and turnover of data to the 
September 1997                  science teams. 


ATLAS data records complete     Post-mission calibration of ATLAS instruments, data processing and 
September 1995                  reduction, and closeout of ATLAS activities.  



ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Recent missions include the first and second Shuttle Radar Laboratory (SRL) missions flown in April and September 1994.  These 
missions, comprised of the SIR-C and MAPS instruments, were very successful.  Nine hundred thirty-five data takes were completed 
by SIR-C/X-SAR on the last mission, gathering 107 hours of data, while MAPS accumulated 204 hours of data.  The  ability to make 
change detection interferometry measurements was successfully demonstrated, correlating measurements from the first to second 
flights and from repeat shuttle passes. 
 

The Light Direction and Ranging (LIDAR), the In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission, in which the atmospheric payloads 
program was a contributor, was also flown in September 1994.  The ATLAS-3 mission was launched in November 1994, and flew for 
over 11 days.  In September 1994, engineering test flights of LASE were completed at Wallops Island, VA.  Data from these flights 
validated instrument capability and enabled correlative measurements with data from the LITE mission during the shuttle pass over 
Wallops on September 18, 1994. 
 

Program funding levels within the atmospheric payloads program allow for post-mission calibration of ATLAS instruments, data 
processing and reduction, and closeout of ATLAS activities.  No future flights of ATLAS are planned.  LASE will be flown again 
aboard the ER-2 aircraft from Wallops Island, VA in February 1995, and from Houston, TX in July 1995.  Within the solid Earth 
payloads program, SIR-C data process and reduction will continue. 
 

In FY 1996, SIR-C data processing and reduction will continue at a reduced rate.  Remaining closeout activities associated with the 
ATLAS-3 mission will be conducted. 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                    APPLIED RESEARCH AND DATA ANALYSIS 
 
                                                                                                                

                                                        FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996       
                                                                     (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

MTPE SCIENCE.....................................       200,112             227,800             209,900     
Research and analysis............................       174,912             201,800             185,900 
(EOS science included in research 
    and analysis)................................          (--)            (37,300)            (58,400) 
Airborne science and applications................        25,200              26,000              24,000 
 

OPERATIONS, DATA RETRIEVAL, AND STORAGE..........       117,028             116,500              98,500     
Mission operations and data analysis.............        97,644              96,700              82,300 
Information systems..............................        11,184              12,700               9,800 
CIESIN...........................................         5,000               6,000               6,000 
Ocean color data purchase........................         3,200               1,100                 400 
 

    Total........................................       317,140             344,300             308,400 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goal of applied research and data analysis is to advance our understanding of the global climate environment, the vulnerability 
of the environment to both human and natural forces of change, and the provision of numerical models and other tools necessary 
for understanding global climate change. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The applied research and data analysis program is divided into two major components:  Mission to Planet Earth Science (MTPE 
Science) and Operations, Data Retrieval and Storage.  The activities that support MTPE science include research and analysis, EOS 
science, and airborne science and applications.  Operations, data retrieval and storage consist of several independent activities 
responsible for the operation of currently functioning spacecraft, the purchase and management of scientific data, and the provision 
of computing infrastructure.  Each of the major components of applied research and data analysis has its own set of goals, 
strategies for achieving the goals, performance measures, and accomplishments and plans.  These will be discussed below. 
 

The funding to support the activities of the EOS instrument investigators and interdisciplinary science investigators has been moved 
to research and analysis in applied research and data analysis.  The science algorithm development and maintenance remains in 
the EOS budget. 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                                        MTPE SCIENCE 
 

                                                            FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996 
                                                                         (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Research and Analysis............................           174,912             201,800             185,900 
    Interdisciplinary............................             5,000              42,000              62,000 
    Process studies..............................           125,567             118,300              91,700 
    Modeling and data............................            44,345              41,500              32,200 
 

    (EOS Science included in interdisciplinary)..              (--)            (37,300)            (58,400) 
Airborne Science and Applications................            25,200              26,000              24,000 
 

    Total........................................           200,112             227,800             209,900 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goal for the MTPE science program is to contribute unique interdisciplinary scientific understanding of the total Earth system 
and the effects of humankind on the global environment.  Major emphasis is placed on providing early warning and fast response to 
global environmental changes which pose risks to society.  The science program also provides the analysis and integration of critical 
data and models needed for national and international assessments.  MTPE Earth system science activities are essential to the 
design of future operational observing systems and global sustainable development strategies. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS 
 

The research and analysis science program is a highly coordinated, collaborative effort.  The primary mode of coordination occurs 
through the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the Committee on the Environment and Natural Resources (CENR) 
Subcommittee on Global Change Research, and the various boards and committees at the National Academy of Sciences.  These 
coordinating efforts require major investments of time by scientists supported by universities and other federal agencies.  The 
specific task of conducting global Earth system modeling inter-comparisons is supported by the International Geosphere Biosphere 
Program (IGBP), Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modeling Project (GAIM). 
 

The strategy of Interdisciplinary Research is to increase scientific understanding of the global environment and its vulnerability to 
both human and natural forces of change (e.g., pollution, climate variability, deforestation).  Interdisciplinary research also includes 
the science component of EOS, which consists of both focused research centered around a specific Earth science data set and 
interdisciplinary research geared toward a broader probe into Earth science systemic functions.  The quality of the data utilized is 
monitored by the scientists at Interdisciplinary Instrument Computing Facilities (IICF) and the research is supplemented by 
graduate student participation in the EOS science fellowship program.  The modeling and data analysis program will synthesize 
existing environmental data, build component models, and conduct tests and evaluations of model progress.  This will provide well 
documented and tested disciplinary models and data sets to the interdisciplinary science program where integration into global 
biogeochemical and Earth system models occurs.  The process studies program will help Earth scientists understand and predict 
global change through planning and support of laboratory and field studies, advanced instrument development, satellite and in situ 
data analysis, and the development of process-scale models and numerical tools to aid in diagnosing and predicting natural and 
man-induced global environmental change. 
 

There are currently over 1,700 scientific activities being funded under the Research and Analysis Program.  Approximately 900 are 
carried out by universities, 100 by national research laboratories, and 700 by the federal government.  The distribution of the 
activities encompasses forty-five of the fifty U.S. states. 
 

AIRBORNE 
 

The airborne science and applications program funds the operations of three ER-2's, one C-130, and one DC-8 aircraft to support 
Earth remote-sensing and atmospheric research.  They may serve as test beds for newly-developed instrumentation and allow 
demonstration of new sensor techniques before their flight on satellites or on Shuttle/Spacelab missions.  Data obtained from these 
aircraft are used to refine analytical algorithms, and to develop ground data handling techniques.  For example, the ER-2 acquires 
stratospheric air samples and conducts in-situ measurements at altitude ranges above the capability of more conventional aircraft 
and below those of orbiting satellites.  This capability is important in gaining an understanding of stratospheric transport 
mechanisms. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Complete a three-year research initiative on the    A summary assessment of this research program will be distributed to relevant  
impact of aerosols on atmospheric chemistry and     members of the environmental science and policy community.  This is 
climate                                             important because in contrast to greenhouse gases, sulfate aerosols in the 
September 1996.                                     atmosphere can lower surface temperatures of the Earth.


Release results of an international inter-          Provide insights and predictions of the response of the land surface to natural 
comparison of global vegetation models              and human influences, and to compare observed and predicted Earth system 
September 1996                                      behavior. 


Participate and support international assessments   Evaluation of impacts of global climate changes for establishing national and 
on-going                                            international environmental policy decisions (e.g., IPCC and WMO/UNEP ozone 


Biennial peer review                                Critique of existing tasks to evaluate their accomplishments/performances. 
on-going


Complete and release to the public a                To better understand the importance of the contribution of the deforestation of 
comprehensive synthesis of the impacts of           the Brazilian and Argentinean rain forests to the balance of CO2 in the 
deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon on global     atmosphere and, therefore, to the global greenhouse effect. 
carbon dioxide 
September 1996 


Assess regional modeling of the impacts of East     To assess and predict the magnitude of air quality impacts from rapid 
Asian emissions on ozone pollution in the lower     industrialization in Asia and in the remote areas of the Pacific Ocean. 
atmosphere downwind emission sources  
September 1996 


Final scientific results from the Global            Available for assessment of the impact of the Asian air mass on the oxidizing 
Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) Pacific Exploratory   capacity (cleaning ability) of the atmosphere over the critical clean air portion of 
Mission-West (PEM-WEST) field campaign              the Northern Pacific Basin. 
September 1996 


The PEM-Central field campaign                      This airborne science expedition will document the magnitude of air quality 
September 1996                                      impacts from rapid industrialization in Asia on remote regions of the Pacific 
                                                    Ocean.  The PEM-CENTRAL is an especially complex campaign.  The data from 
                                                    this campaign will determine whether "baseline" (e.g., unpolluted) air exists 
                                                    anywhere on planet Earth.  The outcome will elucidate the role of subsonic 
                                                    aircraft in the ozone budget of the lower atmosphere (troposphere). 


Assess the impact of biomass burning in South       Biomass burning is a major source of tropospheric aerosols, which can change 
America and Africa on clean air regions of the      the transmission of the atmosphere, produce pollutants, add green house gases 
tropical and subtropical Atlantic ocean basin       to the atmosphere, and alter the chemistry of the biosphere. 
September 1996


Improve understanding of the carbon dynamics of     There is presently a large uncertainty in our knowledge of the carbon cycle.  
the boreal forest                                   This must be resolved to assess whether greenhouse warming will occur and 
September 1996                                      why. 


Global Change Fellowship Program                    The Global Change Fellowship program will help to graduate approximately 30 
annual                                              students each fiscal year, with Ph.D. degrees from interdisciplinary Earth 
                                                    science programs at U.S. universities. 


The STRAT and TOTE/VOTE field campaign              Elements of two major airborne field campaigns will be conducted by the Upper 
September 1997                                      Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) during FY 1995-97:  Three deployments 
                                                    of the ER-2, augmented by measurements at high-altitudes using balloons or 
                                                    possibly other available high-altitude platforms will constitute a component of 
                                                    the three-year Stratospheric Tracers of Atmospheric Transport (STRAT) 
                                                    program.  Three field campaigns are to be conducted by July 1996.  DC-8 
                                                    campaigns to study Tropical and Vortex Ozone Transport (TOTE/VOTE) will also 
                                                    be conducted in January and February 1996. 


The Subsonic Assessment (SASS) field campaign       To elucidate the role of subsonic aircraft in the ozone budget of the lower 
April 1996                                          atmosphere (troposphere).  The first field campaign for this experiment will be 
                                                    completed by January 1996, with an additional campaign occurring in March 
                                                    and April 1996. 



ACCOMPLISHMENTS  AND PLANS 
 

A major accomplishment of the Research and Analysis Program has been the completion of an extensive field program to assess the 
effects of aircraft trace gas emissions on stratospheric ozone.  The airborne in situ measurements of trace gases utilized the most 
comprehensive suite of sensors ever deployed.  Analysis of the data combined with model calculations will improve understanding of 
the relevance of heterogeneous processes and stratospheric dynamics in assessing the impact of aircraft operations on the upper 
atmosphere.  In related research, significant advances were made in understanding the degradation pathways of CFC replacement 
compounds, in order to assess their impact on ozone depletion and global warming, and their toxicity.  Almost 300 scientists from 
36 countries participated in the "Assessment of Ozone Depletion:  1994" to provide the scientific basis for policy decisions made by 
parties to the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. 
 

Five Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) field campaigns, spanning the seasonal cycle, were conducted this year.  More 
than 250 scientists, 12 aircraft from the U.S. and Canada, and 9 tall towers to make flux measurements were involved, Preliminary 
results reveal that: 
 
 
 

•   evaporation rates are lower than current models predict; 
 

•   deciduous vegetation has twice the photosynthesis rate as coniferous vegetation; 
 

•   despite abundant moisture at the surface, water stress plays a major role in the boreal biome; 
 

•   the amount of carbon dioxide sequestered by mid-latitude forests is affected strongly by inter-annual climate variations, 
    influencing the amount of carbon dioxide that accumulates in the atmosphere each year. 
 

In FY 1994, the Earth system science models developed by the EOS interdisciplinary science investigators continued to assist them 
in understanding the dynamics of Earth's environment and provided support to the IPCC during their assessment of the uncertainty 
of global climate change.  Peer evaluations of completed algorithms were conducted by instrument science teams to validate their 
physical, chemical, and biological principles.  The algorithms successfully completing peer evaluation were placed on the Internet 
and evaluated by the Earth science community.  This is the first time that algorithms developed for upcoming missions have been 
made available for the external community to critique and qualify before the flight of a mission. 
 

To meet NASA science objectives in FY 1994, the aircraft participated in 24 separate deployments for a total of 93 weeks; they also 
provided rapid response to National disaster events (e.g., Hurricanes Andrew and Iniki, Mississippi River floods, Southern California 
and Oakland fire storms, and Search and Rescue). 
 

The international inter-comparison of global vegetation models will require a workshop in Summer 1995.  The summary report of 
results of the assessment will be delivered in December 1995.  Data from the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) will be 
analyzed and assessed to improve climate and weather models, to determine whether the study region is a net source or sink of 
carbon and methane, and to improve ecological models of the boreal forest biome.  The EOS science program will continue to 
support the activities of the EOS instrument investigators and interdisciplinary science investigators.  The investigators will utilize 
the data gathered by EOSDIS to perform integrated interdisciplinary studies of the Earth to enhance the capability to predict global 
climate change.  In addition, the MTPE interdisciplinary science education strategy focuses on sponsoring global change fellowships 
for highly qualified graduate students at U.S. universities.  In FY 1995, approximately 160 graduate students will be funded under 
the EOS Science Fellowship Program.  Beginning in FY 1995, the activities associated with the interdisciplinary investigation 
computation facilities have been transferred from EOSDIS to EOS Science.  The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer 
(AVIRIS) will be used and preliminary work undertaken in preparation for the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative's Lewis 
mission; data collected by the Lewis spacecraft will be used to classify surface land cover and vegetation types.  In FY 1995, we will 
complete the of Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) development and science demonstration 
flights.  Light Direction and Ranging (LIDAR), the In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), data will be delivered to the Langley 
Research Center Distributed Active Archive Center for access by the scientific community, a science data workshop will be held, 
with scientific results to be published in the open scientific literature by FY 1996.  Beginning in FY 1995, the interdisciplinary 
science program includes scientific research funding to support post-graduate fellowships and interdisciplinary science investigator 
grants, as well as some instrument investigators, previously budgeted as part of EOS.  The investigators will use the data gathered 
by EOSDIS to perform integrated, interdisciplinary studies of the Earth to enhance the capability to predict global climate change.   
The Subsonic Assessment (SASS) field campaign is currently in the preliminary stages of design.  It is anticipated that the field 
measurements will be conducted in the central U.S. during October-November 1995.  The first delivery of scientific results would 
occur in May 1996.   
 

A workshop involving the participating investigators in the interdisciplinary aerosol research program will be convened in the Fall of 
1995.  A summary assessment of the impact of aerosols on atmosphere chemistry and climate will be completed and released to the 
public by August 1996.  Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) data will be provided to the to International Satellite Land Surface 
Climatology Project (ISLSCP), Pathfinder, Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), and scientific community in 
FY 1996.  The global short-wave and long-wave SRB data sets (covering the period 1992 to 1995) will be extended to 1996.  
Validations of the satellite-based algorithms using reliable ground truth data, including the global Baseline Surface Radiation 
Network (BSRN) and Global Energy Budget Archive (GEBA) data sets, will be completed in FY 1996 and results will be published in 
the open literature.  The current International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) will be extended from the current 1983-
1992 interval to the year 2000.  The interval 1982-1995 will be completed by FY 1996.  The entire ISCCP climatology will be 
recalculated in FY 1996 using the improved version 2.0 algorithm.  A World Climate Research Program (WCRP) bi-annual ISCCP 
review workshop will be conducted.  The results of the Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation (SCAR)-A (Atlantic), SCAR-C (California), 
SCAR-B (Brazil) campaigns will be presented in a series of science data workshops and science conferences in FY 1995 and  
FY 1996, and the results will be published in the scientific literature in FY 1996.  The ERBE non-scanner and solar irradiance data 
will be archived and long-term series analyses, other satellite inter-comparisons, and regional climate phenomena will be conducted 
in FY 1995 and FY 1996.  Results will be published in the open literature in FY 1995 and FY 1996.  In FY 1996, the EOS Science 
Program will continue to perform its activities in a manner consistent with what is planned in FY 1995.  The  Pacific Exploratory 
Mission central (PEM)-Central field campaign requires pre-mission infrastructure development (e.g., aircraft logistics, supporting 
ground measurements, etc.) will be completed by early summer 1996.  The airborne field campaign will be conducted in August and 
September 1996. 
 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                     OPERATIONS, DATA RETRIEVAL AND STORAGE 
 

                                                     FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996 
                                                                  (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Mission operations and data analysis.............     97,644              96,700              82,300 
    (Upper atmosphere research satellite 
    operations and data analysis)................   (30,308)            (30,000)            (18,800) 
    (Ocean topography experiment 
    operations and data analysis)................   (31,052)            (31,400)            (21,400) 
    (Total ozone mapping spectrometer operations  
    and data analysis)...........................    (3,186)             (3,700)             (3,300) 
    (Ocean color mission data analysis)..........    (6,700)             (5,600)             (6,000) 
    (NASA Scatterometer operations and data analysis)   (--)                (--)             (6,200) 
    (Earth science mission operations 
    and data analysis)...........................   (26,398)            (26,000)            (26,600) 
Information systems..............................     11,184              12,700               9,800 
Consortium for international earth science  
    information networks.........................      5,000               6,000               6,000 
Ocean color data purchase........................      3,200               1,100                 400 
	 

    Total........................................    117,028             116,500              98,500 
 

Launch services (radarsat).......................    (7,400)             (7,000)                (--) 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Operations, Data Retrieval and Storage (ODRS) program provides the data and data products from EOS precursor missions, 
including the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX), Total Ozone Mapping 
Spectrometer (TOMS), and future missions such as the NASA Scatterometer and the tropical rainfall measuring mission, required to 
understand the total Earth system and the effects of humans on the global environment. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The ODRS program supports the observations and data management portion of the activities including process research, integrated 
modeling and prediction, and assessments that together produce a predictive understanding of the Earth system.  The ODRS 
program will achieve its goals through the following:  Mission Operations and Data Analysis (MO&DA); information systems; 
Consortium for International Earth Science Information Networks (CIESIN); and ocean color data purchase.  The data and data 
products from the ODRS program will migrate to the EOSDIS. 
 

Mission Operations and Data Analysis 
 

The objectives of the MO&DA program are to acquire, process, and archive long-term data sets and validated data products.  These 
data sets support global change research in atmospheric ozone and trace chemical species, the Earth's radiation budget, aerosols, 
sea ice, land surface properties, and ocean circulation and biology.  Funding provides for operating spacecraft such as UARS, 
TOPEX and ERBS, processing of acquired data, validating the resulting data products by science teams, and developing new 
processing software and related data products by these science teams as they apply new understanding to improve the data 
products. 
 

Investigators, international contributors, and other agencies supporting MO&DA missions include diverse governmental, industry, 
and university users involved in the research and operational use of data for monitoring the Earth's atmosphere (Upper Atmosphere 
Research Satellite (UARS), TOMS, SBUV/2, Earth Radiation Budget Satellite's (ERBS)), oceans (Ocean Topography 
Experiment (TOPEX), SeaStar, NSCAT, European Space Agency's Earth Remote Sensing Satellite-1/2 (ERS-1/2), Japanese Earth 
Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (JERS-1), RadarSat) and land masses (SIR-C).  Key users of UARS data include NOAA, the Naval 
Research Laboratory, GSFC, JPL, Canada, the United Kingdom, and a number of universities including the University of Michigan, 
the Georgia Institute of Technology, the University of Washington, the State University of New York, and the University of Colorado.  
Key TOMS and SBUV/2 proponents include NOAA, Russia (manifested a TOMS on their Meteor 3 satellite launched in 1991), Japan 
(has manifested a TOMS on their ADEOS satellite scheduled for launch in 1996) and Europe.  Key ERBS users include a diverse set 
of institutions including NOAA (manifested ERB sensors on NOAA-9 and -10 launched in the 1980's), GSFC, LaRC, the State 
University of New York, Oregon State University, and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.   
 

The TOPEX users include France (shared in development of the mission), Japan, Australia, Great Britain, the Netherlands, 
Germany, Norway, and South Africa as well as JPL, GSFC, Columbia University, the University of Hawaii, University of Texas, 
University of Colorado, Oregon State University, Ohio State University, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  SeaStar 
principal beneficiaries include the Orbital Sciences Corporation, GSFC, the European community, Japan, Canada, and Australia 
and a diverse group of universities in Florida, Washington, California, Texas, Maryland, and Rhode Island.  The NSCAT participants 
include JPL, NOAA, and Japan (which has manifested the NSCAT for flight on their ADEOS spacecraft scheduled for launch in 
1996), and universities in New York, Washington, Oregon, and Florida.  Key participants involved in the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) 
include the European Space Agency (ERS-1 and -2), Japan (JERS-1 and ADEOS), Canada (RadarSat),GSFC, JPL, and the University 
of Alaska which hosts the ASF.  Participants in the analysis of SIR-C/X-SAR data in addition to JPL, represent nations in almost 
every continent including Italy, Saudi Arabia, China, Australia, France, Canada, Brazil, the United Kingdom, and Germany. 


Information Systems 
 

The MTPE information system program has been structured to provide a balanced system of high performance computers, mass 
storage systems, workstations and appropriate network connectivity between researchers and components of the system.  A major 
portion of the program funding supports operations of a supercomputing center (the NASA Center for Computational Sciences) at 
GSFC.  A full range of computational services are provided to a community of approximately 1400 users representing all disciplines 
of Earth and space sciences.  Offsite NASA-sponsored users comprise some 25% of the total.  The program has also been structured 
to take advantage of new technology as it reaches production maturity.  The program monitors and participates in advanced 
technology programs, such as the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program and National Science 
Foundation's Gigabit Testbed programs.  Program elements at GSFC and the JPL are focused on providing early access to emerging 
technologies for the Earth and space science communities. 
 

Users of the supercomputer complex select representatives to an advisory committee who are integrally involved in strategic 
planning for the evolution of the complex.  They provide feedback on user satisfaction with services provided and help establish 
priorities for service and capacity upgrades.  The early access to new technology provides the program with the opportunity to 
influence vendors and system developers on issues unique to the Earth and space science researchers such as data intensive 
computation and algorithm development.  Early access also prepares a subset of the research community to make needed changes 
in research methodology to exploit the new technologies and to champion promising technologies to their colleagues and peers.  Ten 
percent of the program's funding is used to assure the continuing participation of the science community in this important 
collaborative partnership between technologists and researchers. 
 

Consortium for International Earth Science Information Networks 
 

CIESIN's objective is to increase understanding of the human dimensions of global change by developing and operating the Socio 
Economic Data Application Center (SEDAC) in Saginaw, MI.  The strategy is to focus specifically on development of SEDAC and its 
integration into NASA's Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS).  SEDAC serves as a Distributed Active Archive 
Center (DAAC).  SEDAC provides access to social and economic data for integration with EOSDIS Earth science data to allow 
interdisciplinary global change research as well as to facilitate use of Mission to Planet Earth data for public policy making.  SEDAC 
has been incorporated into all activities associated with the management of the DAAC's. 
 

Ocean Color Data Purchase 
 

The scientific objectives of the Ocean Color Mission are to determine the mean and variable bio-optical reflectance characteristics of 
the upper ocean and to understand the processes responsible for observed variations.  NASA is purchasing ocean color data sets for 
research use from Orbital Sciences Corporation on a fixed-price contract.  Payments are phased before and after launch.  The data 
will be acquired by the Sea-Viewing Wide Field Sensor (SeaWiFS) instrument, now expected to be launched on the SeaStar 
spacecraft in 1995.  Orbital Sciences is responsible for SeaStar/SeaWifs development, Pegasus launch, and operations.  Orbital 
Sciences will share the cost with NASA by retaining the right to market the data to the operational and commercial communities as 
well as those research users who wish to purchase data directly from them.  International governmental and non-governmental 
bodies have been, and continue to be, active in the development of the U.S. ocean color program.  Principal proponents include the 
European Community, Japan, Canada, and Australia.  At present, the largest demand for ocean color data arises from the Joint 
Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), an international program under the auspices of the Scientific Committee for Oceanographic 
Research (SCOR), which is a core program of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP). 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

OPERATIONAL SPACECRAFT/INSTRUMENTS 



Common:  Archive 95% of planned data        The primary criteria for success of an operational spacecraft is to obtain 95% 
acquisition                                 of the planned data acquisition. 



MISSION SPECIFIC: 


UARS                                        The success of UARS operations is judged on providing data to support 
launched September 1991                     improvement in monitoring the processes that control upper atmospheric 
                                            structure and variability, the response of the upper atmosphere to natural and 
                                            human-induced changes, and the role of the upper atmosphere in climate 
                                            variability. 


TOPEX/Poseidon                              10-cm surface height is required of the spacecraft's radar altimetry 
launched August 1992                        instruments in determinations of speed and direction of surface currents, 
                                            oceanic heat transport, and ocean topography in support of climate change 
                                            monitoring. 


TOMS-Meteor 3                               Data from TOMS are required to be of sufficient accuracy to detect total ozone 
launched August 1991                        trends and verify chemical models of the stratosphere used to predict future 
                                            trends.  


ERBS/ERBE                                   Data from the ERBS must continue to be of sufficient accuracy to illuminate 
(launched Oct.  1984,  Dec. 1984 and        the temporal and spatial variations in the Earth's radiation budget which drive 
Sept. 1986)                                 the Earth's climate.  


SBUV/2-SSBUV  
(launched Dec. 1984 and Sept. 1988)         Data from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/2 (SBUV/2) instruments provide 
                                            column abundances and vertical profiles of atmospheric ozone beneath the 
                                            orbital tracks of these satellites.  A carefully calibrated version of the same 
                                            instrument, called Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) provides correlative measurements 
                                            so that the TOMS and SBUV instruments flying on other spacecraft can be 
                                            more accurately calibrated, and provides information on the diurnal variability 
                                            of stratospheric ozone in low latitudes. 


Alaska SAR Facility                         Data received at the ASF must support determination of the properties and 
Missions:                                   dynamics of sea ice and other land and sea processes in the polar regions.  
    ERS-1 (launched 1991)                   Data from SIR-C are required to identify the optimum wavelengths, 
    JERS-1 (launched 1992)                  polarization, and illumination geometries for determination of surface 
    ERS-2                                   parameters to include roughness, soil moisture, and variability in geological 
    (to be launched 2nd quarter 1995)       formations.
    RadarSat 
    (to be launched 4th quarter 1995)   
    ADEOS 
    (to be launched 2nd quarter 1996)


SPACECRAFT TO BE LAUNCHED: 


OTD                                         The Optical Transient Detector (OTD) will provide early acquisition of science 
1995                                        data to support research in determining global distribution of lightning and its 
                                            effects on climate change.  It will allow for an early engineering flight of the 
                                            Earth Observing System Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) instrument and 
                                            concept validation, including the high speed solid-state camera system and 
                                            real-time event processor, and will be a pathfinder for commercial remote 
                                            sensing applications of lightning data. 


Seastar/Ocean Color                         Measurements will be made of up-welling radiance at eight spectral bands in 
1995                                        the visible and near infrared portions of the spectrum at a spatial resolution of 
                                            1 kilometer.  The entire cloud-free globe will be imaged once per day.  Data 
                                            products will include daily global maps of oceanic pigment concentration; 
                                            optical attenuation length scales ;and visible, water-leaving radiance.  The 
                                            data delivered to NASA shall meet radiometric performance specifications set 
                                            forth in the contract with Orbital Sciences. These include specifications for the 
                                            instrument data bands, signal-to-noise ratio, and radiance levels.  The data 
                                            streams will also contain all necessary information required for processing the 
                                            radiance data, including predicted ephemerides and calibrations, spacecraft 
                                            attitude, time, tilt, gain, and other necessary spacecraft and sensor 
                                            information.


CIESIN Critical design review               The CDR is the final review of the system design before implementation.  It is 
February 1995                               essential that NASA review the SEDAC system design to ensure 
                                            interoperability with EOSDIS. 


CIESIN System operating capability          This test of system capability must be conducted so that NASA is assured that 
testing - August 1995,                      the system meets its operating requirements. 


CIESIN System operational services begin    SEDAC services must be ready to ensure overall EOSDIS services are 
September 1995                              available. 


CIESIN "Lessons learned" design review      After several months of operation, a review will be performed to optimize 
November 1995                               system performance and ensure that SEDAC is operating efficiently. 



ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Data has been acquired, processed, disseminated, and archived to meet mission requirements for user availability of timely and 
accurate data products for global and/or regional monitoring purposes from all operational spacecraft and instruments.  The 
current emphasis on global modeling in support of policy decision on such matters as the impact of deforestation, ozone depletion, 
and environmental quality worldwide has led to the acquisition and manipulation of unprecedented amounts of environmental data.  
The accompanying computational demands has led to a doubling of production computing capacity and quadrupling of mass storage 
capacity in the last two fiscal years. The funding vehicle for CIESIN was changed from a grant to a specific SEDAC contract on June 
28, 1994, to establish compatibility of SEDAC with the overall EOSDIS.  SEDAC development milestones are now linked to those of 
EOSDIS.  SEDAC completed the program management review in August 1994. 
 

In the MO&DA program, responsibility for assigned missions is assumed 30 days after launch.  Data are acquired, processed, 
disseminated, and archived to meet mission requirements for user availability of timely and accurate data products.  Missions 
supported will be those scheduled for launch in 1995 (TOMS and SeaStar) , as well as the inauguration of data receipt for ERS-2 
and RadarSat at the ASF.  The MTPE information systems program will continue to provide a balanced computational environment 
for NASA science researchers primarily through facilities housed at GSFC and the JPL.  It will continue to make cost-effective, user 
requested enhancements to these facilities and will continue to leverage technology programs such as the High-Performance 
Computing and Communications (HPCC).  Projected demands have led to the establishment of new partnerships with other agencies 
(i.e. National Security Agency, National Science Foundation, and Department of Energy) and vendors (i.e., International Business 
Machines, Cray Research, and Convex) to seek solutions to production related problems in emerging computational environments.  
CIESIN will conduct a requirements review in October 1994 and a preliminary design review in November 1994.  SEDAC is now on-
line with Internet access and providing limited data products to the research community and the public.  
 

User requirements will be met in 1996 by continuing operations of in-orbit spacecraft and instruments including the UARS, TOPEX, 
and ERBS missions; continuing processing and analysis of data from the SRL mission, continuing support of the SBUV/2 sensor 
and processing of data from the SSBUV, and continuing receipt of ERS-1 and JERS-1 data at the Alaska SAR Facility.  Missions to 
be supported that are scheduled for launch in 1996 include the NSCAT and TOMS on ADEOS.  The MTPE information systems 
program will continue to provide a balanced computational environment for NASA science researchers primarily through facilities 
housed at GSFC and the JPL.  Partnerships with industry and other federal agencies will be used to assure the presence of the 
program's requirements in the strategic planning of new computational technologies.  Funding to CIESIN will provide personnel and 
equipment for the development of the system necessary to acquire socio-economic data, maintain that data in an archive, and 
provide the necessary access and data distribution to carry out global change research. 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                    GLOBAL OBSERVATIONS TO BENEFIT THE ENVIRONMENT 
 

                                                          FY 1994         FY 1995         FY 1996 
                                                                    (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Global observations to benefit the environment...           [300]           5,000           5,000 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goal of the Global Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Initiative is to link scientific discovery with the education 
process in the study of the Earth as an integrated system.  The objective is to bring school children, teachers, and scientists 
together to: (1) enhance environmental awareness of individuals throughout the world; (2) contribute to scientific understanding of 
the Earth; and (3) help all students reach higher standards in science and mathematics. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The GLOBE Initiative involves students (K-12 or equivalent) in schools throughout the world, their teachers and the environmental 
science research community.  Each school (representing K-12) will make a set of GLOBE measurements using GLOBE instruments 
and procedures under the guidance of GLOBE-trained teachers.  These results from all over the world will be transmitted to a 
central data processing facility.  The students will then receive global images as feedback and will use GLOBE educational materials 
to understand the compiled results and to do their own analyses of the data.   
 

In order to meet the first objective of increasing international environmental awareness, the program has been designed to be 
international in scope, involving students, educators and researchers from all over the world.  By using the Internet to link the 
schools together, a sharing of discoveries and analysis is encouraged that should result in awareness beyond just the local 
community.   
 

The second objective of contributing to the scientific understanding of the Earth is achievable due to the expansive data set that will 
result from long term, repeated measurements made around the globe with special value in areas where data have not been 
available in the past.  To ensure the greatest possible accuracy of the data, international environmental scientists have been 
involved from the beginning of the program to select a set of significant scientific measurements that can be made by students and 
to define the experimental procedures and data reporting protocols for each.   
 

GLOBE's intent is to provide hands-on, interactive learning experiences for students in order to meet the final objective.  Based on 
the proven assumption that people learn by doing, GLOBE provides a mechanism for students to become active scientists and know 
that their research will be used by the professional scientific community.  The GLOBE educational materials will provide the tools 
for the trained teachers to give proper context to each measurement and to suggest follow-on activities that directly support science 
and mathematics standards.   
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 


Achieve participation of at least 200 schools   By the 25th Earth Day, the start-up program will be well under way with at 
April 1995                                      least 200 schools actively participating and making measurements.  About 
                                                half of the 200 schools are to be located outside of the 	United States to ensure 
                                                the global nature of the program.  Start-up principal investigators will have 
                                                specified the measurements and worked with educators to develop adequate 
                                                materials for teacher training and curriculum support.  The data systems 
                                                component will also be operational.  



ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

NASA's contribution to GLOBE includes participation in the identification of the start-up measurements, participation in the review 
of the proposals by scientists and educators to carry out the long term scientific and educational aspects of the program, developing 
the data visualization and leading the Internet effort.  NASA, as a participating agency, also serves in an oversight capacity through 
a management steering committee and leadership council. 
 

A science workshop was held in September 1994, to solicit input from international environmental scientists in order to identify a 
list of start-up measurements that are scientifically significant and reasonable for students to make with small error margins. 
 

GLOBE has already achieved many of its significant milestones during FY 1995.  In December 1994, an education workshop was 
held to review existing environmental education materials with a panel of experts to determine the age-appropriate "kit" that will be 
provided to each teacher who undergoes the training program planned to be under way in late February 1995.  In parallel, GLOBE 
released a competitive announcement of opportunity to solicit proposals from scientists and educators that will implement the long-
term program.  Awards are expected to be made in March 1995.  The school selection process is under way with an application form 
provided to every school district in the United States.  Any school meeting the minimum set of requirements will be accepted as a 
GLOBE school and others that require federal assistance will be chosen based on a prioritized set of criteria. 
 

By FY 1996, the GLOBE development process will be complete.  Evaluation of the start-up activity is essential to ensure that the 
long-term program will be successful.  Growth is anticipated as schools are continually accepted into the program.  The long-term 
science and education teams will evaluate the start-up measurements and make modifications to procedures, materials and the 
training program as necessary.  The start-up phase will provide an estimate for the systems support required to maintain the 
Internet and data base.  Therefore, FY 1996 is expected to be a time of examination, adjustment and final implementation. 
 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE 
 

                                                            FY 1994           FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                                        (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Advanced communications technology 
    satellite....................................             3,000             2,300                --- 
 

Upper stage......................................           (2,000)              (--)               (--) 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program maintains U.S. leadership in the communications satellite 
market through the development and flight verification of advanced technologies that enhance the capability of communications 
satellites.  The main industrial ACTS development contractors were Martin Marietta Astro Space, with design support from TRW and 
Motorola. 
 

The U.S. user community, representing some 85 private sector organizations, universities and other government agencies, is 
conducting experiments to test and evaluate the ACTS technologies under various applications scenarios.  The key ACTS 
technologies include high gain power, fast-hopping multiple beam antenna; on-board intermediate frequency and baseband 
switching; wide bandwidth (1 GBPS) transponders, Ka-band components; and dynamic rain fade compensation techniques.   
 

The transfer of the ACTS technology to the industry is proceeding.  Commercial systems which are being built using ACTS 
technology are a global mobile communications system called Iridium by Motorola (the developer of the ACTS on-board switching), 
the video phone system by Hughes, the global fixed service system by Calling Communications and the home video system by Norris 
Communications. 
 

The ACTS satellite was successfully deployed by the shuttle on September 12, 1993, and arrived on station in geostationary orbit 
approximately two weeks later.  The satellite, the master control station and multiple Earth stations were successfully checked out.  
In January 1994, the experiment period began during which 78 experiments are scheduled to utilize ACTS technologies. 
 

The FY 1995 budget provided the final increment of funding in this budget line required for mission operations at the Lewis 
Research Center.  Beginning in FY 1996, funding responsibility for ACTS mission operations and experiments is transferred to the 
Office of Space Access and Technology. 
 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                            LAUNCH SERVICES 
	 

                                                   FY 1994               FY 1995           FY 1996 
                                                                  (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

EOS launch services..............................   16,200                41,700            88,000 
Radarsat launch services.........................    7,400                 7,000                -- 
ACTS upper stage.................................    2,000                    --                -- 
TOMS earth probe launch services.................      900                    --                -- 
 

Launch services..................................   26,500                48,700            88,000 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goal of the launch services within the Mission to Planet Earth program is to provide the flight programs with successful, cost-
effective, and on-time expendable launch vehicle (ELV) launch services. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Funding for mission unique launch services is included under the budget for the benefiting program.  While funding for the ELV's is 
found within the MTPE budget, program management for the ELV's rests with the Launch Vehicles Office (LVO) within NASA.  The 
LVO aggregates NASA, NOAA, and international cooperative ELV mission requirements, establishes appropriate acquisition 
strategies for purchasing firm, fixed priced launch services from the U.S. industry, and imposes the scope and level of technical 
oversight of the commercial ELV operators' delivery of service that reflects the criticality of the mission and the level of government 
resources at risk.  The objective is to provide affordable, 100 percent successful delivery to space.   
 

Since 1987, the LVO has been employing a national mixed fleet strategy, with 100 percent successful launch services.  The 
administration, procurement, and technical oversight of launch service delivery in the small and medium performance classes is 
managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (Atlas-E, Titan II, Pegasus XL, and Delta II, Ultra-Lite and Med-Lite.)  The intermediate 
and large performance classes launch services (Atlas I/IIAS and Titan IV/Centaur) are managed by the Lewis Research Center.  The 
Kennedy Space Center is delegated responsibility for technical oversight of vehicle assembly and testing at the launch site by GSFC 
and LeRC and is responsible for launch site the spacecraft processing.  The current corporate participants include Martin Marietta 
for AM-1, McDonnell Douglas for Landsat-7 and RADARSAT, and Orbital Sciences Corporation for TOMS. 
 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 


Launch of TOMS Earth probe,     Launch as planned aboard the Pegasus XL/L1011 launch vehicle.  Exact date 
July 1995                       of this launch is dependent upon the successful return to flight of the Pegasus 
                                XL/L1011. 


Launch of RADARSAT              Launch as planned aboard a Delta II.  This mission is an international 
September 1995                  cooperative ELV mission with Canada in which NASA provides the launch 
                                services and Canada provides the spacecraft. 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Over the last year, the launch services program has worked to minimize the consequences to NASA of the Pegasus XL/L1011 failure, 
and to facilitate and monitor plans for the launch vehicle's successful return to flight.  -The Intermediate ELV (IELV) launch services 
contractor was selected 
 

The key goal is to provide launch of the TOMS and RadarSat and maintain the EOS AM-1 and Landsat-7 launch services programs. 
 

Award the med-lite contracts for the EOS Altimetry missions and continue funding in support of the EOS  AM-1 and Landsat-7 launches in 
1998 
 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                                           CONSTRUCTION OF FACILITIES 
	 

                                                   FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996 
                                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Earth systems science building...................   12,000              17,000              17,000 
Langley Research Center distributed 
    active archive center........................    6,000                  --                  -- 
 

Construction of facilities.......................   18,000              17,000              17,000 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goal of the Earth systems science building project is to construct facilities which will house civil service, contractor, and visiting 
scientists conducting global change and Earth science research using the Earth Observation System (EOS).  The FY 1994 funding 
for the Langley Research Center distributed active archive center completed funding for the EOSDIS facility at the Langley Research 
Center. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Facility design and initial construction began in FY 1994 for the Earth systems science building (ESSB) at the Goddard Space Flight 
Center.  A second increment of funding was provided in FY 1995 for continuation of construction with completion funded by the FY 
1996 Construction of Facilities request. 
 

The complete description of the ESSB construction is in the Mission Support section of the FY 1996 budget justification. 

  

SAT 3