SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

                                  FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 

                                        BUDGET SUMMARY 

 
OFFICE OF AERONAUTICS                                          AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 

 
SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS 
                                                                                                              

                                                    FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996         
                                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Aeronautical research and technology.............   844,200             860,000             911,900          
Transatmospheric research and technology.........    20,000                  --                  --         
Construction of facilities.......................   203,000              22,000               5,400         
 

    Total........................................ 1,067,200             882,000             917,300 
 

National aeronautical facilities.................                       400,000 
 

Distribution of Program Amount By Installation 
 

Johnson Space Center.............................       600                 400                 100 
Marshall Space Flight Center.....................       800                 700                 200 
Stennis Space Center.............................       500                 200                  -- 
Ames Research Center - SAT.......................   211,700             212,800             241,500 
Ames Research Center - CoF.......................    51,000              22,000               5,400 
Dryden Flight Research Center....................    51,700              48,900              45,800 
Langley Research Center - SAT....................   312,100             305,500             331,700 
Langley Research Center - CoF....................    51,000                  --                  -- 
Lewis Research Center - SAT......................   231,300             243,700             247,300 
Lewis Research Center - CoF......................    27,000                  --                  -- 
Goddard Space Flight Center......................    18,500              25,300              21,300 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory........................     9,400               5,600               5,600 
Headquarters.....................................    27,600              16,900              18,400 
Various locations - construction of facilities...    74,000                  --                  -- 
 

    Total........................................ 1,067,200             882,000             917,300 



                                            SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND TECHNOLOGY 

 
                                                FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 

OFFICE OF AERONAUTICS                                                   AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goal of the Aeronautics Research and Technology program is to provide the Nation with leadership in high-payoff, critical 
technologies, and to assure the effective transfer of research and technology products to industry, the Department of Defense (DoD), 
and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for application to safe, economically superior, and environmentally responsible U.S. 
civil and military aircraft, and for a safe and efficient national airspace system.   
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

NASA carries out its aeronautics mission in close partnership with the DoD, FAA, U.S. industry, and academia.  The program 
reflects the continued need to address critical technology and performance barriers and to strengthen technology development in 
selected high-payoff areas vital to our long-term leadership in aviation.  NASA’s Aeronautics program is focused around six strategic 
goals:  

 
    (1) develop high-payoff technologies for a new generation of environmentally compatible, economically superior U.S. subsonic 
        aircraft and a safe, highly productive global air transportation system;  
    (2) ready the technology base for an economically viable and environmentally friendly high-speed civil transport;  
    (3) ready the technology options for new capabilities in high-performance aircraft;  
    (4) develop and demonstrate technologies for hypersonic airbreathing flight;  
    (5) develop advanced concepts, physical understanding, and theoretical, experimental, and computational tools to enable 
        advanced aerospace systems; and  
    (6)	develop, maintain, and operate critical national facilities for aeronautical research and for support of industry, FAA, DoD, 
        and other NASA programs.   
 

In accomplishing these goals, an integral part of NASA’s strategy is an emphasis on customer involvement in the planning, 
implementation and technology transfer phases of aeronautics programs.  A high priority is placed on the productive and cost-
effective provision of products and services, timely transfer of technology to domestic customers, strong university involvement, and 
the inclusion of minorities and disadvantaged businesses in the conduct of its aeronautics programs.  Research implementation is 
carried out cooperatively among NASA Research Centers, industry and academic researchers in a manner that utilizes the strengths 
of each partner.  The NASA centers also provide critical, unique national facilities to all customers for research and technology 
development.   
 
 

BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                    RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY BASE 


                                                    FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996 
                                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Aerodynamics.....................................   139,140             114,800             119,300 
Propulsion and power.............................    72,475              75,300              69,400 
Materials and structures.........................    49,075              39,600              46,400 
Controls, guidance and human factors.............    65,640              48,800              45,900 
Flight systems...................................    60,440              47,200              45,200 
Systems analysis.................................     7,530               8,600               8,500 
Hypersonics......................................    26,000              32,000              20,000 
 

    Total........................................   420,300            366 ,300             354,700 
 
	 

PROGRAM GOALS  
 

The Research and Technology (R&T) Base program is an essential element of the Aeronautics program, for it is here that new 
technologies that lead to superior products are conceived.  The Base program provides a foundation on which: (1) to develop 
advanced technology concepts and methodologies for application by industry; (2) to build focused programs to address selected 
national needs; (3) to respond quickly to critical safety and other issues; (4) to provide facilities and expert consultation for industry 
during their product development; and (5) to develop and demonstrate enabling technologies for twenty-first-century, airbreathing 
hypersonic systems. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Working closely with its customers, NASA’s R&T Base program has helped the U.S. lead the world in aeronautical breakthroughs 
and advanced aviation concepts, many of which have been incorporated by industry.  Additionally, it provides a foundation to 
respond to national issues.  For example, in the early 1970’s, NASA was able to respond to the national fuel crises by rapidly 
implementing the Aircraft Energy Efficiency program which accelerated the development of technologies resident in the Base.  
Concepts which can be traced to early research funded in the R&T Base, and were subsequently inserted into commercial products 
include: (1) Supercritical Wing for the B-757 and B-767 aircraft; (2) winglets for the MD-11 and B-747-400; (3) acoustic nacelles for 
the MD-11, B-757, B-767, B-747; (4) active turbine cooling for the JT9D engine and the B-747; (5) composite structures and 
advanced aluminum alloys for the B-757, B-767, B-747, and the MD-11; (6) advance displays for the B-757, B-767, B-747, B-777; 
(7) digital fly-by-wire for the F-18A, F-16C/D; (8) stall, spin & crash worthiness for general aviation; and (9) wind shear detection for 
all transports. 


The R&T Base program includes these aeronautics disciplines: aerodynamics; propulsion and power; materials and structures; 
controls, guidance and human factors; and flight systems.  The R&T Base also provides the resources required to maintain 
aeronautics flight research, as well as ground-based experimental and computational facilities.  Emphases in systems analysis and 
multidisciplinary research, the combining of two or more disciplines into a single activity, have been increased because of 
improvements in aircraft systems that may be obtained with integrated design approaches.  Hypersonics tasks, primarily in 
aeropropulsion and aerothermodynamics, receive special attention since they address the unusually challenging environments for 
aerospace planes.  Each element of the R&T Base program has an added objective of developing multidisciplinary methods that will 
contribute to industry’s goal of reducing design cycle time by 50%.  This goal is driven by the need to reduce product costs and 
capture increased market share.  The R&T Base also maintains research on various vehicle classes.  A significant portion of 
research and concept development in the Base program is performed through cooperative agreements with the industry and other 
Government agencies facilitating rapid technology transfer. 
 

Finally, the R&T Base program supports the capability to implement and conduct the research activities described above by 
providing a facilities infrastructure which supports the R&T Base, focused programs, and industrial development activities.  The 
major aeronautical facilities and services are located at the four aeronautical research centers - Ames Research Center (ARC), 
Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Lewis Research Center (LeRC). 
 

The strategy of the R&T Base program is described below according to the principal aeronautics disciplines.  A vision or long range 
plan has been developed for each discipline as well as a number of objectives (plans) for achieving that vision.   
 

Aerodynamics:  Provide a world-class aerodynamic research capability that combines wind tunnels, instrumentation, computational 
analysis, and flight research to develop technology for the U.S. industry and DoD so they can develop economical, safe, quiet, 
globally competitive aircraft across the speed range. 
 

    Objective (1):  Develop and validate practical and reliable aerodynamic design methods and concepts in high-payoff subsonic 
    aircraft technology areas.  A number of aerodynamic technologies offer the potential for cost reductions in acquiring and 
    operating aircraft through increased performance and decreased design time.  Promising technology areas being addressed are 
    laminar flow, high-lift systems and configuration aerodynamics.  The design of these systems remains a technical challenge due 
    to limited understanding of complex flow phenomena and difficulty in extrapolating system performance from ground-based 
    results.  Tools are being developed and validated which will enable a more complete understanding of complex flow fields about 
    multiple-component wing configurations.  Through joint programs with industry, aerodynamics research will develop 
    methodologies enabling integration of these technologies into improved wing designs. 
 

    Objective (2):  Develop critical aeromechanics technologies that enable well-designed, economically viable rotorcraft, gain greater 
    passenger and community acceptance of a civil rotorcraft, and improve productivity and component life.  New technologies are 
    required to increase performance and enhance tactical effectiveness of military rotorcraft, through greater agility and 
    maneuverability.  Developing and validating improved rotary aerodynamic analysis and advanced aeromechanics concepts 
    integrated with large-scale wind tunnel testing and flight research will provide U.S. industry with comprehensive methods for the 
    development of helicopter and high speed rotorcraft.  Benefits of such systems include performance improvement, noise 
    reduction, and vibration and loads alleviation. 
 

    Objective (3):  Pioneer the development of advanced computational and experimental design tools, facilities instrumentation, and 
    flow control concepts to solve aerodynamic problems inhibiting the development of new generations of aircraft.  Future significant 
    improvements in vehicle performance, fuel efficiency, safety, and environmental compatibility require the understanding, 
    predicting, and controlling of boundary-layer transition, turbulence, and vortical flows at flight Reynolds numbers.  Therefore, an 
    enhanced understanding of viscous flow physics is required.  Advanced flow measurement and diagnostics technology and 
    computational fluid dynamics continue development toward understanding while providing data bases for developing and 
    validating the physics models.  Ground test facilities and computational methods provide data bases to calibrate and validate 
    advanced models.  University research is an integral part that advances aerodynamics while training future scientists and 
    engineers. 
 

Propulsion & power:  develop and transfer advanced, innovative propulsion & power technologies to the U.S. aeropropulsion 
industry for future generations of world class, safe, economical, environmentally compatible air-breathing engines and rotorcraft 
transmissions. 
 

    Objective (1):  Develop the tools required for the U.S. aeropropulsion industry to design aeronautical gas turbine engine 
    components and rotorcraft transmissions that are highly efficient, operable, and reliable.  Efforts in this program focus on 
    improved understanding and predictive capability for critical propulsion components, such as compressors, combustors, turbines 
    and gears, through development and validation of improved analysis tools and fundamental and applied experiments.  
    Turbomachinery efforts concentrate on achieving improved levels of aerodynamic efficiency, improved cooling effectiveness, and 
    enhanced operability for axial and radial type machines.  Combustor research develops advanced technologies for gas turbine 
    combustors with reduced Nitrous Oxide (NOx), unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and soot emissions.  The effects of 
    high pressure, high temperature and varying pattern factors on the operational range, durability, and performance of advanced 
    combustors for small engine applications are being  researched.  Transmission efforts emphasize reduced gear noise and 
    vibration, improved life and reliability of drive systems, and lightweight design concepts. 
 

    Objective (2):  Develop and transfer to customers advanced propulsion research instrumentation; advanced integrated 
    flight/propulsion controls, high stability engine controls, fiber optic-based control sensors; dynamic models of advanced 
    propulsion systems; and high temperature electronics technology based on silicon carbide.  Propulsion research instrumentation 
    supports a wide variety of experimental efforts that range from fundamental studies to complete engine system tests.  These 
    efforts focus on miniature sensors and non-intrusive remote sensing measurement systems.  Advanced controls will achieve 
    maximum levels of propulsion system performance and life while maintaining adequate safety margins.  A top-down systematic 
    approach for designing near-optimal integrated flight/propulsion control systems, and the development of approaches for 
    enhancing the operating stability of advanced turbine engines is the focus of this research.  This research develops advanced 
    passive optical sensors for use in fiber-optic-based control systems where minimum weight, size, and immunity to 
    electromagnetic interference (EMI) are important.  The Silicon carbide-based electronics hold promise for high temperature (up to 
    500 C) operation.  The focus is on materials and device development and integrated electronic sensors for high temperature 
    propulsion applications. 
 

    Objective (3):  Establish a validated interactive, interdisciplinary "numerical test cell" for propulsion systems and components, 
    and conduct potentially high payoff research on innovative propulsion concepts.  This research combines computational and 
    experimental elements to improve the fundamental understanding of flow physics in inlets, nozzles, turbomachinery, and 
    combustors.  Advanced models and analysis tools integrated into an engine simulation environment designed to provide 
    multidisciplinary analysis will result.  This "numerical test cell" project is designated the Numerical Propulsion System Simulator 
    (NPSS).  It will provide faster and less expensive methods for doing both component and system analyses and design.  The NPSS 
    will allow numerical simulation to replace many expensive, large-scale system tests. 
 

Materials and structures:  conduct research for the development and application of advanced materials and structures technologies 
to reduce manufacturing cost and structural weight, enhance performance, reduce noise, insure safety, reliability, and durability, 
and reduce development cycle time for future rotorcraft and aircraft airframe and propulsion systems. 
 

    Objective (1):  Provide high temperature advanced materials for applications in subsonic propulsion systems by developing a 
    detailed understanding of material chemistry, architecture, processing, fiber/matrix interaction, life prediction and failure 
    mechanisms.  Advanced materials could provide up to 36% savings in engine weight, 40% fuel savings, and 10% reductions in 
    direct operating costs.  Polymer matrix composite technology research for fan and compressor applications is underway.  The 
    approach extends in-house developed resin temperature capability to 600 F (currently at 300 F) while enabling low-cost 
    manufacturing of components for ducts, cases, fairings, fan vanes, and compressor ducts and cases.  Technical challenges 
    include: developing matrices with improved thermal oxidative stability and processability, coatings and fiber sizing, processing 
    methods, and life prediction.  For compressor applications, the approach includes developing metal matrix/intermetallic matrix 
    composites with integrity to 1800 F (currently unavailable) for potential applications in cases, blades, vanes, and disks.  For 
    turbine applications, intermetallic matrix composites are being developed to 2300 F integrity.  Monolithic alloys research in 
    nickel-base superalloys and gamma titanium-aluminides are nearer term solutions to compressor needs.  Such materials are 
    required for compressor components to 1500 F (currently at 1150 F) to achieve increases in efficiency by increasing pressure 
    ratios from 40/1 (1200 F) to 60/1 (1500 F).  Ceramic Matrix Composites are being developed for application to components in the 
    hot temperature section of the turbine.  Glass-based ceramics under development have application to 2000 F (currently 
    unavailable) while non-oxide and selected oxide systems are targeted for turbine applications greater than 2500 F (currently 
    unavailable). 
 

    Objective (2):  Develop advanced analysis tools and innovative technologies required for the reduction of rotorcraft noise, 
    vibration, weight, and manufacturing cost.  Design and analysis tools for acoustics, dynamics, vibrations, and aeroelasticity will 
    be advanced for use by the rotorcraft industry.  Wind tunnel experiments will include powered scaled models and full scale flight 
    test measurements to understand the complex aeroacoustic phenomena and to provide validation data.  Analytical techniques 
    will provide new passive and active control concepts to reduce noise and vibration, and experimental programs will verify the 
    concepts.  The program provides for design, build, and test of advanced structural concepts that use composite materials for 
    lower weight with increased stiffness.  Hardware development and flight testing is pursued with close coordination between NASA 
    fixed wing and rotorcraft programs and Army research programs, as well as industry partnerships and cost-sharing programs. 
 

    Objective (3):  Develop structures and materials technologies for increasing efficiency and reducing the cost of the next generation 
    aircraft.  Include advanced composite and metallic materials within primary aircraft structure and introduce high temperature 
    materials into engine structure.  To increase the competitiveness of the next generation of aircraft, advanced materials will be 
    available for primary airframe and engine structures.  Research to develop technologies that reduce design cycle time and 
    manufacturing costs, and ensure that structures are more durable and damage tolerant is the focus of this program.  The 
    program develops advanced composite and metallic materials and associated processing and fabrication technologies.  The 
    program develops computational models and thermal analysis methods for integrated, optimal airframe design.  Research 
    provides models for predicting the failure of structures, and full-scale components will be tested for verification.  Structural 
    models include developed mechanics models that describe the deformation, strength, and life of advanced materials.  To ensure 
    aircraft safety, this program develops advanced methods to predict and control aeroelastic and structural dynamic responses. 
 

Controls, Guidance & Human Factors:  develop the controls, guidance and human factors technological foundation to enable U.S. 
leadership in providing significant improvements in mission operations of aircraft and to enable new mission capabilities. 

 
    Objective (1):  Apply and validate enabling technologies in the areas of guidance, controls, human factors, information systems, 
    and aviation sensors to provide improvements in the areas of performance, efficiency, safety, and productivity for subsonic 
    aircraft.  The focus includes operational restrictions that create barriers to increased productivity of airline operations and the 
    sale of aircraft in the global market as well as leading-edge, cost-effective control, guidance, display, sensing, automation, 
    operating and human factors technologies and their integration to reduce these barriers.  This research involves university, 
    industry, operator and regulatory communities, to facilitate deploying these technologies in commercial products. 
 

    Objective (2):  Develop and validate technologies necessary to enable low-altitude, nap-of-the-Earth, rotorcraft flight for military or 
    civil operations with significantly increased flight safety and, at increased speeds and lower altitude, to enhance survivability.  
    Both military and civil helicopter missions require flight close to terrain and obstacles with high pilot workload.  To enhance 
    safety, the program will develop and integrate forward looking sensor and digital terrain data; integrated pilot's display of sensor 
    and guidance information; and human-centered flight path management concepts.  The program will use piloted simulation and 
    in-flight experimentation, in a partnership with operator and industry customers, for the development and validation of the newly 
    developed technologies. 
 

    Objective (3):  Enable U.S. leadership in high-performance aircraft flight control systems performance through the development 
    and validation of innovative systems, cost-effective analysis, synthesis, testing and flight simulation technology.  This program 
    includes advanced control systems design and analysis modeling to increase aircraft performance and safety, while increasing the 
    efficiency of flight research.  Emphasized are flight-demonstrated results, leveraged on the major flight research projects, 
    conducted in cooperation with the industry and DoD. 
 

    Objective (4):  Improve the understanding of fundamental principles and develop new methods, and concepts to advance 
    guidance, controls, human factors, information systems, and aviation sensors to enable significant improvements in aviation 
    system mission capability, efficiency, and safety.  This program will develop and demonstrate models and analytical methods for 
    predicting human and system performance, operational procedure methods, and novel concepts for applying these models and 
    methods. 
 

Flight systems:  extend the world-class capability in flight systems by discovering, developing, and demonstrating in flight, high-
payoff critical technologies.  The associated design databases, and design methods are effectively transferred to industry and DoD 
for the development of safe and superior U.S. civil and military aircraft. 
 

    Objective (1):  Advance fundamental understanding of ice buildup on flight vehicles using analytical and experimental capabilities 
    and develop and assess ice removal or prevention techniques to assure safe flight in icing conditions.  Planned activities include 
    analytical modeling and experimental research to support industry's stated needs for accurate simulation of icing conditions, and 
    fundamental research to understand and model the ice accretion process.  Industry uses these models to predict ice accretion 
    shapes, estimate aerodynamic performance losses caused by the ice contamination, and to assess the need for ice protection to 
    prevent ice build up.  The approach meets the requirements of the primary customers, airframe and engine manufacturers.  The 
    research activities use wind tunnels, computer codes, and flight vehicles in a coordinated manner to assure that design methods, 
    data bases and test methods integrate with flight vehicles providing the understanding for the specific technology developments. 
 

    Objective (2):  Develop and validate advanced concepts, design methods and criteria, and test methods for enhanced 
    maneuverability and controllability of high performance aircraft throughout an expanded operational flight envelope.  Studies 
    have shown that enhancing maneuverability and controllability over an expanded operational envelope provides significant 
    advantages in air combat.  Realizing this potential in future combat aircraft requires the development and validation of a number 
    of technologies.  Specifically, experimental methods for measuring the complex high angle of attack aerodynamics facilitate the 
    validation of computational tools.  Advanced control effectors with high utility throughout the expanded flight envelope and 
    control laws that integrate these effectors providing desired flying characteristics will be developed.  The approach involves the 
    integration of wind tunnels and computer codes for aerodynamic studies, piloted simulations for flight dynamics and flight 
    control research, and specialized research aircraft for flight validation.  The NASA research centers coordinate these activities 
    with emphasis on effective transfer of program results to industry through periodic focused symposia and site visits. 
     

    Objective (3):  Develop and demonstrate integrated airframe and propulsion controls technology enabling efficient and effective 
    design of controllers for advanced configurations with highly coupled airframe and propulsion dynamics.  Technologies which 
    enable new integrated designs to control the dynamic airframe/propulsion coupling are a significant issue in high-performance 
    aircraft.  This program provides the technologies and demonstrates them.  Potential application of this technology includes 
    hypersonic vehicles, powered lift configurations, and multi-axis thrust-vectored vehicles.  This research program involves a 
    coordinated series of wind tunnel, analytical, and piloted simulator studies conducted jointly with industry.  Flight tests on a 
    testbed vehicle incorporating advanced controls will demonstrate and validate the design methods. 
 

    Objective (4):  Develop flight test techniques, methods, sensors, and instrumentation to maintain a world-class flight research 
    capability.  Activities involve enhancing the capabilities for superior flight research, including advanced measurement systems 
    and testbed aircraft.  Multidisciplinary design and analysis tools under development in conjunction with the measurement 
    systems will support flight research.  Testbed aircraft makes the evaluation of advanced concepts and technologies for all vehicle 
    classes possible.  This includes "smart" actuators, optical flight and engine control sensors, satellite based vehicle positioning, 
    aerodynamic experiments and laser air data systems.  Several universities support research focused on the technical issues of 
    flight testing. 
 

Systems analysis:  establish a world-class systems analysis capability that provides timely guidance for prioritizing research and 
development investments, through the identification of critical technologies for future systems and the tradeoffs among competing 
concepts.  The cornerstone is the continuing development of superior aircraft design methods that will be used by NASA and U.S. 
airframe and propulsion industries to guide research and improve the design process. 
 

    Objective (1):  Complete rapid and accurate system study assessments of twenty-first century transport concepts, advanced 
    subsonic propulsion systems, rotorcraft, and flight research concepts, and define the research and experiments needed.  Systems 
    analyses help to understand the relative merits of alternative approaches using a consistent basis for evaluation.  Such analyses 
    can evaluate advanced technology and alternate concepts when integrated into a mission-capable aircraft system rather than in 
    isolation.  Either NASA or the industry perform studies, based on the expertise needed.  Computer-based design tools help to 
    develop baseline aircraft models from which parametric changes enable evaluation of different technologies or missions, 
    component performance levels, and the establishment of sensitivities and concept feasibility. 
 

    Objective (2):  Develop, validate, and transfer to industry advanced conceptual and preliminary design methods and systems for 
    aircraft that will revolutionize the design process (cut cost and time in half).  The conceptual/preliminary design process for 
    aircraft and propulsion systems would use these methods to improve the process, where a better product can be designed and 
    costly engineering changes avoided, thereby reducing the dominant source of aircraft development time.  These design methods 
    incorporate advances in decision-support (optimization), user interfaces, and flexibility to assess widely-varying concepts.  They 
    also increase the level of disciplinary breadth and accuracy available during the conceptual/preliminary design process and 
    provide key information normally available later in the design cycle.  Development is accomplished within NASA and via 
    university grants, with technology transfer a primary objective. 
 

Hypersonics:  Develop and demonstrate enabling technologies for twenty-first-century, airbreathing, aerospace planes that offer the 
operational flexibility, responsiveness, and economies to revolutionize U.S. access to space capabilities and for atmospheric-cruise 
vehicles that satisfy mission requirements for rapid global response. 
 

    Objective (1):  Advance technologies and improve data bases for supersonic combustion ramjets (scramjets).  A 24-month contract 
    with the Russian Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM), will augment the U.S. scramjet data base with results from both 
    ground tests and a flight test at Mach 6.5.  Ground-based tasks by NASA researchers and facilities in the Mach 4 to 8 range will 
    also enhance the data base and improve the performance potential of scramjets.  Conceptual work on the advanced turboramjets 
    will advance the technology base for "low speed" (Mach 0 to 4) propulsion for hypersonic vehicles.  Systems analyses will continue 
    to keep all the work focused on high-payoff tasks (since hypersonic vehicles are especially sensitive to technology integration). 
 

    Objective (2):  Obtain critical data for hypersonic boundary-layer transition.  Flight tests will achieve great economies by "piggy-
    backing" onto a Pegasus launch vehicle to fly an instrumented wing-glove by FY 1997. 
 

In addition to the six disciplines, the R&T Base program began an Advanced Concepts effort in FY 1994 to provide a mechanism for 
rapid identification, development and transfer of potentially high payoff concepts to our customers.  This program is the largest-ever 
solicitation of breakthrough ideas from the aeronautics community and encourages partnerships between industry, universities, 
and government agencies to take advantage of their cumulative strengths.  Prior research programs have either paced improvements 
to existing technology areas or focused program improvements.  This effort focuses on advanced concept development of 
aeronautical systems or subsystems for which a medium-to-high risk and potential high-payoff opportunity is foreseen.  The 
program seeks creative and innovative ideas for multidisciplinary concepts and encourages government, industry, and university 
staffs to cooperate in the research.  NASA Research Announcements identify research opportunities, with proposals solicited for 
either a Research Analysis (maximum one year to establish the feasibility of a large-scale development program) or Research Project 
(maximum three years to provide advanced concept validation).  In FY 1994, the program awarded six Research Projects and ten 
Research Analyses. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Aerodynamics 

Validate aircraft design method     Experimentally validated the cooperative business jet design which was 
June 1994                           developed in a cooperative arrangement with Lear corp., through analysis 
                                    of wind tunnel data. 
 

Validate the computational          Evaluate a new computer code to compare calculated Reynolds number 
methods in transonic flow           effects for a wing and a wing/body configuration with experimental data. 
September 1995 
 

Assess tiltrotor noise              Complete a computational method for noise control and evaluate the method with 
alleviation - June 1996	            experimental data. 
 

Develop a new framework for	    Complete a new industry standard (accepted) for predicting the 
transition prediction	            transition of air flow from laminar to turbulent. 
December 1996 
 
 

Propulsion and Power 

Thermocouples evaluated for use     Demonstrated thin film thermocouples on ceramics in high-temperature and 
in a high-temp and pressure	    pressure gas stream providing new instrumentation for advanced engine 
environment	                    materials research. 
June 1994  
 

Flight demonstration of a fiber-    Completed a flight test evaluation of fiber-optic flight control 
optic based propulsion/flight       sensors and propulsion control sensors and verified measurements are the 
control system                      same as those from the electrical control sensors. 
September 1994 
 

Transfer of dynamic analysis code   Validation of the first release of a dynamic analysis code for non- 
for helical gears                   empirical prediction of gear life and noise levels, and transfer of  
June 1995                           codes to industry users. 
 

Transfer low NOx simulation         Hold industry workshop to instruct users and transfer the low-emission  
codes to industry                   gas turbine combustors. 
September 1995 
 

Deliver a preliminary conceptual    Deliver the Numerical Propulsion System Simulator to the propulsion and 
analysis of the Numerical           aircraft industry and ensure all critical capabilities are fully functional as 
Propulsion System Simulator         judged by the NASA/Industry cooperative technical focus group. 
March 1996 
 

Materials and Structure 

Demonstrate crash worthiness of     Structural integrity and post crash volume were maintained in a full 
General Aviation composite          scale General Aviation aircraft test and criteria were met. 
aircraft structures 
September 1994 
 

Demonstrate weight reduction        Validate structurally efficient wing and fuselage concepts which would allow for 
fuselage panels - September 1995    a 15% wing and fuselage weight reduction. 
 

Evaluate the noise reduction        Demonstrate through experimental testing that sufficient concepts show  potential of   
identified which enable 6 dB        innovative rotor noise reduction relative to conventional concepts rotor systems without 
September 1996                      sacrificing aerodynamic performance. 
 
 

Demonstrate strength and            Confirm that data from validation coupon testing predicts new 
toughness of emerging aluminum      aluminum alloys produced by novel intermediate rate solidification 
alloys                              process. 
March 1996 
 

Demonstrate accuracy of             Demonstrate through benchmark tests that calculations of transonic wing   
flutter prediction                  flutter are accurate to within 5% through the inclusion of  
September 1996                      viscous effects. 
 

Controls, Guidance and Human Factors 

Conduct wake vortex wind tunnel     Experimental data obtained from flight test using LIDAR matched (within  
and flight experiments employing    one standard deviation) the calculated data. 
airborne LIDAR 
March 1994 
 

Demonstrate feasibility of DGPS     Carrier phased based use of DGPS was demonstrated with a system accuracy 
in support of Category II & III     of 1.2 meter on final approach. 
approach and landing 
September 1994   
 

Demonstrate computer-aided          Identify and implement methods for increasing pilot awareness and reducing 
low-altitude guidance               human error using active sensor augmentation. 
September 1995 
 

Demonstrate real-time system        Based on psycho-physiological data, conduct pilot evaluation and system 
for measuring level of pilot        performance measures from flight tests and identify methods for increasing 
awareness                           pilot awareness and reducing human error. 
December 1994 

 
Complete field evaluation for       Evaluate concepts, technologies, and procedures which will support 
extended terminal area air          the FAA development plans. 
traffic controller aids 
September 1996 
 

Demonstrate use of computer-        Using an MD-11 aircraft, demonstrate the ability to safely land in a 
controlled engine thrust            simulated emergency, using engine thrust computer control only. 
September 1996 
 

Complete Civil Tiltrotor terminal   Obtain human performance and workload data from a simulated tiltrotor area simulation 
September 1996                      cockpit in a number of terminal area scenarios. 


Flight Systems 

Demonstration of propulsion only    Demonstrated safe recovery from upset attitudes and landing, as well as flight controls 
December 1993                       using engine only for control of an F-15 aircraft. 
 

Complete post-stall X-31 flight     Close-in-combat flight testing was completed using the X-31 experimental evaluation 
June 1994                           aircraft.  Kill ratios of greater than 10 to 1 were demonstrated. 
 

Validate 2-dimensional ice          Evaluate an advanced ice accretion computer code and transfer to industry through 
accretion prediction code           instructional workshops. 
September 1995 
 

Complete flight evaluation of       Measure engineering data and make available for comparison with 
advanced aerodynamic control        computational and simulator predictions of actuated forebody strakes for 
for greater air combat              vehicle control at high angles of attack. 
maneuverability  
September 1995 
 

Initiate assessment of axisym-      Complete F-15 aircraft modifications and clear the aircraft for flight by the 
metric vectoring exhaust nozzles    Air Worthiness and Flight Safety Review board. 
on the F-15 research aircraft  
September 1995 
 

Complete flight assessment of       Identify and qualify strength and weaknesses of advanced control schemes, which can  
and aerodynamic control concepts    enhance thrust vectoring fighter aircraft performance and enable tailless configurations, 
September 1996                      using the F-18 High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle. 
 

Demonstrate operability and real    Using the F-15 research aircraft, quantify performance of "care-free" 
-time performance optimization      engine and nozzle operation throughout the flight envelope and document 
of thrust vectoring nozzles         performance improvements. 
September 1996 
 

Initial flight evaluation of        Flight control performance on the F-15 research aircraft will equal or exceed today's 
neural network flight               conventional flight control system performance. 
controls - September 1996 
 

System Analysis 

Flexible synthesis architecture     Select best approach and initiate conversion of design codes. 
approach selected  
September 1995 
 

Hypersonics 

Pegasus wing-glove completion       Complete wing-glove and data system - to be mounted on the next available Pegasus for 
July 1995                           FY 1996/7 flight. 
 

University grant reviews            Review FY 1995 results and prepare for the final year at the set of three universities. 
September 1995 
 

Mach 6.5 scramjet ground test       Demonstrate flight-test system performance/operation in a simulated flight environment. 
February 1996	 
 

Mach 6.5 scramjet flight test       Obtain a full set of flight data on the performance and operability characteristics of a 
November 1996                       basic, medium-sized scramjet. 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Significant accomplishments for FY 1994 in the area of aerodynamics include the validation of a business jet design method based 
on analysis of wind tunnel data -- a cooperative developmental arrangement with Lear Corporation.  Pressure sensitive paint 
technology for measurement of wind tunnel data was developed into a portable system for use in multiple wind tunnel facilities.  
Airload and acoustic data for a modern helicopter rotor were documented and the database is available and in use by the rotorcraft 
industry.  An infrared measurement technique for accurately characterizing boundary layer transition was developed, which will 
greatly enhance research in this high-priority area.  In FY 1995, computational methods for transonic flow will be validated by 
comparing calculated Reynolds number effects for two configurations with experimental data.  A real-time off-site connection for 
customers to remotely observe and interact with NASA personnel during wind tunnel testing and immediately receive their data will 
be developed.  Three dimensional non-intrusive acoustic survey instrumentation will be developed for wind tunnel application.  
Advanced transition prediction methods for studying laminar flow at subsonic and supersonic conditions will be developed and new 
turbulence models will be adapted for industrial codes.  No funding is included for a joint rotorcraft program with the Army.  NASA 
continues to discuss this possibility with the Army, and will realign funds within the aerodynamics discipline to match the Army's 
contribution if an agreement is reached.  In FY 1996, a new framework for transition prediction will be completed with the goal of 
becoming the industry standard for laminar flow analysis.  Computational methods for tiltrotor noise control will be completed and 
evaluated against experimental data.   
 

In the area of propulsion and power, the FY 1994 significant accomplishments include the evaluation of thin film thermocouples in 
high-temperature and pressure gas stream, demonstrating a significant new capability for advanced engine materials research.  A 
three-dimensional multi-stage viscous analysis computer code was validated, based on a large low-speed axial compressor database, 
that will accelerate research and development of multistage engines.  In the area of low-emission combustors, advanced concepts 
were evaluated resulting in a database of exhaust gas constituents for atmospheric assessment of small engines.  Flight test 
evaluation of a fiber-optic flight and propulsion control sensors was completed and verified to be the same as those from electrical 
control sensors.  In FY 1995, lower cost and more reliable propulsion sensors will be developed which integrate optics and 
microfabricating technologies.  Real-time displays of non-intrusive engine measurement systems will be developed using lasers, 
electro-optical devices, and other technologies.  A workshop will be conducted to transfer and provide instruction to industry on the 
use of low-emission gas turbine combustor computer codes .  Also, a dynamic analysis code for non-empirical prediction of gear life 
and noise level will be transferred to industry.  In FY 1996, NASA will deliver the fully functioning Numerical Propulsion System 
Simulator to the propulsion and aircraft industry after evaluation by a joint government/industry technical focus group. 
 

FY 1994 accomplishments in materials and structures include the evaluation of several new polymer formulations for high 
temperature application including single-crystal nickel aluminide and a diamond-like carbon film on ceramics.  Parametric studies 
and analyses of the behavior of composite shells in buckling were completed.  Full-scale crash worthiness testing was completed in 
which all criteria for crash worthiness of a General Aviation composite structures were met.  In FY 1995, advanced concepts for 
efficient wing and fuselage concepts that should result in 15% weight reduction will be validated.  Fatigue damage accumulation 
models for metal- and intermetallic-matrix composites will be validated.  Viscoplastic models for complex structural alloys will be 
completed.  And a national radial tire friction database for landing gear analysis will be completed.  In FY 1996, noise reduction 
potential of innovative rotor concepts will be experimentally evaluated.  Strength and toughness of emerging aluminum alloys 
produced by a novel solidification process will be demonstrated using coupon testing.  Calculation of wing flutter at transonic 
speeds, with the inclusion of viscous effects, will be evaluated against benchmark tests. 
 

Accomplishments in control, guidance, and human factors for FY 1994 include wake vortex experiments in the wind tunnel and in 
flight, using airborne LIDAR, which matched the calculated data within one standard deviation.  Flight evaluation of a new flight 
management system linked to air traffic controller automation aids was completed.  A system accuracy of 1.2 meters was 
demonstrated, with a digital global positioning system (DGPS), that will support future Category II & III approach and landing 
conditions.  New mathematical methods which assess software reliability were successfully demonstrated in a joint effort with 
Boeing in evaluating their B-777 navigation system.  Color helmet-mounted display and low-noise approach flight profiles were 
evaluated using the UH-60 rotorcraft airborne laboratory.  In FY 1995, a real-time system for evaluating pilot awareness will be 
demonstrated based on actual flight data to identify means of increasing pilot awareness and reduce human error.  A computer-
aided low-altitude guidance system will be demonstrated and evaluated in terms of being able to increase pilot awareness and 
reduce errors.  Full-scale testing of a tiltrotor advanced technology blades will be completed in the NASA 80x120 foot wind tunnel to 
assess noise and performance in support of the civil tiltrotor program.  In FY 1996, field evaluations which support the FAA’s plans 
of extended terminal area air traffic controller aids will be completed.  Using an MD-11 aircraft, computer-controlled engine thrust 
in a simulated emergency will be demonstrated.  Also, human performance and pilot workload will be assessed for a Civil Tiltrotor 
terminal area simulation in the Vertical Motion Simulator.   
 

In the area of flight systems, FY 1994 accomplishments include completion of propulsion-only flight controls on an F-15 aircraft 
that demonstrated safe recovery from upset attitudes followed by safe and controlled landings.  The X-31 Enhanced Fighter 
Maneuverability aircraft, using thrust vectoring technology, completed its military utility assessment and showed kill ratios of 10 to 
1 in close-in-combat engagements.  Excellent correlation was found between the calculated and the actual flow around the F-18 
High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) and excellent effectiveness has been demonstrated using the aircraft’s thrust vectoring control 
system.  In FY 1995, a computer code which can design and analyze thermal ice protection systems will be made available to 
industry and a joint NASA/FAA/industry program to address ice induced tail plane stalls will be initiated.  Flight evaluation of 
advanced aerodynamic control using forebody strakes for greater air combat maneuverability will be completed using the F-18 
HARV.  F-15 aircraft modifications (which include thrust vectoring) will be completed and cleared for flight by the Air Worthiness 
and Flight Safety Review Board.  In FY 1996, flight research will include flight assessment of thrust vectoring and aerodynamic 
control which would enable tailless aircraft configurations.  Using the F-15, operability and real-time performance optimization of 
thrust vectoring will be demonstrated, and finally initial evaluation will begin on the flight control performance of neural network 
controls. 
 

System analysis accomplishments include the completion of oblique all-wing configuration and mission studies and the assembly of 
an aerodynamic and structural model.  Studies of laminar flow systems for supersonic and business jet applications were completed 
as well as a projection of propulsion needs for 2005.  A prototype of an expert system to facilitate design of propulsion nozzles was 
completed and successfully demonstrated.  In FY 1995, studies of alternative supersonic transport configurations and an 
assessment of the economics of long range supersonic air service will be completed.  A flexible synthesis architecture approach will 
be selected for the system analysis design codes.  This effort will continue into FY 1996 with thorough system study of innovative 
large (800 passenger) aircraft systems. 
 

Accomplishments for hypersonics consist largely of results for the joint NASA/DoD National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program 
(reported under Transatmospheric R&T) and from the previous NASA R&T base work.  NASA conducted thermomechanical tests of 
large structures of advanced materials (such as titanium-aluminide composites, carbon-carbon, etc.) provided unique research data, 
and also conducted initial tests for hypersonic boundary-layer research on a rocket-powered Pegasus launch vehicle.  Wind-tunnel 
tests utilizing smaller-scale, scramjet models at Mach 4 to 8 conditions improved the data base on injector technology and non-
intrusive diagnostic techniques.  Fundamental tests on scramjets at Mach 10 to 17 provided data on fuel-air mixing and combustion 
as well as on coupling computational with wind-tunnel techniques for improved data interpretation.  In the future, the Russian 
CIAM contract will produce flight-article designs and component fabrication in FY 1995, ground-test data in FY 1996, and flight-test 
data in early FY 1997.  The conceptual work on advanced turboramjets will refine cycle definition and the total system in FY 1995 
and FY 1996, then provide small-scale hardware for tests in late FY 1997.  Ground tests of scramjets will feature Concept 
Demonstration Engine model testing at Mach 5 and Mach 7, with complementary subscale tests in Langley facilities in FY 1995 and 
FY 1996.  Other testing in FY 1995 and 1996 will refine fuel-injector design and associated diagnostics, with potential improved 
concepts proof-tested in FY 1997.  Structural tests of existing NASP hardware will include both the carbon-carbon elevon and 
actively cooled panels of advanced design/materials in FY 1995.  An instrumented wing-glove will be fabricated in FY 1995 for flight 
on a Pegasus by FY 1997.  Systems studies will feature integration of final NASP experimental results into the correlation and 
upgrading of hypersonic design and analysis tools in FY 1996. 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                        SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS 
 
                                                                                                                

                                                    FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996            
                                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

High-performance computing and communications....    63,600              76,100              75,200             
Advanced composite technology....................    25,700              24,300                  --              
Numerical aerodynamic simulation.................    48,100              46,200              48,100              
High-speed research..............................   197,200             221,300             245,500              
Advanced subsonic technology.....................    89,300             125,800             188,400             
 

    Total........................................   423,900             493,700             557,200 
 
 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 

 
                                                    FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996 
                                                                 (Thousand of Dollars) 
 

High performance computing and communications....    63,600              76,100              75,200 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

Studies have shown that high-performance computing technologies have a tremendous positive impact on job creation, economic 
growth, national security, world leadership in science and engineering, health care, education, and environmental resource 
management, as well as enabling the missions of many Federal agencies.  The goals of the NASA High-Performance Computing and 
Communications (HPCC) Program are to accelerate the development, application and transfer of high-performance computing 
technologies to meet the engineering and science needs of the U.S. aeronautics, Earth science, and space science communities and 
to accelerate the implementation of a National Information Infrastructure.   
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The HPCC program goals are supported by five specific objectives: 
 

    1)  Develop algorithm and architecture testbeds that are able to fully utilize high-performance computing concepts while 
       increasing end-to-end performance; 
    2)  Develop high-performance computing architectures scalable to sustained TeraFLOPS performance; 
    3)  Demonstrate HPCC technologies on U.S. aeronautics, Earth science, and space science research problems; 
    4)  Develop services, tools, and interfaces essential to the National Information Infrastructure; 
    5)  Demonstrate pilot programs in remote sensing data access, education, and aerospace design and manufacturing. 
 

The NASA HPCC program consists of four vertically integrated projects.  These projects are: the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) 
Project, the Earth and Space Sciences (ESS) Project, the Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) project and the Information 
Infrastructure Technology and Applications (IITA) project.  The primary objective of the CAS project is to significantly shorten the 
design cycle for advanced aerospace products such as future high-speed civil transports.  The ESS project strives to enable the 
comprehensive modeling of large scale, long duration phenomenology such as global climate change or galactic evolutionary 
processes.  REE, which is being initiated in FY 1996, has the goal of developing and demonstrating a space-qualified, spaceborne 
computing architecture that requires less than ten watts per billion operations per second.  The IITA component is made up of 
several interrelated components.  The first is the Digital Libraries Technology component which aims to accelerate the development 
of the information technologies that will locate and distribute multimedia, digital information assets throughout the National 
Information Infrastructure.  The second component is the applications of Remote Sensing Databases including digital imagery and 
environmental sensing data for nationwide communities, such as K-12 students and teachers, farmers, and land use planners.  The 
last activity is the Education, Training, and Lifelong Learning component which is developing new tools and techniques to improve 
science, mathematics, engineering, and technology education using advanced educational technology and the Internet. 
 

NASA HPCC program was authorized by the High Performance Computing and Communications Act of 1991 and work began in  
FY 1992.  In the first three years, much progress has been made towards solving "Grand Challenge" problems in science and 
engineering.  Teams have been openly and competitively selected to address specific areas such as supersonic passenger aircraft 
simulation and global climate modeling.  Major national computational testbeds have been established at Ames Research Center 
and Goddard Space Flight Center to support these teams and to evaluate evolving HPCC systems and to develop software tools to 
fully utilize these new computing platforms.  In FY 1994, a new component was added to the NASA Program called Information 
Infrastructure Technology and Applications (IITA).  This new activity strives to bring HPCC technologies to bear on "National 
Challenges" in: Education, Training, and Lifelong Learning; Health Care; Environmental Monitoring; Digital Libraries; 
Manufacturing and Design; and Access to Government Information. 
 

The NASA HPCC program is planned and executed in cooperation with Federal agencies, industry, and academia to ensure that 
customer requirements and rationale are understood and to promote the rapid and effective transfer of technology products.  
Interagency collaboration is fostered through the National Coordination Office which has a full time staff to support the main HPCC 
coordinating body, the High-Performance Computing, Communications, and Information Technology (HPCCIT) Committee. 
 

The implementation of the NASA HPCC program is mainly through coordinated activities at NASA field Centers.  The overall NASA 
program is coordinated through the NASA HPCC Executive Committee composed of senior level managers from the major HPCC 
centers and representatives from the Headquarters "stakeholder" offices, the Office of Aeronautics, the Office of Space Science, the 
Office of Mission to Planet Earth, and the Office of Education and Human Resources.  The technical program is documented via a 
HPCC Program Plan that is updated annually.  Multiple reviews are held during the program year to ensure the program is 
achieving its stated goals, and is staying within schedule and budget. 
 

NASA has used senior executives from major U.S. aerospace companies to plan the Computational Aerosciences Project to best 
respond to customer requirements.  In the summer of FY 1994, major revisions to the CAS program plan were initiated based on 
industry input to better transfer CAS technology projects to industry.  These revisions included developing a NASA Research 
Announcement (NRA) targeted at design application work of interest to aerospace companies.  This open and competitive solicitation 
has resulted in several contracts with U.S. aerospace companies.  In addition, a new thrust was developed to facilitate the utilization 
of the existing computational infrastructure of the aerospace industry.  The "distributed computing" initiative is embodied in an 
NASA Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) that was issued early in FY 1995.  Awards will be made during calendar year 1995.  
Managers of the HPCC program continually visit and interact with industry leaders to better understand industry's critical needs for 
HPCC technologies. 

 
The NASA HPCC program has significant involvement by outside participants who bring expertise and resources to achieve common 
goals.  There are two categories of involvement -- Interagency Cooperative Programs and Cooperative Agreement Programs. 
 

Interagency Cooperative Programs:  The National Science Foundation (NSF), the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), and 
NASA jointly sponsor the NSF/ARPA/NASA Digital Library Initiative.  Each agency has a designated manager as part of a joint 
management team.  Also, NASA and NSF have sponsored a joint program for the evaluation of high-performance systems.  This 
program, the Joint NSF/NASA Initiative in Evaluation (JNNIE), has been evaluating the performance of 22 significant software 
applications drawn from many Grand Challenge areas on eight HPCC computers from seven U.S. manufactures.  The main objective 
of JNNIE is to determine the potential of Scalable, Parallel Computers (SPCs) and to evaluate the current baseline of SPC 
environments. 
 

Cooperative Agreement Programs:  NASA has initiated a number of major cooperative agreements including an award to a 
consortium lead by IBM for a HPCC testbed and awards for developing Internet applications and technology projects with Lockheed 
Missile and Space Company, WRC-TV, Bellcore, IBM, Computer Sciences Corporation, Loral Federal Systems, and The Analytical 
Sciences Corporation (TASC).  Other cooperative agreements which represent significant partnerships between NASA and others 
have been established with Rice University for accelerating the transfer of simulation software tools to U.S. aerospace companies 
and with the University of Illinois, the Gulf of Maine Aquarium, Science Applications International Corp.,  ECOlogic Corp., Wheeling 
Jesuit College, The Childhood Project, Inc., the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, SENTAR, Inc., and BDM International for 
digital library technology and remote sensing data applications. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Install CAS Grand Challenge testbed scalable to 100     Demonstration of 10 to 50 gigaFLOPS sustained performance.
gigaFLOPS - July 1994 
 

Establish program to provide public access to Earth     Initiate 10 competitively selected projects by the end of FY 1994.
and space science data over computer networks and 
programs - September 1994 
 

Demonstrate satellite-based gigabit applications using  Demonstration of 155 and 622 Mbps satellite/terrestrial connectivity 
Advanced Communications Technology Satellite            among geographically distributed computational platforms. 
(ACTS) and associated ground terminals  
June 1995 


Demonstrate initial remote sensing data base            Demonstration of at least 8 projects for public access to remote sensing
(RSDB) applications over the National Research and      data over NREN, supporting hundreds of users. 
Education Network (NREN)  
September 1995 


Demonstrate multidisciplinary CAS & ESS                 Demonstrate execution of CAS and ESS Grand Challenge applications at
applications on 10-50 gigaFLOPS testbeds -              negotiated performance metric level.
September 1996 


Demonstrate end-to-end reductions in cost and time      Demonstrate practical workstation cluster solutions at performance and 
to solution for aerospace design applications on        reliability levels equivalent to FY 1994 vector supercomputers at 25% of the  
heterogeneous systems                                   cost.  
September 1996

 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

In FY 1994, the CAS project awarded a cooperative agreement to IBM Corporation to establish a major new testbed based on the SP-
2 parallel architecture at the NASA Ames Research Center.  The NAS Parallel Benchmarks emerged in FY 1994 as a defacto industry 
standard for establishing system performance under NASA leadership.  A major computational achievement included the 
development of multidisciplinary analysis codes for High-Speed Civil Transport engine inlets by a team of NASA, Boeing, and the 
Universities of Indiana and Akron.  Under the ESS project, significant progress was made in the modeling of turbulence and mixing 
in stellar objects, which produced the first generation of portable hydrodynamic codes for turbulent convection.  Another significant 
ESS accomplishment was the simulation of anisotropies detected by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, leading to 
further understanding of the Big-bang and very early universe.  Finally, a very significant milestone was reached in  
FY 1994 when NASA and the Department of Energy announced the winner of a joint solicitation to deploy and demonstrate the first 
nationwide use of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network technology over fiber optical networks supporting the Synchronous 
Optical Network (SONET) standard.   
 

Within the IITA component in FY 1994, a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) was developed and published to solicit cooperative 
agreement and grant proposals for the development of innovative digital library technologies and for providing public access to 
remote sensing data over the Internet.  This nationwide solicitation attracted 334 proposals.  Out of this set, 26 projects have been 
selected for award.  The NASA IITA program was also a partner in the review and selection process for the joint NSF/ARPA/NASA 
Digital Library Research and Testbed Initiative which resulted in six awards in September of 1994.  In addition, IITA educational 
outreach programs were initiated at seven NASA field centers involving many K-12 students and teachers nationwide.  
 

In FY 1995, the CAS project will develop high-speed civil transport (HSCT) analysis and optimization codes to perform medium 
fidelity HSCT modeling, and demonstrate accelerated  aerospace design techniques.  To better address critical needs of industry in 
the area of distributed computing, a Cooperative Agreement Notice for clustered workstation applications will be issued.  In support 
of the National Research and Education Network, NASA will interconnect five of its research centers through a high-speed, 155 
megabits per second network.  Under the ESS project, NASA will demonstrate Earth and space science applications running in the 
10-50 gigaFLOPS range.  NASA will also demonstrate satellite-based Gigabit per second communication by linking the Advanced 
Communications Technology Satellite with terrestrial computer networks.  Finally, advanced planning for the REE project will be 
initiated for a rapid start up of the project in FY 1996. 


In FY 1995, IITA will complete the negotiation and award of the grants and cooperative agreements solicited under the NASA 
Cooperative Agreement Notice issued in FY 1994.  Many of the projects initiated will begin immediately to show results such as the 
installation of the kiosks for public access and display of remotely sensed data at the Houston Museum of Natural History, and the 
demonstration over the Public Broadcasting System of the IITA supported program "Live from Antarctica".  In addition, two more 
Cooperative Agreement Notices will be issued.  The first, for Education, Training and Lifelong Learning in Aeronautics, will be issued 
in early FY 1995 with projects initiated by mid-summer 1995.  The second, which will be a revision of the FY 1994 CAN for public 
access to remote sensing data over the Internet, will be released late in the third quarter of FY 1995 with technical work to start 
early in 1996.   
 

In FY 1996, the NASA HPCC program has many major accomplishments planned.  These include:  (1) demonstrating the 
interoperability between independently managed networks that are based on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) technology 
supplied by multiple vendors; (2) demonstrating portability and scalability of software component tools to teraFLOPS systems;  
(3) demonstrating multidisciplinary aeroscience applications on 10-50 gigaFLOP testbeds; (4) demonstrating end-to-end reductions 
in cost and time to solution for aerospace design applications on heterogeneous systems; (5) demonstrating cost effective high-
performance computing at performance and reliability levels equivalent to FY 1994 "Vector" supercomputers at 25% of the capital 
cost; (6) demonstrating multidisciplinary Earth and space science applications on 10-50 gigaFLOP testbeds; (7) establishing a 50-
100 gigaFLOP Earth and space science testbed; (8) establishing a second set of applications of Remote Sensing Databases over the 
Internet by traditionally underserved communities; (9) establishing a second set of projects for developing digital library technologies 
to expedite locating, retrieving, and delivering digital information over the Internet; and (10) demonstrating the results of the first 
round of applications projects established in FY 1994 and FY 1995 for accessing Remote Sensing Data over the Internet. 



                                                    FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996 
                                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Advanced composites technology...................    25,700              24,300                  -- 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goal of the Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) program is to increase the competitiveness of the U.S. aeronautics industry 
by putting the commercial transport manufacturers in a position to expand the application of composites beyond the secondary 
structures in use today to wings and fuselages by the end of this decade.  Industry's resistance to using composites is one of 
economics.  While the current demonstrated level of composites technology can promise improved aircraft performance and lower 
operating costs through reduced structural weight, it does so with increased manufacturing costs, currently twice the cost of 
aluminum.  The goal of this program is to verify composite structure designs that will have acquisition costs 20-25% less and weigh 
30-50% less than an aluminum aircraft sized for the same payload and mission. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Several candidate materials, concepts, and fabrication methods that offer the potential for cost-competitive composite structures 
were identified during Phase A which was completed in FY 1992.  Since that time, tests on these materials coupons, small panels 
and elements, and fabrication demonstration articles provided the data necessary to focus the program on the most promising 
technologies: stitched dry fiber/resin transfer molding, textile preforms, and automated fiber placement.  During Phase B, these 
techniques are being applied to construct several large benchmark components.  These components serve a two-fold purpose.  First, 
they provide test data of their ability to undergo the aerodynamic and pressure loads encountered by commercial transports.  
Second, they provide data relating to manufacturability and cost.  By the completion of Phase B, a wing stub box for a 200-
passenger aircraft and large panels representative of the crown, window-belt, and keel areas of large transport aircraft will be 
developed and tested.  The wing concept exploits through-the-thickness stitching of dry fiber material and resin transfer molding, 
and the fuselage will be fabricated by a combination of automated fiber placement and textile preforms.  NASA's Langley Research 
Center (LaRC) is developing this technology in conjunction with industry by contracting task orders for specific portions of the 
development, utilizing its own facilities and capabilities where possible.  For example, the wing stub box was manufactured by 
McDonnell Douglas and has been shipped to LaRC for strength testing in the engineering lab.  Fuselage panels fabricated by Boeing 
are being pressure tested in LaRC's Combined Loads Testing (COLTS) facility. 
 

With the completion of Phase B in FY 1995, the results and knowledge relating to composite wings that were accumulated during 
the ACT program will be transferred to the composites element of the Advanced Subsonic Technology program to provide the high 
level of emphasis required for the design, construction and test of a full-scale composite wing.  Technology efforts related to the 
fuselage will be transferred into the Materials and Structures R&T element of the base and will continue to be examined.  This 
redirection within the NASA aeronautics composites efforts is an important step in ensuring that the U.S. industry has the 
technology for a strong competitive position in the international aviation market. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Fabricate and test window-belt      Establish cost effective design and manufacturing process, at least 20% cheaper than the 
panels - June 1995                  baseline aluminum structure and 30% lighter, and demonstrate by test, fuselage components 
                                    with strength, stiffness, damage tolerance and repairability at least equal to that of baseline 
                                    aluminum structure. 


Fabricate semispan wing box         Establish cost effective design and manufacturing process, at least 20% cheaper and 30% lighter 
June 1995                           than the baseline aluminum structure with greater stiffness (required for higher aspect ratio wing 
                                    designs used to achieve improved aerodynamic efficiency in commercial transports) and equal 
                                    load carrying capacity to that of baseline aluminum structure. 

 


Test semispan wing box              Perform strength, stiffness, damage tolerance and repair tests on wing stub box to verify 
September 1995                      capability of the load carrying portion of a 200-passenger commercial transport wing requiring 
                                    greater stiffness than the baseline aluminum structure.

 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

In FY 1994, the advanced composites technology program made significant strides along the path to full-scale component assembly 
and verification.  The progress centered on the production and testing of subscale components both in the wing and fuselage areas.  
Fuselage keel panels made of laminated composite skins co-bonded to a composite honeycomb core were manufactured and 
strength tested by a team consisting of Boeing engineers and their subcontractors as well as NASA researchers.  Cost analysis 
software was also developed.  The panels met ACT cost and weight goals.  Its implementation in the analysis of the engineering and 
manufacturing process led to a focus on honeycomb core sandwich material as the material of choice for the fuselage side panels as 
well as the keel.  In the wing area,  McDonnell Douglas and their subcontractors along with their NASA team members 
manufactured a number of "proof of tooling" wing cover panels to gain confidence in the resin film infusion (RFI) process of 
hardening dry fabric layers stitched together for extra strength.  Once the process had been perfected, a wing stub box, an inboard 
portion of wing structure with stiffened upper and lower panels, was fabricated and assembled and prepared for testing.  The stub 
box met ACT cost and weight goals. 
 

The effort for FY 1995 is a continuation of the FY 1994 effort and completion of the program.  The recently developed wing stub box 
will be tested to assure that it meets strength and stiffness requirements.  Development of a large capacity stitching machine will 
begin with Ingersoll Rand.  This multi-head computer controlled sewing machine will be a prototype capable of stitching together the 
dry fabric layers of a full scale 200+ passenger airplane wing.  The level automation will help meet the ACT manufacturing cost 
goals.  In the fuselage area the effort will focus on the low cost fabrication and subsequent testing of window-belt panels.  This 
fuselage cutout must take loads and provide a secure pressure seal.   
 

Phase B of the ACT program will conclude at the end of FY 1995.  The knowledge obtained from the ACT program will be transferred 
and continued in the composites element of the Advanced Subsonics Technology program. 



                                                    FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996 
                                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Numerical aerodynamic simulation.................    48,100              46,200              48,100 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) goal is to enable the simulation of an entire aerospace vehicle system within one to 
several hours by the year 2003.  For the past fifty years, the United States has been the undisputed leader in global air 
transportation.  Now foreign interests dominate the general aviation industry and are making inroads into the commuter aircraft 
market.  European and Far Eastern nations are applying significant resources needed to obtain a greater share of the subsonic 
transport aircraft market.  The NAS program provides the Nation's aerospace research and technology community a high-
performance, computing capability that is recognized as a key element of NASA's aeronautics program.   
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The objectives of the NAS program were carefully selected to assist the U.S. Aeronautics community in its quest to continue 
dominance of the world-wide aircraft market.  These objectives are: (1) act as a pathfinder in advanced, large scale computational 
capability through systematic incorporation of state-of-the-art improvements in computer hardware and software, (2) provide a 
national computational capability, available to NASA, DoD, industry, other governmental agencies and universities, as a necessary 
element in ensuring continuing leadership in computational fluid dynamics and related computational aerospace disciplines, and (3) 
provide a strong research tool for the Office of Aeronautics.  The benefits of numerically simulating a complete aerospace vehicle 
system are substantial and include an accelerated vehicle system development cycle, reduced vehicle development cost and risk, 
and an increased vehicle operation efficiency.  The computational requirements needed to simulate a complete aerospace vehicle 
system are approximately 200 times greater than that which is available and affordable today.  At least a sustained teraFLOP 
computing capability is required.  Scalable parallel systems offer the greatest potential for achieving this goal. 
 

NASA Headquarters is responsible for overall program direction and assessment.  Program implementation rests with the Ames 
Research Center (ARC) NAS Systems Division which provides technical and program management.  Contractors provide system 
development and computational support services.  

 
The NAS facility provides the tools and resources for obtaining solutions to problems which may be intractable on less than state-of-
the-art computer systems, including solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, (enabling performance analysis predictions for 
complex aircraft geometries).  In order to ensure this degree of computational capability, the NAS program continues to implement 
the following efforts:  (1) acquire pathfinding, state-of-the-art, high-speed processors (HSPs); (2) provide a uniform, balanced, user-
friendly system with equivalent capabilities for local and remote users; (3) maintain an auxiliary processing center for secure 
processing; (4) research existing parallel architectures and incorporate them into future generations of the NAS; (5) develop a 
hardware and software environment for prototyping and testing of computers, networks, storage devices, workstations and graphic 
output devices; and (6) continue to research and enhance an increasingly sophisticated system of hardware/software tools and 
environments to assist the user in performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tasks efficiently.  The NAS facility serves as a 
National testbed for new hardware and software products for the United States computer/communications industry.   

 
The NAS program will continue its practice of entering into a variety of cooperative agreements to advance its pathfinding goals.  
These cooperative agreements are anticipated to continue with industry, universities, and agencies of the Federal government.  
These agreements will be used to encourage the development of new technology and to invest in basic research in computer science.  
As of September 1994, NAS had memorandums of understanding with Intel Supercomputer Systems Division, Convex, National 
Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC), Maximum Strategy, Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) and Sandia.  NAS 
and Intel were able to rewrite portions of Intel's Paragon operating system and improve the reliability and efficiency of the Paragon.  
Convex, in collaboration with NAS, was able to transfer the highest performing hierarchical mass storage system to the computer 
industry and market it to the general public.  Research and development with ARPA fostered the emergence of high- performance 
computer peripherals such as Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) storage devices. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Upgrade remote network backbone to T3                           Upgrade long-haul communication network capability from T1  
FY 1994, Qtr 4                                                  (1 megabit per second) to T3 (45 megabits per second). 
 

Upgrade local area network                                      Increase throughput from 1 gigabit/second to 16  
FY 1995, Qtr 3                                                  gigabits/second while decreasing maintenance costs. 
 

Acquire and install a distributed network storage system, Mass  Evaluate disk and network technology for non-front-end  
Storage 3, that replaces the current CPU-based system with at   solution with the objective to improve access time, and at the 
least double the capacity                                       same time, increase capacity to at least double the current 1.6 
FY 1996, Qtr 3                                                  terabyte capacity.
 

Acquire and install High Speed Processor 4                      Deliver to the NAS community a four-fold increase in  
FY 1997, Qtr 2                                                  computational hours. 
 

Acquire and install Mass Storage System 4                       Increase disk capacity six-fold and increase tape capacity by a            
FY 1999, Qtr 2                                                  factor of 10. 

Acquire and install High Speed Processor 5                      Deliver to Aeronautics community a computing system capable  
FY 2000, Qtr 2                                                  of simulating a complete aerospace vehicle system. 


Provide the Nation's aerospace research and development         Demonstrate a complete vehicle system simulation within 
community a high-performance, operational computing system      several hours.
capable of simulating an entire aerospace vehicle system
within one to several hours 
FY 2003 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

NAS sustains its balanced system software and support for the HSPs through a continuous upgrade process.   The third high-speed 
processor (HSP-3), a 16-processor Cray C-90, was placed into operation in March 1993.  In September 1993, the NAS memory was 
upgraded from 256 megawords to one gigaword, making it the largest configured Cray C-90 in the unclassified world.  The four-fold 
increase in computational hours is now available to the NAS community.  The funding constraints in FY 1994 and  
FY 1995 and increased cost of semiconductor memory will delay high-speed processor (HSP-4) installation to FY 1997.  The HSP-4 is 
expected to provide a four-fold increase in capability.  The installation of our last planned high-speed processor (HSP-5) is scheduled 
for March 2000.  The aerospace community will have 18-24 months to utilize and evaluate the system and to complete its goals 
prior to project completion in FY 2003. 
 

NAS provided for an upgrade to the Aeronautics long-haul communications network (AEROnet) in FY 1994.  Connections between 
Ames Research Center (ARC) and Langley Research Center (LaRC) and ARC and Lewis Research Center (LeRC) were increased from 
6.16 megabits/second to 45 megabits/second and those between ARC and the end user were increased from 56 kilobits/second to 
1.544 megabits/second.  AEROnet currently provides a 100-fold increase in throughput and is planning another three-fold increase 
by the last quarter in FY 1995. 
 

Scalable parallel system technology is being advanced under the High-Performance Computing and Communications program.  
Evaluation of these parallel architectures and algorithms is progressing favorably in the NAS facility, where critical issues associated 
with ensuring desired performance and software development are key to transitioning the technology into next generation systems. 
 

To keep storage capacity consistent with increasing high-speed processor output, the NAS facility now has  Storage Technology tape 
drives, which have increased the NAS storage capacity to 45 terabytes.  Also installed  were two Convex mass storage systems 
increasing on-line disk capacity to 1.6 terabytes.  In FY 1995, we  intend to double the capacity of disk and increase the capacity of 
tape ten-fold.  One cost-saving feature currently being evaluated in the NAS program is the use of direct network connection mass 
storage to more efficiently access and retrieve data.  Disk capacity is expected to double every year and tape capacity to increase 
ten-fold every four years. 
 

The NAS will continue as a national computational capability available to the U.S. aeronautical community (i.e. NASA, DoD, 
industry, other Government agencies and universities).  The NAS provides support to LeRC and Pratt & Whitney to develop and 
validate multidisciplinary, multistage compressor computational tools to halve the design time of large commercial aircraft engines.  
These tools have also led to a 1.5% reduction in specific fuel consumption. 
 

The number of user accounts will be maintained at its current level of about 1400, representing some 400 projects nationwide, 
continuing the diverse use of the NAS systems by the U.S. aeronautical community. 



                                                    FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996 
                                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

High-speed research..............................   197,200             221,300             245,500 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 

 
The High-Speed Research (HSR) program has the goal of developing the technologies that industry needs to design and build an 
environmentally compatible and economically competitive high-speed civil transport for the 21st century.  The technology 
developments are to reach an appropriate stage of maturity to enable an industry decision on aircraft production in the year 2001. 
 

Studies have identified a substantial market for a future supersonic airliner -- or high-speed civil transport (HSCT) -- to meet the 
rapidly growing demand for long-haul travel, particularly across the Pacific.  Over the period from 2005 to 2015, this market could 
support 500 to 1000 HSCT aircraft, creating a multi-billion dollar sales opportunity for its producers.  Such an aircraft will be 
essential for capturing the valuable long-haul Pacific Rim market.  Market studies indicate that the successful development of a  
U.S.-manufactured HSCT could result in $200 billion in sales and 140,000 jobs for U.S. industry.  As currently  envisioned, an 
HSCT aircraft should be designed to carry 300 passengers at Mach 2.4 on transoceanic routes over distances up to 6,000 nautical 
miles at fares comparable to subsonic transports.   
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 

 
While current technology is insufficient, the studies further indicate that an environmentally compatible and economically 
competitive HSCT could be possible through aggressive technology development.  NASA is concentrating its investments in the early, 
high-risk stages of development and the aircraft manufacturing industry has indicated that it is willing to make a substantial 
investment in this program as the technological risk decreases.  
 

NASA's HSR program is providing a public-sector catalyst in addressing this important opportunity with U.S. industry through a 
two-phase approach.  Phase I, which began in FY 1990, is defining HSCT environmental compatibility requirements in the critical 
areas of atmospheric effects, community noise and sonic boom and is also establishing a technology foundation to meet these 
requirements.  Phase II of the program began in FY 1994, in cooperation with U.S. industry, and is directed at developing and 
validating designs, design methodologies and manufacturing process technology for subsequent application by industry in future 
HSCT aircraft programs to ensure environmental compatibility and economic viability. 
  

At NASA Headquarters, the HSR Program Director is responsible for overall program policy, planning, direction, oversight and 
funding allocation.  Also, the Director is responsible for interfacing with industry, government agencies and the public.  Personnel 
and facilities at the NASA Aeronautics Centers (Ames, Dryden Flight, Langley and Lewis Research Centers) are used to conduct 
research and analysis in support of the program.  At Langley, the lead center, the HSR Project Director reports to the headquarters 
Program Director and is responsible for policy and program implementation, project planning and funding allocation, systems 
engineering and integration, and direct contractor interface and management.   


The team of primary HSR contractors consists of airframe, propulsion system and advanced flight deck companies.  These 
contractors are responsible for:  the research, development and validation of specific technologies;  the development and assessment 
of a next-generation High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) concept and configuration;  and the conduct of associated tasks, such as 
mission analysis and data base development, as well as for the system-level integration of the advanced technologies being 
developed.  The primary propulsion contractors are the team of Pratt & Whitney and General Electric Aircraft Engines, with contract  
management by Lewis.  The primary airframe contractors are the team of Boeing and McDonnell Douglas, with contract 
management by Langley.  The advanced flight deck contractor is Honeywell International, also managed by Langley.  Ames provides 
significant support directly to Langley in advanced flight deck development, computer modeling and simulation and in economic 
analysis.  Dryden provides support for flight related activities including F-16-XL and the Environmental Research Aircraft and 
Sensor Technology (ERAST) Program.  The HSR Project Office at Langley is responsible for integration of all elements of the program.      
 

The HSR program is enhanced by its participation, in coordination and cooperative efforts to exchange information and data, with 
other NASA organizations and federal agencies: (1) The Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft Panel includes participation by 
the NASA Office of Mission to Planet Earth, Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Administration, National Science Foundation and Department of Defense.  The panel provides guidance and 
evaluation of research related to the effects of high-speed civil transports on the upper atmosphere; (2) the FAA/NASA Coordinating 
Committee provides the framework for developing and defining HSCT certification requirements; and (3) Department of Defense 
provides a cooperative forum for advanced engine technology development via its Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine 
Technology (IHPTET) initiative. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Sign HSR Phase II Flight Deck contract      Awarded Flight Deck Concepts contract to Honeywell.  	 
June 1994 
 

Sign HSR Phase II Air Frame contract        Awarded Airframe Contract to Boeing/McDonnell Douglas team. 
July 1994 
 

Sign HSR Phase II Propulsion contract       Awarded Propulsion Contract to Pratt & Whitney/General Electric team.  	 
September 1994 
 

Verify Noise Reduction (Phase I Milestone)  Through an analytical combination of noise reduction concept test 
August 1995                                 results, verify capability to achieve Federal Aviation Regulation 
                                            (FAR) 36 Stage III noise rules (environment goal). 
 

Complete HSR Phase I Assessment of          Interim assessment of atmospheric effects of supersonic aircraft fleet 
Atmospheric Impact - September 1995         to support the beginning of considerations for an HSCT emissions standard by 
                                            ICAO (environment goal). 


Select High Lift Concept (Phase II)         High-lift concept selection based on weight, low/high Reynold number tests 
September 1995                              of 6%/2.2% models and systems integration (economic goal). 
	 

Select Airframe Subcomponent Materials      Select materials, processes and structural concepts for development 
December 1995                               of wing and fuselage subcomponent test articles based on material 
                                            performance, producability production costs and risks (economic goal). 
		 

Select Preliminary Engine Nozzle and Inlet  Selection of preliminary engine cycle, nozzle and inlet designs based on 
Designs (Phase II) - December 1995          systems analyses, aero-acoustic testing, operating cost and 
                                            environmental acceptability (environment and economic goals). 
 

Select HSCT Preliminary Concept (Phase II)  Selection of updated HSCT reference configuration for further testing,  
December 1995                               analysis, and design (environment and economic goals). 
	 

Combustor Rig Verification Tests (Phase I)  Verification of ultra-low NOx formation (goal:  5 grams/kg fuel burned) in 
March 1996                                  engine combustor sector tests (environment goal). 
	 

SLFC Flight Test Complete (Phase II)        SLFC flight experiment on F-16XL-2 completed, critical laminar flow data 
March 1996                                  acquired over a Mach number range and altitudes for CFD code validation 
                                            and SLFC configuration design code development (economic goal). 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Phase I 
 

Phase I of the HSR program has been extremely successful.  Progress has continued in assessing the potential atmospheric impact 
of HSCT aircraft.  The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) conducted a review of the Interim Assessment of Atmospheric Effects of 
Stratospheric Aircraft released by NASA and commended NASA for performing good work which has enhanced the understanding of 
atmospheric chemistry.  The NAS also recommended that further research be undertaken to allow fully informed decisions 
concerning HSCT environmental compatibility, a milestone now planned for FY 1998.  NASA's ER-2 high altitude science aircraft 
completed a series of atmospheric observations for the Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE).  
These in situ measurements tested concepts that underlie the stratospheric models used for assessment of HSCT aircraft effects on 
the stratosphere.  Revisions to atmospheric simulation models are being made which will accurately incorporate the measurement 
data.  In recognition of the advancements made in the assessment, industry participants in the HSR program have recommended 
that the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) begin consideration 
of appropriate HSCT emissions standards at the Committee's next meeting in December 1995.  As the year ended, atmospheric 
observations were being conducted in collaboration with the NASA Office of Mission to Planet Earth's ongoing field evaluation of 
ozone depletion in the Antarctic winter. 
 

In related engine technology, development of the low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) combustor technology for HSCT engines continued 
with successful tests of experimental fuel combustion chamber sectors.  Initial results achieved or exceeded the goal of generating 
no more than 5 grams of NOx per kilogram of fuel burned at supersonic cruise operating conditions.  The results show that the 
ultra-low levels previously obtained under highly-controlled laboratory conditions (flame tube tests) can transition to practical 
combustor hardware.  Noise reduction, atmospheric effects, airline direct operating costs, and overall technical risk were the key 
factors in the selection of the two best engine cycles from a pool of six candidates considered.  The 'mixed flow turbofan' and 'FLADE' 
(fan-on-blade) both show significant benefits in reducing engine takeoff noise, while also maintaining good performance at 
supersonic speeds.  Both will continue to be studied for approximately two years before selecting one for the focus of large-scale 
testing of the critical component technologies in the latter part of this decade. 
 

Phase II 
 

The HSR program Phase II activities accelerated in FY 1994 with the awarding of major contracts which will take the program 
through to completion in FY 2001.  The Airframe contract was awarded to the Boeing/McDonnell Douglas team, the Critical 
Propulsion Components contract was awarded to the General Electric/Pratt & Whitney team and the Advanced Flight Deck contract 
was awarded to Honeywell International.  During the program life-cycle, the tasks and products are integrated and focused at four 
key milestones: Preliminary Concept; Preliminary Configuration; Firm Configuration; and Product Launch Commit, with the goal of 
having increased technology readiness at each of the milestones.   
 

Achievements in advanced technology concepts for development, fabrication and testing of lightweight, high-strength and high-
temperature airframe and engine materials continued.  An array of airframe composite metal panels and organic matrix composite 
panels have been fabricated and are being subjected to structural strength tests while a process capable of fabricating up to 10 feet 
per minute of fiber/resin composite material suitable for high temperature use has been demonstrated.  Laboratory tests of Ceramic 
Matrix Composite tiles used as acoustic liners for noise suppression in the engine exhaust nozzles have demonstrated that the 
candidate development materials meet the liner strength requirements under static load conditions. 
 

Synthetic vision offers significant payoff in the operational flexibility necessary for an economically successful HSCT to takeoff and 
land in all weather conditions.  A variety of sensor data, including millimeter wave and infrared, have been combined and 
synthesized onto a single display using advanced software algorithms to provide visibility for pilots in any type of weather.              
 

A future decision by industry to develop a HSCT would require that the aircraft meet stringent certification standards.  The 
advanced technologies that would be incorporated into a HSCT pose new challenges for the current process and requirements of 
aircraft certification.  During FY 1994, NASA began to work with the Federal Aviation Administration on the potential air worthiness 
standards that would be required to develop the certification basis for a supersonic civilian transport.  A Memorandum of Agreement 
has been prepared identifying responsibilities for developing new certification processes and standards for supersonic transports 
and, in addition, a team comprised of members of each agency released a Long-Range Plan for Certification of High-Speed Civil 
Transports. 
 

U.S. aircraft industry and the Russian aircraft firm Tupolev Design Bureau signed a contract in August 1994 to use the Russian Tu-
144 supersonic civil transport as a flying testbed for conducting flight research to develop enabling technologies as part of the NASA 
HSR Program.  Tupolev will modify its Tu-144 aircraft and will conduct up to 35 test flights which meet the research needs 
determined by the HSR Program.  The flights will provide aerodynamic, flight environment, structures and handling qualities data 
on a supersonic passenger aircraft.  Ground propulsion tests will also be conducted.  The decision to use the Tu-144 was based on a 
study conducted by a team of engineers from the United States and Russia which concluded that the aircraft would be an effective 
and economical flying testbed for enabling technology development because of its size, performance characteristics and availability.  
The Tu-144 supersonic research will establish direct working relationships between aircraft manufacturers in the United States and 
Russia and also enhance the relationship between United States and Russian aeronautical agencies.  Aircraft modifications and 
mission planning are currently underway with completion of the flight tests planned for November 1996. 
 

In FY 1995, both Phase I & II activities will continue.  Initial requirements for the Advanced Flight Deck systems will be defined 
which will encompass the total operational mission profile.  The Advanced Flight Deck systems requirements include those 
concerning external visibility, flight path management, decision aids and flight deck design and integration.  Requirements will be 
defined to meet the HSR program goals of eliminating the "drooped nose" to reduce weight and to have all airport/all weather takeoff 
and landing capability.  The analysis and conceptual design of wing and fuselage structures, including establishment of design 
criteria and loads, will be completed, as well as the assessment and evaluation of the performance, handling qualities and stability 
of the HSCT reference configuration.  Finally, the assessment will be completed of the effects of a supersonic aircraft fleet on 
stratospheric ozone and atmospheric contaminants.  The analysis will be based on flight tests conducted with research aircraft, 
satellite data, and preliminary HSR engine component laboratory tests.  Based on combustor tests conducted to this point and 
projected HSCT fleet size, it is predicted that an operational HSCT fleet would have almost no effect on stratospheric ozone 
(significantly less than 1%).   
 

In FY 1996, the HSR Program plans to complete the selection of an aerodynamic high-lift concept to improve takeoff and landing 
performance based on wind-tunnel tests, weight analysis, and system integration studies.  A selection will be made of metallic and 
ceramic composite materials to be used in the engine combustor in upcoming laboratory sector tests.  Also, a selection will be made 
of materials, processes and structural concepts for the development of wing and fuselage subcomponent test articles based on 
material performance, producability, production costs and risks.  Preliminary airframe concept selection will be based upon 
projected capability to achieve Phase II program goals and impact on sonic boom, performance and weight.  Selection will be made of 
preliminary engine cycle, nozzle and inlet designs based on systems analyses, aero-acoustic testing, operating cost and 
environmental acceptability.  The preliminary engine design selection will be based upon projected capability to achieve Phase II 
program goals of NOx emissions of 5 gm/kg fuel burned and Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) 36 Stage III noise requirements.  
Each of the requirements definitions, assessments and preliminary design selections will be integrated and a selection made of the 
Preliminary HSCT Concept.  The selected concept will become the updated HSCT reference configuration for further testing, analysis 
and design.  Laboratory testing of engine combustor sectors will continue with the goal of verifying NOx emissions of 5 gms/kg of 
fuel burned.  Flight tests of the supersonic laminar flow control experiment mounted on a modified F-16XL are planned to be 
conducted and completed.  Data acquired over a range of mach numbers and altitudes will be used to validate Computational Fluid 
Dynamics (CFD) code of Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) configurations. 
 



                                                    FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996 
                                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Advanced subsonic technology.....................    89,300             125,800             188,400 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goal of NASA’s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program is to develop, in cooperation with the Federal Aviation 
Administration (FAA) and the United States aeronautics industry, high payoff technologies to enable a safe, highly productive global 
air transportation system that includes a new generation of environmentally compatible, economical U.S. subsonic aircraft that are 
superior to foreign products.  To improve the technological competitiveness of the U.S., the objective of the AST program is to 
accelerate subsonic technology development in several key areas in which the focus is on the economic value of the technologies to 
the airframe and engine manufacturers, airlines and FAA. 
 

With competition from foreign competitors greatly increasing, technology is critically needed to help preserve the U.S. aeronautics 
industry market share, jobs, and balance of trade.  Exports in large commercial transports make a significant contribution to the 
U.S. balance of trade.  However, according to industry estimates, the U.S. world-wide market share has slipped from a high of 91% 
during the 1960’s to about 67% today.  Increasing congestion in the aviation system and growing concerns about the environmental 
compatibility of aircraft may limit the projected growth.  According to an airline representative, delays  in the Air Traffic Control 
System cost U.S. operators approximately $3.5 billion per year in excess fuel burn and additional operational costs.  More stringent 
noise curfews and engine emissions standards are expected before the end of this century.   
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 

 
The program was initially planned with the full involvement of both industry and the FAA.  Close coordination exists between NASA 
and the FAA for the entire program but particularly in those areas where there is a strong agency synergy: noise, terminal area 
productivity, short-haul aircraft, environmental, and fly-by-light/power-by wire (FBL/PBW).  A management review team, comprised 
of industry and governmental representatives provided strategic oversight during the developmental stage, and now reviews annual 
progress to insure that the program continues to meet those needs.  The ten critical elements were selected on the basis of industry 
technology requirements to provide a focused and balanced foundation for U.S. leadership in aircraft manufacture, aviation system 
efficiency and safety, and protection of the environment.  In FY 1996, the AST program will be strengthened by redirection within 
the ongoing NASA aeronautics program to initiate studies in two areas vital to the future health of the U.S. aviation industry and 
aviation infrastructure: advanced air traffic technology and affordable design and manufacturing. 
 

Fly-By-Light/Power-By-Wire:  The total benefits of full-authority digital computer control have not yet been fully realized for U.S. 
civil transport aircraft.  The goal of the FBL/PBW element is to develop the technology for lightweight, highly reliable, 
electromagnetically immune control and power management systems for advanced subsonic civil transport aircraft.  The FBL/PBW 
will develop and validate technology for the confident application and certification at reduced cost.  The intrinsic electromagnetic 
interference immunity of optical technology can significantly enhance acceptability of full authority digital control.  The use of 
power-by-wire results in significant weight savings, simplifies maintenance through elimination of centralized hydraulics, provides 
for more efficient engine operation, and eliminates the complexity of current generation secondary power systems. 


Aging Aircraft:  The industry standard practice of inspecting the civil transport airframes visually for damage is labor intensive and 
highly subjective.  The goal of this element is to develop advanced technology that may be used by the U.S. airline operators and 
aircraft manufacturers to economically extend the life of high time airplanes in the commercial jet transport fleet.  The approach is 
to develop the prediction methodology necessary to calculate the residual strength in airframes and the advanced nondestructive 
evaluation technology to reliably and economically detect disbonds, fatigue cracks, and corrosion to provide the industry with the 
tools to economically address the aging aircraft structural safety concerns.  The program is strategically linked with complementary 
programs in the FAA. 

Noise Reduction:  Aircraft noise is an issue, both nationally and internationally, prompting airports to operate with strict noise 
budgets and curfews that restrict airline operations.  International treaty organizations are actively considering more stringent noise 
standards which will impact the growth.  This element, in cooperation with U.S. industry and the FAA, targets technologies to 
reduce the aircraft noise levels by 10 decibels (dB) relative to the state-of-the-art by the year 2000 for future subsonic transports.  
The approach is designed to develop noise reduction technology for source noise reduction, nacelle aeroacoustics, engine/airframe 
integration, interior noise, and flight procedures to reduce airport community noise, while maintaining high efficiency.  The 
objectives will be achieved via systematic development and validation of noise reduction technology.  The timing of the technology 
development is consistent with the anticipated timing of recommendations for increased stringency. 
 

Terminal Area Productivity:  The U.S. aviation industry is investing $6 billion over 20 years to increase airport capacity.  However, a 
gap exists between the industry’s desired capacity and the ability of the National Airspace System to handle the increased air traffic.  
Additionally, current FAA standards require reduced terminal operations during instrument-weather conditions, causing delays and 
reducing airport productivity and increasing the cost of operating aircraft.  The objective is to safely achieve clear-weather capacity 
in instrument-weather conditions by eliminating inefficiencies associated with runway operations conducted under instrument flight 
rules.  In cooperation with the FAA, NASA’s approach is to develop and demonstrate airborne and ground technology and 
procedures to reduce spacing requirements while maintaining safety, enhance terminal air traffic management, improve low-
visibility landing and surface operations, and integrate aircraft and air traffic systems. 
 

Integrated Wing Design:  Current approaches to the aerodynamic design of commercial transports rely on methods that develop the 
design of various wing components independently, which results in an aerodynamic design cycle that is both long and expensive.  
New design methodology is being developed that treats the wing aerodynamic technologies and components in an integrated 
manner.  To accomplish this, research is  conducted in test/measurement techniques and the aerodynamic disciplines of high lift, 
propulsion/airframe integration, wing design, and laminar flow control.  New concepts, design methodologies, model fabrication and 
test techniques are being developed to provide industry an integrated capability to achieve increased aircraft performance at lower 
cost.  In addition, the new methodologies will be integrated into a design and testing process that reduces the aerodynamic design 
cycle time by 25%. 

Propulsion:  In cooperation with the U.S. industry, NASA is developing propulsion technology with the objectives of increasing the 
competitiveness and market share of the U.S. propulsion industry and reducing the environmental impact of future commercial 
engines through reduced combustor emissions.  The goals of this element are to improve the fuel efficiency of future commercial 
engines by at least 8%, and reduce nitrogen oxide emissions by at least 70% over current combustor technology.  Research and 
development focuses on combustors, high pressure compressors, high pressure turbines, and high temperature disk and blade 
materials.  Analytical models and computational tools are being developed and validated in engine testing.  The products of this 
element will be incorporated into both future engine designs and derivatives or enhancements of engines currently in service. 
 

Short Haul (General Aviation/Commuter):  General aviation in the U.S. represents approximately 45% of the 9 billion air miles flown 
by all of civil aviation.  However, annual U.S. production of general aviation aircraft has fallen to approximately 5% of its 1978 level.  
In cooperation with U.S. industry through a 50/50 cost-share venture, NASA seeks to revitalize this industry through the 
development of emerging technologies to improve the affordability, safety, utility and environmental acceptability of U.S. produced 
general aviation and commuter aircraft.  Key enabling technologies include satellite navigation, flat-panel displays, small computers, 
expert systems, digital data link communications, low-cost manufacturing, and icing protection.  By reducing the cost to 
manufacture aircraft and time required to obtain and maintain safe, all-weather flying skills, expanded use of general aviation is 
expected to fuel expansion of the national economy by bringing the "off-airways" communities into the mainstream of U.S. 
commerce. 
 

Civil Tiltrotor:  While the tiltrotor aircraft has been shown to be a viable military aircraft (e.g., V-22 Osprey), insufficient research 
has been undertaken on technologies critical to civil applications such as noise, terminal area operations, safety, passenger 
acceptance, weight reduction, and reliability.  The Civil Tiltrotor element emphasizes development of technology for civil tiltrotor 
configurations, including noise reduction, cockpit technology for safe, efficient terminal area operations, and contingency power.  To 
achieve acceptable levels of external noise in the terminal area, proprotor noise must be reduced by 6 to 7 dBA (decibel weighted 
sound spectrum).  Complex flight profiles involving steep approach angles up to 15 degrees will be developed to provide an additional 
6 dBA reduction.  To enable these approaches to be safely flown under all weather conditions, integrated and automated control 
laws and displays will be developed.  The capability to recover from an engine failure requires the development of contingency power 
options that can provide single engine hover capability without excessive engine weight. 
 

Technology Integration:  To fully understand the relative payoff of emerging technologies, a systems analysis capability is essential in 
the development of a credible assessment of the impact of NASA aeronautics technologies on the U.S. industry.  As this capability 
evolves, it supports the Office of Aeronautics and NASA Research Centers in planning and managing the aeronautics program.  
Understanding the implication of NASA’s technology investment on the aviation system minimizes the time intervals from idea 
generation to implementation, to industry development, and most importantly, to technology transfer. 
 

Environmental Assessment:  The objective is to develop a scientific basis for assessment of the atmospheric impact of subsonic 
commercial aircraft.  The goals are to (1) determine the current and future impact of aviation on the atmosphere; and (2) provide 
assessment reports of future international ozone and climate to serve as the basis for possible cruise emissions standards to be 
recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization.  Overall program direction and selection of investigators will be 
guided by an advisory panel comprised of respected members of the scientific and aviation communities.  Early efforts are collecting 
information on what is known about the issues.  Future research will be directed at specific problems to reduce uncertainty in 
applied scientific knowledge.  Elements of atmospheric research (e.g. modeling, laboratory studies, and atmospheric observations) 
are being complemented by studies unique to the aviation problem (engine exhaust characterization, near field interactions, and 
operational scenarios). 
 

Composites:  The aircraft industry’s resistance to using composites is one of economics.  While the current demonstrated level of 
composites technology can promise improved aircraft performance and lower operating costs through reduced structural weight, it 
does so with increased manufacturing costs, currently twice the cost of aluminum.  The goals of the composites element are to 
reduce the weight of civil transports by 30-50% and their cost by 20-25% compared to today’s metallic transports.  This translates 
into a potential 16% direct operating cost-savings to the airlines and increases the competitiveness of the U.S. built transports.  In 
cooperation with industry and the FAA, research is performed to validate the technology for the application of new composites 
manufacturing techniques, such as through-the-thickness stitching and resin transfer molding, textile preforms and advanced fiber 
placement, on transport wings. 
 

Advanced Air Traffic Technology:  An efficient and effective air traffic management system is vital to the U.S. transportation 
infrastructure.  An U.S. airlines representative estimates that limitations result in an estimated $3.5 billion annual cost and 
thousands of hours of delays.  In close cooperation with the FAA, the objectives of this element are to develop technologies to enable 
a revolutionized U.S. air traffic capability and to develop innovative concepts for countries with immature systems.  The benefits are 
reduced costs and a larger aviation market both nationally and in countries where air traffic efficiency is limited.  NASA can play a 
pivotal role by leveraging its expertise in aircraft guidance and air traffic controls technology to develop and validate high risk 
elements of new air traffic architecture.  To assure national coordination, a blue ribbon steering committee consisting of senior 
government and private sector participants will guide these activities. 
 

Affordable Design and Manufacturing:  In response to broad-based industry inputs, NASA also plans to study, in close collaboration 
with industry, generic "building block" technologies for affordable aircraft and engine design and manufacturing processes.  Target 
areas for study include physics-based process modeling, multidisciplinary synthesis and optimization tools, product and process 
simulation and visualization, and knowledge-based systems for greater concurrency and integration of product and process 
environments. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 


Fly-By-Light/Power-By-Wire:  Fiber Optic System         Complete fly-by-light flight control system design for advanced civil 
Design - June 1995                                      transports providing the basis for subsystems to be flight tested on 


Aging Aircraft:  Verified methodology to predict the    Deliver to industry verified (under combined loads) structural integrity 
residual strength of airframe structures                analysis codes (FRANC3D/STAGS) able to predict reduction in residual 
June 1996                                               strength of a fuselage with widespread fuselage damage and accidental 
                                                        discrete source damage. 



Noise Reduction: Concepts validated for 3 decibel jet   Experimental verification through high fidelity, scale model, 1.5-6 bypass 
and fan noise reduction relative to 1992 technology     ratio engine simulators concepts (e.g. optimized fan/stator geometries, 
September 1996                                          improved nacelle duct treatment). 


Terminal Area Productivity: Develop two-dimensional     Validate atmospheric model that reproduces the transport and decay of 
unsteady model of aircraft laminar wake vortex          wake vortices near the ground through flight evaluations conducted during 
systems - June 1995                                     field deployments at airports. 


Integrated Wing Design: Swept wing suction panel        Establish hole size, spacing and orientation for optimized suction 
design criteria established - June 1996                 requirements for laminar flow aircraft. 


Propulsion: 60 atmosphere Combustion Test Rig           Operate national facility for testing large engine sector combustors and full 
completed - March 1996                                  annular combustors for regional engines. 


Short Haul (General Aviation): Execute the Joint        Establish and implement cost-sharing alliance with industry, non-profit 
Sponsored Research Agreement (JSRA)                     rganizations and government agencies based on the JSRA mechanism for 
December 1994                                           commercialization focus. 


Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor): Flight acoustic database  Acquire sufficient full-scale tiltrotor aircraft (V-22 and XV-15) noise data for 
complete - December 1995                                validation of noise prediction codes and for development of low noise 
                                                        operations. 


Environmental Assessment: Atmospheric                   Gather data from first in situ observations dedicated to subsonic scientific 
observations from DC-8 Flying Laboratory                assessment to address effects of contrails on earth’s radiation, potential 
September 1996                                          effect of aircraft exhaust on ambient cirrus, and the effect of aircraft soot or 
                                                        sulfate. 


Composites:  Wing configuration requirements            Select aircraft configuration; select targets for loads, damage scenarios, 
document - December 1996                                eight and cost. 

 
 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Fly-By-Light/Power-By-Wire:  In FY 1994, the experimental laboratory for assessing the effects of high intensity radiated fields on 
electronic systems and avionics was completed and used to validate the behavior of electromagnetic (EM) flight test instrumentation.  
Critical optical and power components, such as electrical actuators and fiber-optic sensors and cables, were exposed to a simulated 
flight environment.  In FY 1995, the EM instrumentation was ground tested on the transport systems research vehicle (TSRV) and 
will be flight tested later in 1995.  Several types of fiber-optic components and electrical actuators will be flight tested and validated 
on the systems research aircraft.  In FY 1996, the EM environment modeling code will be validated using results from TSRV flight 
tests.  A preliminary flight test assessment of the integration of basic FBL/PBW components will be completed and provided to 
industry.  The results will be incorporated in the commercial transport verification and validation plan. 
 

Aging Aircraft:  During FY 1994, efforts focused on the development of an analytical methodology to predict the residual strength of 
the fuselage.  In cooperation with several U.S. airlines and the U.S. Air Force, progress was also made in developing and 
demonstrating advanced, large-area non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to reduce cost while maintaining the reliability of the 
inspection.  During FY 1995, a portable, hand-held, battery operated electromagnetic probe for detecting small cracks in thin sheet 
aluminum, showing great promise to be low-cost and very reliable, is being evaluated by industry to identify further refinement 
requirements.  Damage tolerance tests will be conducted with various simulated fatigue and accidental damage to fully exercise and 
validate the predictive capability of the analytical methodology.  In FY 1996, the analytical tools to predict the residual strength of a 
fuselage with fatigue crack and accidental damage will be provided to industry.  Work will continue in the development of signal 
processing techniques and field demonstrations of prototype NDE systems. 
 

Noise Reduction:  In FY 1994, a key research tool, the first integrated fan noise source and propagation prediction code was 
developed and provided to industry.  Methods for reducing noise levels in aircraft interiors were validated in laboratory tests to help 
refine their application for future flight demonstrations.  Activities in FY 1995 include jet noise research on enhanced mixing nozzles 
applicable to current engine technology, testing of active and adaptive noise control techniques that ultimately will be used to 
reduce noise radiated from engines, and the use of computational aeroacoustics in the design of quieter landing gear and other 
aircraft components.  Acoustic imaging will locate the optimal locations of active noise control actuators to reduce interior noise.  In 
FY 1996, experiments will be conducted on concepts to improve nacelle duct noise treatment effectiveness.  Testing will be 
completed on concepts for a jet noise and fan noise reduction.  Other activities include the selection of an active noise control 
concept for engine demonstration, the completion of a engine noise database, the release of the community noise impact model, and 
a demonstration of an active structural acoustic control on a business aircraft.  
 

Terminal Area Productivity:  In FY 1994, in order to allow more adaptable spacing, reduced separation requirements were 
investigated by evaluating wake vortex issues and community noise constraints, and the potential for integrating enhanced aircraft 
flight management and the air traffic management systems was examined.  The replacement for the transport systems research 
vehicle (TSRV) was acquired.  In FY 1995, installation of an existing simulator and associated computer systems on the TSRV began 
in preparation for future flight tests.  In the area of improving the capacity in the airport, two-dimensional laminar wake vortex 
models will be developed.  A study to project potential landing, roll-out, take-off and taxi bottlenecks and estimates of the cost 
versus benefit of new concepts for low-visibility operations will be completed.  In FY 1996, the research flight system installation on 
the replacement TSRV will be completed and flight testing will begin.  Adaptive wake vortex separation criteria will be validated to 
provide a tool for airport-airspace planners to make decisions on spacing between aircraft. 
 

Integrated Wing Design:  In FY 1994, a large laminar flow swept wing model was designed and fabricated.  The state-of-the-art was 
established and deficiencies identified for current methods for designing wings and high-lift devices.  In FY 1995, testing of the 
laminar flow model will be completed in the 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel. Improvements were initiated in wing design methods 
based on the identified deficiencies.  A cost/benefit analysis of the impact of wing design concepts and methods on aerodynamic 
design cycle time, aircraft performance and cost will be completed.  In FY 1996, manufacturing constraints will be established for 
future low-drag, highly efficient laminar transport aircraft.  The pressure sensitive paint system will be packaged into a portable 
system for demonstration.  New concepts for improving the design process will be tested.  Comparisons of new concepts with 
conventional test techniques will demonstrate shortened wind tunnel test times and reduced design cycles for aircraft development. 
 

Propulsion:  In FY 1994, engine system studies to define optimum engine cycles and associated enabling technology needs for the 
large engine manufacturers were completed.  Similar studies to define technology needs of regional aircraft engines were initiated.  
Advanced combustor concepts were evaluated.  In FY 1995, experimental evaluation of advanced low emissions combustors is 
continuing.  Assembly of the unique high pressure/temperature combustion research rig will be completed.  Efforts have been 
initiated to improve turbine cooling technology, and improve turbomachinery aerodynamics in both high pressure compressors and 
turbines.  In FY 1996, the 60 atmosphere combustion test rig will be checked-out and ready to provide  valuable assessment of low 
emission combustors for advanced engines.  The first test is scheduled to evaluate low emissions lean direct injector concepts for 
future aircraft engines.  An evaluation of an integrated propulsion/airframe system will be completed. 
 

Short Haul (General Aviation/Commuter):  In FY 1994, an economic analysis of the status of the general aviation (GA) industry and 
the areas where technology can contribute to its revitalization was conducted.  During FY 1995, the Joint Sponsored Research 
Agreement for GA/Commuter Alliance between NASA, the FAA, and several U.S. small airplane manufacturers and suppliers was 
initiated.  A ground-based cockpit simulator used to evaluate future communications, weather and situational awareness continues 
to be assembled with prototype hardware.  Integration of simplified engine control displays into the airborne simulator cockpit 
display system will be completed.  In FY 1996, the computer operating architecture for future GA control and displays will be 
identified.  Displays and communication hardware will be integrated in the testbed.  Also, the NDE processes will be validated for 
use in certifying manufacturing of small composite components.  Icing protection system design guidelines for safe operation of GA 
aircraft will be developed. 
 

Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor):  In FY 1994, innovative noise reduction concepts for the civil tiltrotor were evaluated.  Three and four-
bladed rotor wind tunnel tests provided acoustic and aerodynamic data to establish baselines and trends for noise and aerodynamic 
performance.  In FY 1995, viable civil tiltrotor rotor noise reduction concepts are being identified for further research.  Innovative 
noise reduction concepts will be refined and the active source noise control will be evaluated for the tiltrotor configuration.  Displays 
and pilot-to-cockpit interfaces for low noise approaches of the civil tiltrotor will be identified.  During  
FY 1996, scale model acoustic testing will be completed as will the flight acoustic database.  An investigation of low noise 
procedures will begin in the vertical motion simulator and contingency engine power concepts will be selected for preliminary 
design. 
 

Technology Integration:  In FY 1994, the development plan for a systems analysis capability for the aviation system was completed.  
In addition, in-house capabilities for modeling and analyzing aircraft, engines, air traffic control, and environment were improved.  
During FY 1995, plans for implementing integration, operation and maintenance procedures will be developed and a quick-response 
database of economic parameters of the aviation system will be completed.  In FY 1996, the incremental development of the aviation 
system analysis capability will continue with the development of an executive architecture and the economic analysis module. 
 

Environmental Assessment:  During FY 1994, studies were initiated in an attempt to identify possible indicators from existing 
atmospheric observations data and to identify where additional measurements are needed.  Plans for sensitivity studies utilizing 
computer simulations of atmospheric processes were completed.  In 1995, computational capability will be developed for analysis of 
the chemical processing which occurs in the mixing of engine exhaust with the background atmosphere.  Exhaust trace chemistry 
for operational engines will be measured.  In FY 1996, the first program level assessment report on the atmospheric impact of 
subsonic aviation will be completed, leading to participation by principal investigators in preparation of 1997 United Nations 
Environment Program/World Meteorological Organization  (UNEP/WMO) ozone assessment report.  Also, the first in situ 
atmospheric observations dedicated to subsonic aviation assessment will be performed aboard the DC-8 flying laboratory. 
 

Composites:  In FY 1995, the composites element will be initiated to develop and validate at full-scale the composite structures 
technology, including validation of design concepts, structural materials, and manufacturing methods, required for manufacturing 
composite wings while saving weight and cost compared to conventional metal commercial transports.  Contracts will be awarded for 
the design, fabrication and test of a full-scale wing for the application of composites on next generation civil transports.  In  
FY 1996, based on the technology developed in the recently completed Phase B of NASA’s advanced composites technology program, 
this element will accelerate the effort to validate the application of composites to commercial transport wings by completing the 
baseline aircraft and requirements document for composite airframes, candidate materials identification, along with cost and weight 
trade and sensitivity studies. 
 

Advanced Air Traffic Technology:  In FY 1995, to ensure national coordination, a blue ribbon steering committee consisting of senior 
government and private sector participants will be established to guide activities.  In FY 1996, the effort will start with system 
concept studies addressing both airborne and ground elements of candidate system architectures through integration of aircraft 
guidance and air traffic controls technology.  Study results will provide a sound basis for future concepts and technology selection 
and for defining the next generation air traffic system requirements.  Plans for subsequent program phases include high-leverage 
technology development and validation, system simulation modeling, and  an evaluation within a real environment using actual 
aircraft and air traffic ground systems and procedures. 
 

Affordable Design and Manufacturing:  In FY 1996, in close collaboration with industry, studies will identify generic "building block" 
technologies for affordable aircraft and engine design and manufacturing processes and methods for improving test facility 
capabilities through advanced test technologies and real-time integration of the design and test environment.  Plans for subsequent 
phases would develop these tools and methodologies to dramatically reduce design and manufacturing cycle time and cost, while 
ensuring high quality.  These studies will also include methods for improving test facility capabilities through advanced test 
technologies and the real-time integration of the design and test environment through aggressive utilization of information 
technology. 
 



BASIS OF FY 1996 REQUIREMENTS 
 

                                    TRANSATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

                                                    FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996 
                                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Transatmospheric research and technology.........    20,000                  --                  -- 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Transatmospheric Research and Technology program was the NASA portion of the joint NASA/DoD National Aero-Space Plane 
(NASP) program.  The goal of NASP was to develop the technology for reusable, Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) vehicles with 
airbreathing primary propulsion, as well as horizontal takeoff and landing.  Operational aerospace planes with such capabilities 
offer the flexibility, efficiency, safety and economies of operations to revolutionize U.S. access-to-space.  
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The NASP program was jointly funded and managed by NASA and DoD.  A team of five prime contractors executed the program in 
concert with some Government laboratories and research centers.  NASP sought to advance a wide-ranging set of technologies -- 
including aerothermodynamics, propulsion, high-temperature materials and structures, hypersonic guidance and control, and 
advanced computational fluid dynamics.  The program had specific criteria by which to judge when (or if) to move from the major 
technology-development phase into building and then flying the X-30, an SSTO flight-research vehicle.  Flight was determined to be 
necessary to reach beyond the limitations of ground tests and computational analytics; flying the X-30 would also demonstrate the 
NASP technologies as integrated into an entire vehicle. 

 
MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 

 
Complete Mach 6.8 and 12 - 17 scramjet      Defined and documented improvements to scramjet performance and  
November 1994                               operability tests through medium/large-scale wind tunnel tests. 
 

Complete structural technology tasks        Defined state-of the-science through: final tests of cryogenic fuel tank and 
September 1994                              TMMC "Sigma", "BB-Beta", "Side-Shear" and H2/He/N2 actively-cooled panel, 
                                            fabrication of "Full-Scale Fuselage" panel assembly. 
 

Complete and document all NASP Government   Complete testing, analysis and reporting on: Mach 10 airframe/propulsion 
Work Package tasks                          integration; high-temperature metallic/ceramic/composites characteristics, 
December 1994                               scramjet wind-tunnel diagnostics systems, high-temperature structural sensors 
                                            (strain gages, fiber-optic systems), etc. 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

The U.S. hypersonic technology base at the end of calendar-year 1994 consisted largely of results from the NASP program.  The 
NASP team documented not only the X-30 design/technology-integration work but also an expansive array of NASP technology 
work.  The major tasks in structures and materials included: fabrication of a unique 10-by-12-foot panel of titanium metal-matrix 
composites (TMMC); thermomechanical tests of several other large TMMC panels and one of carbon-carbon; high-heat-flux tests of 
actively-cooled panel assemblies; and load tests of a unique, new 600-gallon cryogenic-fuel tank.  NASA completed Mach 10 wind-
tunnel tests of a complex, propulsion-integration model for NASP.  Mid-speed (Mach 6.8) scramjet wind-tunnel testing produced 
important performance/operability data from the NASP 1/3-scale Concept Demonstrator Engine (CDE); complementary tunnel tests 
utilized smaller-scale, scramjet models at Mach 4 to 8 conditions.  Shock-tunnel tests of large-scale, scramjet-combustor models at 
Mach 10 to 17 provided vital new information through advanced instrumentation -- including laser-based systems and a metric 
strip.  Analytic activities defined new boundary-layer instability modes and provided a series of major computational modules for 
aerothermodynamic predictions.  Technology transfer also remained very productive in FY 1994.  In 1994, Congress directed the 
conclusion of the program while it was in the technology-development phase.   



BASIS OF FY 1996 REQUIREMENT 
 

                                        CONSTRUCTION OF FACILITIES 
 

                                                    FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996 
                                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

National aeronautical facilities.................   172,000                  --                  -- 
 

    Unitary plan 11-foot wind tunnel (ARC).......    20,000                  --                  -- 
    Modifications to composite technology
    center (LeRC)................................    27,000                  --                  -- 
    Modification to NTF for reliability (LaRC)...    51,000                  --                  -- 
    New facility study/design (HQs)..............    74,000                  --                  -- 
 

Aeronautical facilities revitalization...........    31,000              22,000               5,400 
    Rehab of control systems, national full-scale 
    aerodynamics complex (ARC)...................     2,100                  --                  -- 
    Upgrade of outdoor aerodynamic research  
    facility (ARC)...............................     3,900                  --                  -- 
    Modernization of Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel 
    (UPWT) complex (ARC).........................    25,000              22,000               5,400 
 

    Total........................................   203,000              22,000               5,400 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 

 
This program continues an effort to upgrade the U.S. aeronautics facilities capability.  The U.S. has been increasingly challenged in 
world aeronautics markets for some time.  Since 1984, its share of those markets has dropped with a corresponding loss of 
numerous jobs.  It is important that this trend be reversed.  The Administration is encouraging implementation of a national goal to 
infuse the U.S. industry with the capability to develop a new generation of civil and military aircraft which will outperform the 
competing products of its international competition at comparable or lower cost. 
 

The facilities program goal is to provide the high priority facilities needed to enable development of the advanced aeronautical 
technology required to ensure superior performing and cost competitive U.S. aircraft. 
 
 
 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

In FY 1988, a $300 million Aeronautical Facilities Revitalization program was initiated to revitalize 23 of NASA's major wind tunnels.  
This program will be completed with the implementation of the final phases of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) in FY 1995 and 
FY 1996.  The UPWT is a vital national high-speed tunnel facility consisting of one transonic and two supersonic test sections along 
with supporting auxiliary equipment.  This facility is the most heavily used wind tunnel complex in NASA but its productivity has 
been limited by the 1950's era control systems and the increasing frequency of equipment breakdowns due to age and heavy use.  
The planned improvements will improve the productivity data, data quality, and reliability of this facility.  Repair or replacement of 
tunnel components that have reached the end of their useful life is required.  Also, the welds in the tunnel shell contain defects 
typical of 1950's technology and must be repaired and the pressure shell rectified.   
 

In FY 1993, a National Aeronautical Facilities Upgrade program was started.  These upgrades and revitalizations, and other 
upgrades planned in the aeronautics 5-year plan will provide the U.S. with the wind tunnel infrastructure needed to help maintain 
world leadership in aeronautics.  In FY 1994, facility studies and definition of requirements for new or drastically modified set of 
U.S. wind tunnels have been initiated. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE
 


Complete construction of            Complete construction on schedule, within budget and meeting all 
40x80 Wind Tunnel Acoustic          requirements.  Complete operational readiness review by March 1997. 
Enhancement - December 1996
 

Complete construction of            Complete construction on schedule, within budget and meeting all 
UPWT project - November 1997        requirements.  Complete operational readiness review by September 1998. 
 

Complete 11-Foot Performance        Complete construction on schedule, within budget and meeting all 
Improvements - November 1997        requirements.  Complete operational readiness review by September 1998. 
 

Complete the Composite              Complete construction on schedule, within budget and meeting all 
Technology Center - August 1997     requirements.  Complete operational readiness review by October 1997. 


Complete NTF Upgrades               Complete construction on schedule, within budget and meeting all 
September 1998                      requirements.  Complete operational readiness review by March 1999. 

 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

The National Aeronautical Facilities Upgrade program began in FY 1993.  The first upgrade, involving acoustic treatment to the 
40x80 foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center (ARC), was initiated in FY 1993 by an added appropriation to the NASA budget.  
Once completed, the upgrades will greatly improve the facilities capability for experimental measurements of noise generated by 
engines, rotorcrafts and airframe-engine interactions.  The National Transonic Facility (NTF) project at the Langley Research Center 
(LaRC) that was funded in FY 1994 is currently in the design phase.  The NTF will be enhanced by having its own drive control and 
increased nitrogen storage capacity.  These productivity enhancements will improve facility reliability and reduce test times.  Final 
design has been initiated on the ARC Unitary Plan 11-foot wind tunnel.  In this wind tunnel, the drive motors will be rewound and 
existing rotor blades will be replaced.  These enhancements, along with other productivity improvements, will reduce model 
preparation and test occupancy times as well as increase overall facility reliability.  Final design has also been initiated in the Lewis 
Research Center (LeRC) Composites Technology Center.  Once completed, the Composites Technology Center will provide the means 
to develop high temperature composite materials enabling the development of aircraft engines that are environmentally acceptable 
and economically competitive.  The modernization of the UPWT modernization project continues in FY 1995 with the final funding 
increment requested in FY 1996.  The work in FY 1995 and FY 1996 will continue on automation, flow quality, piping, pressure 
vessel and control room work packages.  The total cost of the UPWT modernization project is estimated to be $60.4 million.    
 
 
 



BASIS OF FY 1996 REQUIREMENT 
 

                                NATIONAL AERONAUTICAL FACILITIES 
 

                                                    FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996 
                                                                (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

National aeronautical facilities.................                       400,000 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

The facility studies initiated in FY 1994 as part of the National Aeronautical Facilities program examining new or modified wind 
tunnels that are mentioned in the Aeronautical Research and Technology Construction of Facilities narrative will continue in  
FY 1995.  As part of the facility studies program, $74 million was appropriated to conduct initial design studies for possible new 
wind tunnel facilities.  The industry/government team is examining all options, refining cost estimates, and advancing design to the 
point where government and industry will be able to decide whether to invest funds with confidence that the final product will fulfill 
all stated criteria and be delivered on time and within budget.  A significant cost sharing arrangement with industry is required and 
an important part of Industry's decision to invest in the National Wind Tunnel Complex (NWTC) will be based on the Government's 
commitment to substantially fund the program upfront.  The Administration is requesting that the availability of the $400 million 
appropriated in FY 1995 for the NWTC be extended until FY 1997.

 

	SAT 4