SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

                                   FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 

                                         BUDGET SUMMARY 
 

OFFICE OF SPACE ACCESS AND TECHNOLOGY                       SPACE ACCESS AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

                                SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS 
 
                                                                                             

                                               FY 1994         FY 1995          FY 1996    
                                                         (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Advanced space transportation                  109,100         162,100          193,000    
Spacecraft and remote sensing                  183,300         144,300          177,500    
Advanced smallsat technology                    12,500          61,900           33,900    
Space processing		                19,500          18,300           18,100     
Flight programs                                140,900          49,100           76,000   
Commercial technology programs                  27,800          45,800           40,400     
Launch vehicles support                         37,100          37,000           37,600   
Industry technology program                     19,700         [18,900]              -- 
Small business innovation research programs   [110,900]        123,900           129,100   
Rehabilitation of rocket engine 		  
test facility (LeRC) - COF                      12,500              --                -- 


                  Total                        562,400         642,400           705,600 




                                SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

                                     FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 

 
                                          BUDGET SUMMARY 
 

OFFICE OF SPACE ACCESS AND TECHNOLOGY                                SPACE ACCESS AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

                                 SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS 
 
 

Distribution of Program Amount by Installation 
 

Johnson Space Center                           	93,900          23,700            32,800 
Kennedy Space Center                            11,500          15,900            17,200 
Marshall Space Flight Center                    63,500         145,200           175,500
Stennis Space Center                             9,000          14,000            18,000 
Ames Research Center		                25,300          31,600            33,900 
Dryden Flight Research Center                       --             300               200 
Langley Research Center	                        39,200          55,400            79,400 
Lewis Research Center	                        73,200          59,000            87,400 
Goddard Space Flight Center                     39,300          55,700            61,900 
Jet Propulsion Center                           61,400          69,000            80,500 
Headquarters                                   146,100         172,600           118,800 
 

          Total                                562,400         642,400           705,600 



                                SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

                                      FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 

OFFICE OF SPACE ACCESS AND TECHNOLOGY	                              SPACE ACCESS AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goal of the Space Access and Technology program is to pursue, in partnership with industry and government, new and 
innovative technologies which will meet the challenges and lower the costs of future space missions.  The Space Access and 
Technology program stimulates the development of advanced space technologies which improves the international competitiveness 
of U.S. aerospace and non-aerospace industries.  The ability of the United States to compete in the global market mandates that the 
U.S. develop new and innovative technologies that will dramatically lower the cost to develop, build and launch new spacecraft.   
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Space Access and Technology program has four major purposes.  Consistent with the National Space Transportation Policy, the 
first purpose is to develop technology to revitalize access to space.  NASA will develop technology as a member of the national team 
for the next generation space transportation system with a target of reducing launch vehicle development and operations costs 
dramatically after the year 2000.  NASA will also participate with the Department of Defense (DoD) in developing technology to 
improve the competitive position of existing launch vehicles.  The program to develop the next generation of launch vehicles will 
include systems engineering and concept analysis, ground-based technology development, and a series of flight demonstrators (the 
DC-XA, the X-34 Small Booster and the X-33 Large-Scale Advanced Technology Demonstrator).  Each part of this closely integrated 
program contributes to the process of validating key component technologies, proving that they can be integrated into a functional 
vehicle, and demonstrating that they can be operated as  required to make low-cost access to space a reality.  
 

The second purpose is to provide new and innovative space technologies to meet the challenges and lower the cost of future space 
missions.  Meeting these challenges will require improved instrument detector technologies to optimize sensitivity and resolution 
across the electromagnetic spectrum.  This work involves increasing detector array sizes for all science observations and developing 
submillimeter heterodyne components for Earth science and astrophysics.  Lowering space mission costs requires demonstration of 
a new paradigm in spacecraft design-to-launch by reducing spacecraft cost fifty percent by 1997, reducing operations cost thirty 
percent by 2000, and demonstrating development-to-flight times of two years.  
 

The third purpose is to nurture and expand commercial space industries by proactively developing, demonstrating and transferring 
NASA technology to aerospace and non-aerospace applications.  Specifically, NASA is working to accomplish the following by 2000:  
develop communications spacecraft technology as a component of a global information infrastructure capable of exceeding current 
data rate transfer capabilities; stimulate a threefold market expansion of remote sensing and other Earth applications by coupling 
spacecraft and data systems capabilities to user needs; and foster five new businesses in biotechnology and materials processing 
which utilize the unique attributes of space.  In addition, NASA intends to make the commercial technology transfer network fully 
operational by 1996.  The network will give entrepreneurs access to one hundred percent of current, non-sensitive technology 
activities and opportunities. 
 

The fourth purpose is to provide successful, on-schedule, expendable launch vehicle (ELV) space launch services for all civil U.S. 
Government missions at the best price and value possible.  Funding for ELV launch services required to carry out NASA missions 
has historically been consolidated in one budget element within the Space Sciences program budget requirement.  In NASA's 
strategic planning effort over the past year, there was general agreement that the budget requests for each NASA program should 
reflect the program-specific ELV funding requirements.  This decision is reflected in the FY 1996 NASA budget.  The mission support 
costs which are not program-specific are included in the Space Access and Technology program budget. 
 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                            ADVANCED SPACE TRANSPORTATION 
 

                                                          FY 1994            FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                                       (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Advanced launch technology                                 20,000                --                 -- 
Reusable launch vehicle - systems engineering & analysis    3,500              4,600              4,700 
Reusable launch vehicle - technology program               28,400             76,900             59,300 
Reusable launch vehicle - initial flight demo prog (FDP)    2,300             47,000             60,000 
Reusable launch vehicle - FDP post-December 1996 
   continuation                                                --                 --             35,000 
Transportation technology support                          54,900             33,600             34,000 
 

        Total                                             109,100            162,100            193,000 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goal of the Advanced Space Transportation program is to develop new technologies aimed at revolutionizing access to space.  
These new technologies are targeted at reducing development and operational launch costs dramatically over the next decade, 
increasing the safety and reliability of both current and next generation launch vehicles, and increasing the reliability of spacecraft 
propulsion systems while reducing cost and weight. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

In accordance with the National Space Transportation Policy released in August 1994, NASA is taking the lead in developing the 
technology for the next generation reusable space transportation system.  The program will include systems engineering and 
concept analysis, ground-based technology development, and a series of flight demonstrators (the DC-XA, the X-34 Small Booster 
and the X-33 Large-Scale Advanced Technology Demonstrator).  
 

As directed by National Policy, the X-33 program will face two major decision points, one no later than December 1996 and the other 
by the end of the decade.  The 1996 decision will be whether to proceed with the large-scale flight demonstration, while the choice at 
the end of the decade will determine if government and industry are going to  move ahead with full-scale development of an 
operational launch system.   Both decisions will be based on criteria established in early 1995 and agreed to by NASA, OMB, and 
OSTP, with the advice of an outside panel of experts.  The program's progress toward meeting the criteria will be reviewed annually.  
A substantial portion of the funding for the program in FY 1996 through FY 2000 has been reserved in a separate budget line within 
the Space Transportation budget.  The release of these funds for obligation will be contingent on Administration agreement in 1996 
that, based on the established criteria, the program is ready to proceed into the large-scale flight demonstration phase.  
 

Each part of this integrated program contributes to the process of validating key component technologies, proving that they can be 
integrated into a functional vehicle, and demonstrating that they can be operated as  required to make low-cost access to space a 
reality.   Technologies in work include lightweight, durable, low-maintenance thermal protection, vehicle health management, 
reusable cryogenic tank systems and advanced propulsion systems.  DoD's DC-X flight demonstration program has successfully 
flown a rocket-powered vertical takeoff and landing vehicle.  NASA intends to retrofit this vehicle with new, lightweight aluminum-
lithium and composite cryogenic tanks, a composite intertank structure, modified auxiliary propulsion and power systems and 
health management sensors.  This work, to begin in FY 1995, will give an early indication of the viability of these new technologies.  
If successful, the technologies, as well as the operational lessons learned, will be applied to the other flight demonstrations.  The 
mature technical information generated by this program will then enable informed government and private sector decisions on 
whether to proceed with development of an operational next-generation reusable launch system. 
 

NASA is utilizing an innovative management strategy for the Reusable Launch Vehicle program, based on industry-led cooperative 
agreements between a variety of industry and government participants.   Those participants currently include contractors such as 
McDonnell Douglas Corporation, Huntington Beach, CA; Boeing Corporation, Seattle, WA; Martin Marietta Corporation, Bethesda, 
MD; and Rockwell International Corporation, Downey, CA.  The primary government participants are NASA's Langley Research 
Center (LARC), Ames Research Center (ARC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and DoD's Phillips Laboratory.  Each 
current partner on the RLV program is contributing manpower, facilities and funds to the technology development effort.  This cost-
sharing will continue under the two new cooperative agreements to be signed for the X-34 and X-33, with industry contribution to 
the X-34 anticipated to be at least fifty percent of the total investment in the small booster program. 
 

The DoD, specifically the U.S. Air Force (USAF), will play several key roles in the reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program.  
The cooperative NASA/USAF technology program will provide the technology base for future, related applications of both agencies.  
The USAF has technologies in reusable cryogenic tanks, thermal protection systems, and advanced LO2/LH2 engine technologies.  
In addition, the USAF will bring its expertise in aircraft operations, maintenance, and flight testing to the cooperative RLV activities.  
With these capabilities, the USAF will provide leadership in the RLV flight demonstration program by helping to develop operations 
concepts, and by performing flight test planning, range facilitation, and operations. 
 

The DoD has also pioneered some of the management principles for low-cost development and operation of experimental rocket 
powered vehicles, as demonstrated in the DC-X program.  One of the principles in reducing program cost is leaner management 
structure; therefore, as part of the effort to reduce program overhead and increase management efficiency, NASA's MSFC will be the 
host center for the RLV program, but the small program office located at the center will be directly responsible only to the Program 
Director and the Associate Administrator for Space Access and Technology at NASA Headquarters.  This management structure will 
reduce program management staff to a maximum of 12 and will eliminate two layers of management. 
 

In addition to the RLV effort, the National Space Transportation Policy calls on NASA to support other agencies and technologies in 
enhancing all means of access to space.  Therefore, the Transportation Technology Support budget element funds a variety of efforts 
to reduce the cost and improve the reliability, operability, responsiveness and safety of expendable launch vehicles, solid rocket 
motors, spacecraft propulsion systems and launch operations.  The programs funded within the Transportation Technology Support 
budget line are Expendable Launch Vehicle Cooperative Tasks, Operations/Software Technologies, Solid Propulsion Integrity 
Program (SPIP), In-Space Transportation and Engineering Capability Development.  Similar to the RLV cooperative efforts, the 
primary management concept for Transportation Technology Support efforts is to share costs and benefits between government and 
industry.  
 

NASA’s strategic goals for space transportation mandate the reduction of costs for expendable launch vehicles (ELV’s) to enable 
future missions during this time of diminishing budgets.  NASA has made significant investments in launch vehicle technologies 
and experimental facilities.  ELV Cooperative Tasks, which are conducted with the industry providing significant cost sharing, are to 
be completed in FY 1996.  However, NASA will continue to support the DoD as lead agency for implementing ELV improvements in 
areas where NASA’s unique facilities and expertise can assist the government and industry. 
 

As part of NASA's continuing effort to reduce the costs of current launch vehicles, the Operations/Software Technology program 
utilizes a core of technical experts at ARC working with the Shuttle project organizations.  The objective is to develop and 
demonstrate expert system-based technologies which will reduce the cost of vehicle processing, launch and mission operations.  
NASA efforts for next generation vehicles will also benefit from this effort through early demonstrations of relevant technologies. 
 

The purpose of the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program is to put in place the engineering capability for improving the success rate of 
US-built solid rocket motors, for mitigating and managing the motors' risk, and for enhancing the economic competitiveness of the 
solid rocket motor industry.  The SPIP strategy is to establish government/industry teams to resolve uncertainties within the 
industry via science and engineering, and to place science and engineering into the heads and hands of the nation-wide 
infrastructure of solid rocket motor designers, manufacturers, verifiers, and users.  One key measure of the program's success will 
be the number of SPIP products being used by industry.  Although NASA is the lead agency, DoD provides tests, facilities, and 
expert personnel at minimal costs to SPIP, and industry contributes independent research and development (IR&D) products as well 
as expert skills and experience.  In fact, industry provides approximately 10% - 15% equivalent funding on bondline and nozzle 
activities, and industry contributions toward the combustion simulator efforts have reduced government funding requirements by 
approximately 30%.  In accordance with the direction received in a December 15, 1994 letter from the Committees on 
Appropriations, NASA is examining alternative funding sources to allow FY 1995 funding for SPIP to be increased from the current 
level of $7.6 million to the $12.9 million directed.  The agency will inform Congress in a letter asking for a change to the  
FY 1995 Operating Plan when the source of the additional SPIP funding is decided. 
 

The goals of the In-Space Transportation technology development program are to develop and demonstrate major technology 
advances in very high performance spacecraft propulsion systems, which will reduce launch costs and increase the life and useful 
payload capability of commercial, science and military spacecraft.  For the near-term, NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has 
several ongoing cooperative efforts with spacecraft developers and users, as well as with advanced propulsion system 
manufacturers.  Additional cooperative agreements are being initiated in FY 1995 and 1996.  The major focus of this near-term 
cooperative work is to integrate innovative power and propulsion systems, particularly on small, low-power spacecraft.  These new 
technologies promise reductions in propulsion system size and weight requirements, thereby shrinking the size of  the spacecraft 
and its launch vehicle, while maintaining or enhancing the life and payload capability of the satellite.  For the longer-term, In-Space 
Transportation funds university-based analytical and experimental assessments of critical technology issues for very advanced 
propulsion and power concepts to enable a broad class of future exploration missions.  In-Space Transportation efforts also include 
the development of automated rendezvous and capture technologies to enable uncrewed vehicles to service in-space assets or re-
supply the Space Station. 

 
Several organizations are involved in the In-Space Transportation technology work.  In the area of technology for small satellites and 
for space storables, LeRC is working with several companies, including Hughes Aircraft and Martin-Marietta.  Apogee engine work is 
being done cooperatively with Atlantic Research Corp. and TRW, with strong DoD/foreign interests.  Industry (Teledesic) has an 
interest in LeRC's pulse plasma rockets for communication satellite constellations.  Industry will continue to utilize the LeRC test 
beds for specific tasks, e.g., evaluations of rocket plumes, thrust accuracy and electromagnetic interference.  The solar electric flight 
systems propulsion project was initially planned with DoD and is expected to have a continuing strong DoD interest.   
 

The Engineering Capability Development element provides for the utilization, maintenance, and productivity upgrades for the 
premiere national facilities required to accomplish the goals of the Advanced Space Transportation programs.  For example, the 
evaluation and optimization of the aerodynamic and aero-heating characteristics of the next generation launch vehicle 
configurations will require the availability of national facilities (the NASA Langley Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex and the 
NASA Ames Arc Jet Complex).  World class computational fluid dynamic analysis capabilities will be required to establish real gas 
thermochemistry and materials response effects on candidate configurations' aero performance and to design thermal protection 
systems.  

 
MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE


Release of the Cooperative        The Cooperative Agreement Notices request proposals by industry for the X-33 Advanced 
Agreement Notices for the         Technology Demonstrator and the X-34 Small Booster Flight Demonstrator. 
X-33 and X-34 
January 1995  
 

Industry proposals for the        A rapid response by industry, as well as an expedited selection process by NASA, are required 
X-33 and X-34 due                 if the X-34 is to meet program goals of first flight by late 1997, and if the X-33 program is to  
February 1995                     be ready for a decision to proceed no later than December 1996, per National Policy. 
						 

Application of second             First generation systems were commercially deployed in 1994.  Qualification-level tests of 
generation arc jets for           second generation arc jets will be conducted with industry participation.  The system will be 
commercial satellite              baselined for next generation satellites.  
station keeping 
September 1995 
 

Decision to proceed with the      Detailed criteria for measuring the readiness of the RLV program to proceed with the X-33  
X-33 Advanced Technology          ATD will be provided separately as part of this budget submission. 
Demonstrator 
September 1996 
 

Completion of Cooperative ELV     These advanced technologies will transition to the industry partners to reduce costs, improve  
Tasks:	                          reliability and/or improve payload performance of evolved ELV systems. 
 -  Testing Al-Li cryogenic tank  
    segment to failure 
 -  Demonstrating end-to-end 
    electro-   
    mechanical actuator system 
 -  Demonstrating advanced  
    diagnostic tools 
September 1996 
 

Initial Operation of SPIP Solid	  The simulator will be completed on time.  The extent of utilization of the facility will 
Rocket Motor Combustion	          also be monitored in the future. 
Simulator	 
September 1996


Complete First Flight-Ready       System weight, size, and cost targets will be met.  A cooperative flight demonstration 
Solar Electric Flight System      experiment will be initiated. 
September 1996 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) 
 

In July 1994, NASA initiated six cooperative agreements in the structures and thermal protection system area with McDonnell 
Douglas Corporation and Rockwell International Corporation.  Task areas include multiple, small-scale demonstrations of reusable 
cryogenic tank systems, thermal protection systems, and composite primary structures.  NASA also started 11 cooperative 
agreements in the advanced propulsion area with several industry partners, including Aerojet, Martin Marietta, McDonnell Douglas, 
Pratt & Whitney, Rocketdyne, and Rockwell.  Among the agreements' task areas are composite component development, integrated 
propulsion systems, tri-propellant main injectors, tri-propellant preburners, oxygen-rich turbine drives, and modular chambers.  
Preliminary design and some component-level fabrication testing was completed in FY 1994. 
 

In 1995, advanced launch vehicle concept analysis and technology development will continue.  In addition, work will begin to 
upgrade the DC-X vehicle to the DC-XA configuration and new cooperative agreements between NASA, DoD and private industry are 
to be signed to start work on the two new flight demonstrators, the X-33 large-scale demonstrator and the X-34 small booster.  In 
addition to the funds appropriated to NASA in FY 1995, the DoD has transferred $35 million to NASA, as directed by Congress, for 
the RLV program.  This amount is reflected in the FY 1995 estimates for the RLV budget elements.  These funds enable us to 
augment aerosciences, technology, concept development and preliminary design efforts which are key to a successful X-33 
demonstration program.   
 

In 1996 the RLV program will demonstrate on the ground the maturity of technologies critical to the December 1996 Single-Stage-
To-Orbit (SSTO) flight demonstrator decision.  The preliminary data base on candidate RLV systems/subsystem options must be 
sufficiently matured to support the X-33 decision.  Among these technologies are:  advanced, low-cost propulsion systems; reusable, 
light-weight cryogenic tanks and structures; light-weight and low-maintenance thermal protection systems; and vehicle health 
monitoring and maintenance systems within a highly operable vehicle system.  
 

FY 1996 will be a critical year for the flight demonstration efforts.  The DC-XA flight program will be completed by the integration of 
upgraded hardware into the vehicle, followed by a successful ground test and flight test of the integrated vehicle along with a 
comprehensive report on the performance of the technologies.  The design of the X-34 small RLV booster will be completed and 
fabrication initiated.  The selection of concept(s) for the X-33 advanced technology demonstrator will also be completed.  The 
selection is to be based on the contractor's proposals for low cost ground and flight operations, sound business 
strategies/approaches, and scalability/traceability of the concept to show viability of an SSTO.  The Administration's policy calls for 
a final decision on whether to proceed with the X-33 no later than December 1996. 
 

Existing Launch Vehicle Systems 


Major accomplishments in FY 1994 in the area of technology development and demonstrations to enhance existing launch vehicle 
systems include:  development of an automated scheduling system for Orbiter processing at KSC, providing annual savings of  
$4 million; automation of Shuttle software verification at JSC, producing annual savings of $1.5 million and reducing verification 
time from 77 to 56 days for each flight; and continued improvements to the automated diagnostic capabilities in the JSC Mission 
Control Center through the application of diagnostic expert systems and pattern recognition techniques to automatically scan strip 
charts and raw telemetry.   
 

Also in 1994, the Cooperative ELV activity has worked with industry on several Al-Li cryogenic tank projects.  A low-cost extrusion 
process was developed to fabricate net shape (0.3 inch thickness) Aluminum Lithium (Al-Li) wall panel sections for a 14 ft. diameter 
ground test article representative of an upper stage cryotank.  Al-Li weld properties were optimized and automated welding was 
developed with real time, closed-loop process control.  In addition, pathfinder Al-Li end ring frames for the 14-foot diameter test 
tank have been forged. 
 

Other Cooperative ELV accomplishments in 1994 include qualification of a 60 HP quad-redundant electromechanical actuator in the 
MSFC load simulator.  This actuator will be demonstrated in the SSME Test Bed by the end of FY 1995.   
 

The SPIP continued to expand the database and analytical tools for evaluating nozzle materials, bondlines, and motor cases in 1994.  
The SPIP team also completed the 11-inch combustion simulator testing and finished the design of a large combustion simulator 
facility. 
 

In 1995, the Operations/Software activity will expand the application of automated scheduling beyond the Orbiter Processing 
Facility at KSC to include the Vehicle Assembly Building and the launch pads.  Funds from this budget line will also be used to 
begin the development of an electronic documentation system at the JSC Mission Control Center.  This documentation system will 
eliminate millions of photocopy pages and streamline the change procedures, with expected savings of $3 million per year.   In 
addition, the Operations/Software funds will be used to apply model-based diagnostics for ground controllers to detect faults in the 
Shuttle's propulsion system and develop techniques for on-board health management.  
 

In 1995, the Cooperative ELV activity will complete fabrication of low cost Al-Li components and finish a ground test rig for the 
Martin Marietta 14-foot diameter cryogenic tank tests.  The team will utilize the Martin Marietta Integrated Fault Tolerant Avionics 
Facility to begin development of a stand alone, redundant EMA system (power source, actuator, fault tolerance and health 
monitoring) to meet Atlas Booster requirements.  Moreover, SSME diagnostic system developments in use on the SSME Test Bed at 
MSFC, as well as trending techniques (feature extraction) algorithms developed by LeRC, will be applied to the development of an 
automated propulsion diagnostic system for ground checkout of the Atlas Booster.   
 

The SPIP will complete the bondline inspection effort and complete testing of a 24 inch sub-scale combustion simulator in 1995. 
 

For 1996, the Operations/Software effort will complete ongoing Shuttle-based demonstrations and begin focusing on supporting the 
automated systems requirements of the Reusable Launch Vehicle program.  Most of the expert systems approaches applied 
successfully to current Shuttle needs are applicable to the next generation system.  ARC will work directly with the RLV industry 
partners and MSFC to develop specific areas where their expert systems capabilities can be applied.   
 

All cooperative ELV tasks (low cost Al-Li cryotank test at MSFC, end-to-end EMA simulation at Martin Marietta, and the automated 
diagnostics system demonstration at the Atlas Launch Complex) will be completed in 1996 and readied by the industry partner for 
transition to the Air Force's Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle program.  
 

Also in 1996, the SPIP will bring to closure the bondline thickness production prototype equipment and techniques, and will bring 
the contamination measurement equipment to a production demonstration level.  Combustion simulator development activities will 
be 90% completed, including the first hot firing.  Corrosion/contamination protection hardware and methods will be demonstrated. 
Alternates to the  sole source nozzle materials will be evaluated.  Selected infrastructure teams will be maintained as funding 
permits, and cultural enhancements and engineering products will be infused into flight programs. 
 

In-Space Transportation 


In-Space Transportation technology accomplishments in 1994 included the successful use of NASA-developed arc jet thrusters to 
keep a commercial (Telestar 4) satellite on station.  Due to the significant fuel weight savings, such first generation arc jet systems 
are now baselined on one type of commercial communications satellite.  A qualification-level demonstration of a higher performance, 
600-second specific impulse (Isp) arc jet was completed under a NASA/industry program and accepted for the next generation GEO 
satellite series.  A higher performance, 330-second Isp chemical thruster has been demonstrated and baselined for another type of 
commercial communication satellite.  The Solar Electric Flight Systems program was initiated to develop and flight test a 2.5-
kilowatt ion thruster system for Earth-orbiting and planetary missions.  Fabrication of a  breadboard power processing unit was 
completed.  Concepts for a high-fidelity ground simulation of automated rendezvous and capture capability have been formulated 
and a breadboard model of a video guidance sensor was completed. 

 
In 1995, solar electric flight systems design and ground test efforts will continue, with a flight test planned before 2000 to 
demonstrate the readiness of electric propulsion technology as a primary spacecraft propulsion system.  On-board propulsion will 
focus on low-power, light-weight systems for small spacecraft, including 500-watt arc jet life testing and feasibility of high 
performance monopropellant thrusters.  Assessment of very advanced propulsion concepts will continue at a number of university 
labs. 
 

In 1996, In-Space Transportation activities will include completion of the first flight-ready solar electric thruster.  For small satellite 
applications, a high pressure miniature chemical rocket, a flight-type Pulsed Plasma rocket, and a flight-type 0.50-kilowatt arc jet 
delivering 550-second  Ispwill be demonstrated.  Advanced propulsion concepts efforts will provide analytical and experimental 
evaluations of Carbon-60 as a propellant for ion thrusters and will produce a model of a Lorentz force accelerator.  For Automated 
Rendezvous & Capture, a flight-qualifiable sensor system, a three-point docking mechanism, Guidance Navigation and Control 
software, GPS software and receiver, and simulation system and target assembly will be readied for ground testing. 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                            SPACECRAFT AND REMOTE SENSING 
 

                                        FY 1994            FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                     (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Earth applications systems               57,900             49,800             71,100 
Space and planetary                      55,800             50,500             60,100 
Space platforms	                         38,100             20,200             19,800 
Partnership for next generation vehicle   2,500              5,000              7,000 
Communications systems                   29,000             18,800             19,500 
   (ACTS experiments and operations)     [7,600]            [3,000]            [3,000] 
 

      Total                             183,300            144,300            177,500 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Spacecraft and Remote Sensing program has the primary goals of developing advanced spacecraft technology and systems 
concepts to reduce cost and increase performance of current and planned missions; to enable future missions; and to support the 
commercial development of space.  The program also has the goal of establishing and maintaining technical expertise not only 
critical to the success of NASA’s missions, but also valuable to the success of other government initiatives.  
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Spacecraft and Remote Sensing program encompasses a range of technology, from far-term basic research to identify and 
exploit major new scientific and technical discoveries, through more near-term focused efforts aimed at specific user needs.  
Organizationally, the program is focused along three general thrusts emphasizing the development and delivery of technology 
products.  The first thrust, Earth Applications, focuses on scientific Earth observing systems technology to better understand global 
change and to develop commercial remote sensing as a viable new space industry.  The second thrust is technology for space 
science missions, including space physics, deep space observation and planetary exploration.  The final technology thrust supports 
developments for Earth-orbiting platforms such as occupied space stations.  All three thrusts are supported by specific activities 
implemented through cross-cutting technology areas, including power and propulsion, materials and structures, operations, 
robotics, sensors and instruments and electronics and avionics. 
 

In addition, NASA's efforts in the government-industry collaboration in automotive technologies, referred to as the Partnership for a 
Next Generation Vehicle (PNGV), are funded in this budget.   PNGV, established by the President and the "Big 3" U.S. Automobile 
manufacturers in 1993, is working to:  (1) advance manufacturing technology to improve productivity; (2) develop technology to 
improve the emissions and economy of conventional automobiles over the next 3-5 years; and (3) design and develop technology and 
production prototype vehicles to triple current fuel economy in a “Taurus/Lumina/Concorde” -like automobile within 10 years.  
NASA’s role in the PNGV is primarily to develop advanced aerospace technology with direct application to the goals of the 
partnership.  The agency also utilizes its systems experience to lead the PNGV systems analysis activity and guide overall 
investment in the most promising vehicle concepts and technologies. 

 
In FY 1995, an overarching strategic change placed a much greater emphasis on enabling technology for the next generation of 
planetary, Earth observing and space science spacecraft.  These spacecraft are envisioned to be much smaller than  traditional 1000 
kg-class spacecraft, will be launched on small to medium launch vehicles, and will also be much more autonomous than current 
spacecraft to greatly reduce overall life-cycle cost.  A key element of this technology effort in FY 1996 will be a strong emphasis on 
microsystems (instruments, avionics, etc.) to preserve spacecraft and payload performance concurrently with the reduction in 
spacecraft cost and size. 
 

The space communications program area is advancing critical communications technologies to support commercial needs and NASA 
science and exploration missions for the 1990's and beyond.  In addition to its own R&D efforts, the space communications area will 
advocate the development of related technologies in order to utilize advances in other spacecraft technology areas, such as 
propulsion and power systems, for the benefit of the space communications industry.   
 

The space communications area is organized into three major program elements:  Near Earth Communications;  Deep Space 
Communications/Terrestrial Hybrid Systems; and Applications Experiments.  The Near Earth Communications research program 
element explores Radio Frequency (RF), digital and mobile communications systems technologies in support of the commercial space 
communications industry and the needs of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.  The Deep Space Communications sub-element develops 
technologies primarily to meet the needs of special NASA missions for planetary exploration and astrophysics.  The 
Space/Terrestrial Hybrid Systems sub-element investigates the space communications portion of hybrid satellite/terrestrial 
systems, such as those to be utilized by the National Information Infrastructure.  The Application/Experiments budget element 
supports technology demonstrations of new or improved communications services, primarily through the use of the Advanced 
Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) .  The ACTS experiments program is the centerpiece of the nation's advanced 
communications development activities, emphasizing strong participation by U.S. industry and the transfer of ACTS technologies to 
U.S. industry.  ACTS is expanding capability and reducing costs through technology developments and advancements, thus 
increasing U.S. competitiveness in communications systems and spacecraft performance. 
 

Significant co-investment by industry is a basic tenet of the Spacecraft and Remote Sensing program.  Across all Spacecraft and 
Remote Sensing technology efforts, industry is expected to contribute more than 15% of total resources applied.  Substantially 
greater private investment will made in two programs:  the PNGV and the Commercial Remote Sensing Program (CRSP).  All PNGV 
activities will be co-funded by NASA and industry at approximately equal levels (except in system analysis, where NASA will accept 
about 70% of the burden on behalf of the government partners).  Projects selected within the CRSP will also be co-funded by 
industry at levels about equal to the NASA investment.  Currently, the typical level of industry co-funding for CRSP projects selected 
is over 50%.   
 

Other innovative management techniques are being utilized by the Space Environments and Effects program within the Space 
Platforms budget element.  Instead of providing base R&D funding to NASA centers, the program used a competitive NASA Research 
Announcement open to both NASA and non-NASA organizations.  A unique set of criteria was used for selection:  proposals were 
evaluated in large part (40% of the score) based on customer rankings of technology needs.   
 

NASA integrates the broad range of its Spacecraft and Remote Sensing activities by bringing together and balancing the efforts of a 
number of NASA facilities and a large cross-section of aerospace companies and universities.  The NASA Centers involved are 
Langley, Lewis and Ames Research Centers, Johnson and Stennis Space Centers, and Marshall and Goddard Space Flight Centers, 
as well as the Jet Propulsion Lab.  Major industry participants include CTA, TRW, Ball Aerospace, Martin-Marietta, Lockheed, 
Hughes and Motorola.  University contributors include Auburn University, the University of Texas, Carnegie-Mellon University, the 
University of Maryland, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University and Pennsylvania State University.    
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Complete three preliminary            System-level hybrid vehicle studies will be initiated to assess technology requirements for PNGV 
definitions                           the next generation vehicle.  The first major milestone of these studies will be preliminary 
vehicle September 1995                definitions. 
 

Ground testing of integrated          Ground testing is required on budget and 8 months ahead of original schedule to meet  
space solar dynamic                   Shuttle-Mir flight test schedule. 
power system 
1st Quarter, FY 1995 

 
Complete contamination control        The guideline will increase reliability and reduce costs for designing spacecraft by providing  
guideline for spacecraft design       design rules to control contamination to levels required for mission success. 
4th Quarter, FY 1995 
 

Complete development and              These new white and black, tailorable, electrically conductive, thermal control coatings will 
testing of new spacecraft             increase spacecraft life and reliability by mitigating charging and plasma effects from electrical 
thermal coatings                      grounding. 
4th Quarter, FY 1995 
 

Complete integration of               These databases will reduce costs and increase the accuracy of spacecraft design margins. 
databases for space  
environment effects and  
materials 
4th Quarter, FY 1995 
 
 

ACTS Broad-band aeronautical          A unique capability in live video and data transmission for commercial aviation application  
terminal experiments begin            will be demonstrated 
October 1995 
 

Complete the development of a         By increasing TWT efficiency from 35% to 50%, power and weight requirements would be  
high-efficiency (50%)                 reduced, allowing significant increases in spacecraft capability or reduced launch costs.  In 
Traveling Wave tube (TWT) for         either case, the competitiveness of the commercial satellite industry would be enhanced. 
Ku-Band (12-14 gigahertz (GHz)) 
for commercial satellite  
applications  
February 1996 
 

Cryogenic optical and random          This technology supports the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) as well as other  
vibration testing of a fully          missions that require lightweight, high performance optics. 
integrated infrared telescope 	 
test-bed 
2nd Quarter FY 1996 
 

Complete development of a             Efficient digital communications systems for the National Information Infrastructure (NII)/  
155-Mbps, high-efficiency,            Broad Band Global Information Infrastructure (GII) will be demonstrated.   
Integrated Services Digital 
Network (BISDN) modem 
July 1996 
 

Mars Pathfinder micro-rover           The first micro-rover spacecraft to be flown, it will pave the way for future planetary  
completed and flight qualified        exploration missions utilizing small rover systems. 
4th quarter FY 1996	 
 

Initial demonstration of a 800-       Sub-millimeter heterodyne astronomy missions will be supported by providing planar diodes 
gigahertz local oscillator with       that are more reliable and easier to manufacture. 
planar diodes for sub-millimeter 
astrophysics applications 
4th Quarter FY 1996 
 

Complete development and              This breadboard refrigerator/freezer is the prototype for the unit required to store biological 
demonstration of  a breadboard        specimens on the Space Station. 
refrigerator/freezer for Space  
Station  
4th Quarter FY 1996 
Deliver design guidelines for         These first guidelines for grounding and bonding composite materials will increase reliability 
electromagnetic compatibility         and reduce costs for designing and building spacecraft using composites. 
of composite structures 
4th Quarter FY 1996 
 

Deliver design guidelines for         These guidelines will provide the first common basis for design and analysis of safety-critical 
safety-critical circuits              circuits, reducing costs and improving designs.   
4th Quarter FY 1996	 
 

Complete a prototype package          This effort will demonstrate the first high-payoff, micro-electromechanical (MEMS)  
and power system for a micro-         technology to be utilized for a space application focused on Mars and Earth science goals.  
weather station for high-  
altitude Earth aircraft and 
Mars applications 
4th Quarter FY 1996 
 

Demonstrate a high performance        This low-power, low-manufacturing-cost, imaging technology relates directly to the potentially 
integrated “camera-on-a-chip”         high-volume markets such as home and digital commercial video, computer imaging, and 
active-pixel sensor                   medical imaging. 
4th Quarter FY 1996 
 

Test the components for an            Multiple, very small (silver dollar size) independent sensor systems, (with sensor, data  
integrated free-flying magne-         telemetry and battery power integrated onto single, chip-sized spacecraft) that can acquire 
tometer “spacecraft-on-a-chip”        science data and relay it back to a primary spacecraft will be demonstrated. 
4th Quarter FY 1996 
 

Complete Ranger spacecraft            A multitude of advanced robotics technologies, including advanced ground control,  
4th Quarter FY 1996                   autonomous operations, telepresence control, low-cost manipulator systems, hybrid 
                                      propulsion, and robotic servicing technologies will be demonstrated on this spacecraft. 
 

Conduct demonstrations of             A new agricultural robotics product line that will impact an international market will result. 
autonomous 100-acre  
robotic crop harvesting 
4th quarter FY 1996 
 
 

Complete development of a 20-         This work will support the satellite industry in developing less expensive satellite antennas. 
GHz System-Level Integrated  
Circuit (SLIC)/Monolithic  
Microwave Integrated Circuit  
(MMIC) 4-element phased array 
antenna system. 
September 1996 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Each budget element funds cross-cutting efforts, as well as programs within its own area of responsibility. 
 

Earth Applications Systems 
 

In FY 1994, two radar flights and the successful flight of the Laser In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) on the space shuttle 
opened a new era of active Earth sensing.  These developments, along with delivery in FY 1995 of an eye-safe laser transmitter for 
evaluation on the laser wind-sensing testbed, have laid the groundwork for an effort to reduce the mass and size of active (laser and 
radar) sensing instruments and make them compatible with the new paradigm of small space missions.  In addition, in  
FY 1995, design guidelines for using advanced composites in spacecraft structures will be completed and distributed, giving 
designers confidence in the use of these materials.  Potential technology candidates to replace pyrotechnics on spacecraft will also 
be assessed in FY 1995 to try to increase spacecraft safety.  Advanced tools for low-cost jitter analysis will be delivered to industry in 
FY 1995 to improve spacecraft designs by allowing jitter effects to be discovered early in the design process.   
 

In FY 1996, NASA will place increased emphasis on developing the sensor and instrument technology for compact, low-cost space 
radar systems that can be used with small spacecraft (incorporating deployable arrays) to increase the spectrum of space-based 
Earth observations.  A prototype integrated composite optical bench and instrument casing will be completed in FY 1996.  This 
structural article will be utilized by the Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere Using Far Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument, but will 
be applicable to many lightweight Earth-observing instruments.  Other 1996 activities include demonstration of low-cost carbon-
carbon manufacturing of complex spacecraft component shapes, a trade study of advanced solar arrays and delivery of a prototype 
instrument vibration isolation system for Earth-observing spacecraft. 
 

Space commercialization will be promoted by continued support for the Commercial Remote Sensing Program (CRSP).  The CRSP is 
the only government program focused specifically on working with the commercial sector to develop remote sensing as a viable space 
industry.  To date, the program has involved over 150 participants in more than 50 projects.  In FY 1994, 12 cooperatively funded 
awards were made as part of the Earth Observing Commercial Application Program (EOCAP),  and eight more new awards were 
made in FY 1995 (six of which were to small businesses).  In FY 1996, CRSP will continue with an emphasis on exploiting the 
technology products and opportunities offered by the two SSTI spacecraft.  Currently, about 25 projects have been identified to 
transfer this capability to industry. 
 

Space and Planetary 
 

In FY 1994, NASA competitively selected an industry concept for an advanced infrared telescope with twice the collecting area, half 
the mass, and one third the diffraction-limited wavelength of the previously flown Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS).  In FY 1995, 
an infrared telescope technology test-bed will be delivered to the JPL cryogenic optical test facility.  In FY 1996, the test-bed will 
undergo cryogenic optical and random vibration testing.  This technology work is critical to the development of the planned Space 
Infra-Red Telescope Facility (SIRTF) initiative in the Space Science program. 
 

In FY 1995, OSAT will complete assembly of a 10-kilogram (kg) micro-rover for the Mars Pathfinder mission.  The rover will  be used 
to provide images of the lander to assess its condition on the planet’s surface.  The rover will also carry an alpha-proton-x-ray 
spectrometer to determine the composition of rocks and soil samples, and it will conduct multiple technology experiments to lead 
the way for routine use of small rovers to explore Mars.  By the end of FY 1996, the micro-rover flight unit will be space-qualified 
and delivered for integration into the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft in preparation for a scheduled December 1996-January 1997 
launch. 
 

Space Platforms 
 

In FY 1994, analysis of data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was completed.  The LDEF data analysis is one 
component of the larger technical area of space environment and effects.  The Space Environment and Effects program was initiated 
in FY 1995 as a follow-on to LDEF and is focused on reducing the design and operations margins needed to account for 
uncertainties in the environment and effects of space.  Products delivered in FY 1995 include: a contamination control guideline for 
the design of spacecraft; the completed development of white and black, tailorable, electrically conductive, thermal control coatings; 
and an integrated database for environmental effects and spacecraft materials.  The coatings are particularly noteworthy, because 
no conductive coatings have been available before this time to reduce either the structure floating potential or spacecraft charging (a 
significant cause of spacecraft failures in geosynchronous orbit).  In FY 1996, customers will receive design guidelines for safety-
critical circuits, as well as for electromagnetic compatibility when using composite structures.   Without these guidelines, each 
program has been determining its own, independent approach for the design of safety-critical circuits, and program managers have 
been  reluctant to use the lighter-weight composite materials due to lack of information about procedures for use in spacecraft 
design.  The safety-critical circuits work is a joint effort with the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q), with funding in 
this budget element to be used for technology testing and development. 
 

Among the other Space Platforms accomplishments and plans for FY 1995 is the first ground test of an integrated space solar 
dynamics power system.  Due to the criticality of the test results to the solar dynamic flight experiment on Shuttle-Mir, the testing 
was accomplished in early FY 1995, eight months ahead of schedule, and on budget.  A contract for the demonstration and delivery 
of a breadboard prototype refrigerator/freezer for biological specimens for Space Station was also initiated in FY 1995.  The 
development and demonstration of this breadboard prototype will be completed in FY 1996, allowing construction of flight units 
based on the results of prototype testing.   
 

 
Partnership for a Next Generation Vehicle 
 

Several projects have been developed between NASA and the automobile manufacturers that are planned to continue through  
FY 1996.  NASA and industry partners will develop advanced engine sensor technology based on NASA work in silicon-carbide 
electronics for aircraft applications.  The team will develop a concept for a thermoelectric generator to reduce engine loads, based on 
work previously conducted by NASA for space nuclear power generation.  An improved, fast starting catalytic converter system using 
technology developed for the space shuttle thermal protection system will be pursued to reduce engine emissions.  Metallic coating 
technology to reduce cylinder blow-by, using technology developed for rocket engines, will also be examined.  Finally, for hybrid 
electric vehicles, the partners will work on advanced power electronics based on technology developed for fly-by light, power-by-wire 
aircraft, for the space station power system and for advanced spacecraft power management systems.  NASA will also continue to 
lead the PNGV systems analysis activity to guide overall investment in the most promising vehicle concepts and technologies. 
 

Space Communications 
 

By the end of FY 1995, the space communications program will have accomplished an extensive number of ACTS experiments.  
Some of the most unique experiments will have been performed in the areas of tele-medicine, tele-education and demonstration of 
high-data-rate transmission via satellite.  In FY 1995, the high-data-rate terminals will be completed and the experiments started.  
The experiments are at data rates from 155 Mbps to 622 Mbps.  This is the first time that such data rates will have been 
transmitted through satellites. Under the technology program during FY 1995, the development of the Broad-Band Aeronautical 
terminal will be continued for use in experiments with ACTS in FY 1996.  This element of the program involves the airlines and the 
commercial aircraft industry.  The program has already demonstrated the feasibility of 20 GHz System Level Integrated Circuit 
(SLIC)/MMIC antenna systems.  In addition, the digital portion of the program has completed the development of a very high data 
rate (800 Mbps/450 megahertz (MHz)) modem.  The Optical communications Phase A study has been completed by the two industry 
teams (led by Motorola and Ball Aerospace).  Moreover, the technology program is focusing the research elements, with inputs from 
industry, to address technologies needed to support the role of satellites in the national information infrastructure (NII)/ global 
information infrastructure (GII). 
 

Cross-Cutting Activities 
 

Among the cross-cutting activities, the space power program will develop component technology and systems concepts for high-
efficiency, compact power systems.  The program is focused on solar power generation, chemical storage, thermal management, 
environmental interactions and power management and distribution.  In FY 1995, program emphasis was directed toward 
applications for small, low-cost, Earth-orbiting and planetary spacecraft.  In FY 1996, an advanced power system architecture will 
be developed for a technology flight experiment.  This architecture is highly modular, fault tolerant and scaleable.  In the  
laboratory, this design has demonstrated performance levels of 97% efficiency over a power range of 0.5 kilowatt (kW) to 5.0 kW.  
This compares with an average efficiency of 90% over this range for current systems.   In support of deep space and planetary 
surface missions, electronic devices capable of operating at 10 degrees Kelvin (K) will be characterized and an advanced power 
converter, compatible with electric propulsion systems, will be demonstrated to be capable of operating at temperatures 50 degrees 
Celsius (C) higher than current systems. 
 

In another cross-cutting effort, the sensors and instrument program will continue to work with industry, universities, and other 
government laboratories to develop instrument technologies for Earth and planetary science, astrophysics and space physics 
applications.  Demonstrations in FY 1994 and 1995 of large-format infrared arrays with improved producibility for both Earth 
science and astrophysics mission applications will enable the shift in emphasis to new areas in FY 1996.  These include 
development of uncooled infrared arrays as well as large-format visible, ultraviolet, x-ray, and high-energy detector arrays.  For 
sensitive astrophysics observations, demonstration (ahead of schedule) in FY 1994 of a 600-GHz sub-millimeter mixer enabled 
continued progress towards an 800-GHz capability in FY 1996.  For Earth science applications, the development in FY 1995 of 
several local oscillator approaches for the measurement of the hydroxyl radical at 2.5 terahertz will lead to  development of the most 
promising approach in FY 1996.  Development of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) components in FY 1994 and 1995 will be 
followed in FY 1996 by the completion of a prototype package and power system for a Mars/Earth upper atmosphere micro-weather 
station, demonstration of a high performance integrated “camera-on-a-chip” active pixel sensor for miniature imaging systems, and 
test of the components for an integrated free-flying magnetometer “spacecraft-on-a-chip.”   
 

The cross-cutting operations program is focused on reducing overall mission costs by improving operations of both spacecraft and 
ground systems.  The program encompasses artificial intelligence applications to reduce direct dependence on human operators.  
The operations program also supports advanced data analysis and retrieval technologies to improve the return and extraction of 
both science data and operating performance data, which contain critical information on spacecraft  health.  In FY 1994, the 
Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer mission operations office validated automated monitoring technology developed by this program to 
reduce the total spacecraft operator hours by 60%.  In FY 1995, the program was refocused on technology for small, highly 
autonomous spacecraft.  In FY 1996, technology will be demonstrated to fully standardize space mission control architectures for a 
completely autonomous, small spacecraft.  Mission control functions to be automated include onboard command sequence 
development and validation for autonomous maneuvers and science instrument control, as well as techniques for onboard reduction 
and down-linking of data with a million-to-one reduction in down-link costs. 
 

In FY 1996, the robotics and space materials/structures/environmental effects cross-cutting programs will primarily emphasize 
applications for Earth orbiting platforms.  Specifically, the robotics program will complete the development and integration of the 
Ranger spacecraft, in preparation for an early FY 1997 launch.  Ranger will be an advanced technology flight experiment which will 
demonstrate technologies for robotic spacecraft servicing, remote ground control, Space Station servicing, and commercial space 
operations.  The robotics program will also continue development of the next generation of planetary surface micro-rovers, targeting 
a 50% reduction in rover mass and volume.  In addition, the program will initiate development of a set of new technologies for 
planetary and small-body sample collection and preservation.  In FY 1996, the space environmental effects program will deliver a 
conductive paint to dissipate harmful electrical charges from spacecraft.  This will be one key near-term product of an NASA 
Research Announcement (NRA) that selected 19 projects in FY 1995.  Also in FY 1996, six space environmental experiments will be 
flown, and construction of a materials exposure facility will be initiated to be flown early in Phase II of the International Space 
Station. 

 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 


 
                                               ADVANCED SMALLSAT TECHNOLOGY 

 
                                                FY 1994            FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                         (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Small spacecraft technology initiative           12,500             61,900             33,900 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The major goals of the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) are to demonstrate how to reduce the cost and development 
time of space missions for science and commercial applications; to demonstrate new design and qualification methods for small 
spacecraft, including use of commercial and performance-based specifications and integration of small instrumentation technology 
into bus design; and to proactively promote commercial technology applications. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 

 
NASA is capitalizing on recent U.S. industry technology developments in the early generations of light-weight satellite concepts and 
critical subsystem component technology.  These developments have demonstrated the potential capability for small spacecraft 
design methodology to greatly reduce the cost of civil and military space missions.  At the present time, international competition to 
design and launch more advanced commercial spacecraft for remote sensing and communications is impacting market opportunities 
for current products of the U.S. space industry.  This major national effort will exploit the “next generation” of miniaturization 
techniques for spacecraft components, advanced instrumentation, and sensors in order to integrate them into U.S. advanced design 
concepts. 
 

By utilizing highly integrated teams of industry, small business, academia, and government technologists, SSTI will demonstrate on-
orbit, in a fast-track time frame, advanced technologies for future space systems and will develop new ways of conducting business 
that are unfettered by government specifications and excessive oversight.  The advancement of small spacecraft technology also 
provides a mechanism to establish new opportunities in technology transfer for development of commercial products.  The industrial 
sectors for possible commercial applications include transportation, medical, manufacturing, and consumer products.  SSTI 
includes a focused effort on proactive insertion of technology into new commercial products and creation of new business 
opportunities for U.S. companies.  This program will greatly enhance the competitive position of the U.S. spacecraft industry in the 
world space market in addition to enabling lower cost and more frequent space missions. 
 

NASA currently has contracts for the design, development, production and launch of two advanced smallsats.  The “Clark” 
spacecraft is being built by CTA Incorporated of Rockville, Maryland.  The “Lewis” spacecraft is being built by TRW and managed out 
of their Chantilly, Virginia office.  These innovative, cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts contain clauses which should mitigate any cost 
overruns.  For example, for every dollar the contractor overruns, an equal amount will be reduced from the available fee, and for 
every month that the contractor does not meet the launch date, one sixth of the available fee will be reduced.  The integrated 
development team concept was emphasized.  This resulted in a significantly larger percentage of small and small disadvantaged 
business involvement. 

 
MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Mission Operations Plan/              Must have a clear agreement on the mission and the operations of the mission early enough  
Design Reference Mission              to establish a data collection policy, a data archiving system, and a spacecraft tasking policy. 
1st Qtr. FY 1995	 
 

Detail Design Concurrence             Early concurrence of the detailed designs is critical to the process of building a spacecraft. 
1st Qtr. FY 1995                      The designs must be frozen in order to build the spacecraft without schedule slippage and 
                                      cost overruns. 

 
Industry Workshop on                  This milestone is necessary to fulfill the commitment to the spacecraft industry that NASA 
Spacecraft Design                     would share the spacecraft design processes being implemented. 
3rd Qtr. FY 1995	 
 

Instrument Acceptance/Delivery        Instrument acceptance and delivery at this time is critical to meeting the flight schedule. 
1st Qtr. FY 1996	 
 

Concurrent Integration Complete       Completion at this time is necessary to meet the flight schedule.  A small schedule  
2nd Qtr. FY 1996                      contingency currently exits to accommodate any small, last minute schedule adjustments. 
 

Ship both Spacecraft to Launch        Shipment of the spacecraft at this time is necessary to allow sufficient time to mate the  
Site & Launch Site Operations         spacecraft with the launch vehicle and prepare for the launch. 
3rd Qtr FY 1996	 

	 
Launch of both Spacecraft             Adherence to this milestone allows NASA and industry to meet the commitment for a 24- 
June & July 1996                      month period between contract initiation and launch of the spacecraft and provides the 
                                      primary metric for determining the amount of any award fee. 

 
Initial On-Orbit Operations           Initial on-orbit operations must begin at this time to meet the terms of the contract and meet  
4th Qtr. FY 1996                      the urgent need for timely Earth observation data. 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

The contracts for the two spacecraft were signed in June and July 1994.  They are being managed out of NASA Headquarters by a 
small program office of about five full-time-equivalents. 


In FY 1995,  the detailed design will be frozen and hardware will be built.  A spacecraft industry workshop on spacecraft design will 
be held, which will share the design processes being used for SSTI.  Two-thirds of FY 1996 will be utilized to complete the 
integration of all systems, technologies, and instruments on the spacecraft.  Lewis and Clark will be completely tested, delivered, 
and integrated with the launch vehicles at the launch site.  Launches are planned for June and July 1996 for Clark and Lewis, 
respectively.  Initial on-orbit checkout of the spacecraft will be completed during the 4th quarter of FY 1996, as will the initiation of 
experiments. 
 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 


 
                                            SPACE PROCESSING 

 
                                      FY 1994            FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                  (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Materials processing                   11,800             11,000             10,900 
Biotechnology                           7,700              7,300              7,200 
Space station utilization                  --            [15,000]           [37,100] 
 

	Total                          19,500             18,300             18,100 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Space Processing program has three major goals.  The first goal is to foster the development of new products using the unique 
micro-gravity and vacuum attributes of space.  These new products can either be produced in space, or be the result of new 
approaches to ground-based commercial technologies using insights gained from space flight.  The second Space Processing goal is 
to increase U.S. business participation and investment in space-linked commercial goods and services in order to benefit the U.S. 
industries involved and the economy as a whole.  The third space Processing goal is to provide the opportunity for students to 
engage with industry in space program activities.  
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Space Processing program is conducted in partnership with industry, universities, state governments and other Federal 
agencies.  The program's purpose is to increase the number of products and services that utilize the attributes of space.  To reach 
new partnership agreements, the program will use the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDSs), specific project 
centers, such as Vanderbilt University, and several NASA field centers (Ames, Langley and Lewis Research Centers and Marshall 
Space Flight Center).  These program bases at universities and NASA field centers provide excellent opportunities to seek numerous 
and varied industrial affiliations.  The Space Processing program provides the required access to experiment facilities and offers 
frequent access to space, utilizing the Shuttle mid-deck, SPACEHAB, Spacelab and Wake Shield facilities.  Such access is 
prohibitively expensive for most single corporations or small business, and this barrier to entry has greatly retarded the commercial 
development of space-linked products.  Through the cost-sharing partnerships between NASA, the universities and industry offered 
by the Space Processing program, private enterprises of all sizes are able to afford the research most important to the development 
of space-linked commercial products.   
 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 

 
Alpha Interferon Experiment           This protein crystal experiment, carried out by the CCDS at the University of Alabama-  
STS-63 and STS-70                     Birmingham and industry partner Schering-Plough, could result in a more efficient 
February 1995/June 1995	              treatment for such diseases as leukemia, Kaposi's sarcoma, venereal warts and chronic 
                                      hepatitis B and C. 
 

Micro-encapsulation of                This project at Vanderbilt University will isolate and micro-encapsulate pancreatic islets to  
Pancreatic Islets for Diabetes        allow improved treatments for diabetes.  Transplantation of encapsulated islets has already 
Large animal trials begin April	      been accomplished in small animals, with large animal transplants the next step.   
1995; Small animal trials end, 
October 1995	 

 
Flight experiment to develop new      Langley Research Center and industry partner Paragon Vision Sciences Corporation are  
contact lens material on STS-63	      working  to develop a better contact lens material with greater stability, increased oxygen flow 
February 1995                         and greater retention of liquid. 
 

Metal Sintering Experiment on         The CCDS at the University of Alabama-Huntsville (CMDS) is working with industrial 
STS 63                                sponsors, including Kennametal, and Wyle Labs, to improve knowledge of defect-trapping 
February 1995                         behavior under micro-gravity conditions for sintered composites.  The information will improve 
                                      tool quality, thus leading to greater competitiveness of the U.S. machine tool industry. 

 
Wake Shield Facility on STS-69        The CCDS at the University of Houston (the Space Vacuum Epitaxial Center (SVEC)) and  
July 1995                             industrial sponsors such as AT&T Bell Labs and American X-tal Technology are using this 
                                      re-flight of the Wake Shield Facility for epitaxial growth of high-quality, thin-film 
                                      semiconductors in "ultra vacuum."  Applications include advanced, high-speed optical and 
                                      high-frequency devices.   

 
Zeolite crystal growth Spacelab       Marshall Space Flight Center and Worcester Polytech Institute will be growing enhanced  
experiment                            zeolite crystals during this flight.  These crystals would have application in the 
September 1995                        petrochemical, electronics, oil and water treatment industries.  

 
Develop first Factor D                The CCDS at the University of Alabama-Birmingham is working with Bio Cryst to produce  
compound for clinical trials          this compound in-vitro in order to create a drug to enhance immune system capabilities.   
December 1995                         Phase I clinical trials will be at their mid-point by December 1996. 
 

 
 
Develop drug to combat                The CCDS at the University of Alabama-Birmingham is working with Bio Cryst to design a 
Influenza Virus Neuraminidase.        more efficient, less toxic drug to combat this virus.  The work will require a series of Shuttle 
First compound to clinical trials     flights in 1995 and 1996.  Phase I clinical trials will be at their mid-point by December 1996.  
December 1995. 

 
First clinical trials using space     LEDs initially developed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison for plant growth in space  
technology Light Emitting Diodes      have led to new medical devices by industry partner Quantum Devices Inc., which offer 
(LEDs) for medical purposes           potential for treatment of psoriasis and brain cancer. 
January 1996	 

 
ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

In FY 1994, the Space Processing program completed 24 flight experiments utilizing Shuttle mid-deck lockers, SPACEHAB, and the 
first flight of the Wake Shield Facility.  These experiments provided information for technology developments in several industrial 
areas, including pharmaceuticals, medical devices, agriculture, ceramics and metallurgy.  For example, the growth of protein 
crystals in space allowed the characterization of alpha-interferon and Factor D, which could result in advanced drugs.  As a result of 
another experiment, the encapsulation of pancreatic islets could lead to new treatments for diabetes.   
 

In FY 1995, the second flight of the Wake Shield Facility will demonstrate epitaxial growth in free-flyer mode.  The flights of 
Spacehab-3 and USML-2 will include experiments involving protein crystal growth, metal sintering, physiological testing, fluids 
mixing, biomedical applications, zeolite crystal growth, and plant growth.  In the protein crystal growth experiments, an attempt will 
be made to regulate the growth of the alpha-interferon crystal, thus yielding a more effective, slower-released protein for 
pharmaceutical use.  Work on polymers could result in clinical trials of new contact lenses developed by Paragon Vision Sciences 
Corporation.  The ECLIPSE liquid metal sintering experiment scheduled for SPACEHAB-3 will process samples for a full hour, a 
duration essential for providing the defect trapping information which will enable comparisons with sintering processes on Earth. 
 

In FY 1996, additional proteins will be flown and characterized to provide design data for better drugs for human use.  In the 
continuation of the diabetes micro-encapsulation project, larger animal trials will begin bringing us closer to understanding the 
dynamics that are necessary for human trials.  The clinical trials of photo-kinetic therapy using a Light Emitting Diode (LED) light 
source to treat a psoriasis will be concluded.  The SPACEHAB-4 flight is expected to provide float zone single crystals of GaAs and 
GaSb for advanced electronic applications such as faster computer processing. 
 

In addition to the near-term applications, the Space Processing program plans to work with its centers and their industrial partners 
to capitalize on the results from these experiments to complete planning for the commercial utilization of the Space Station.  The 
intent is to focus resources on those applications and processes which show the greatest possibilities for commercial success. 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 
                                                                        FLIGHT PROGRAMS 
                                                                                                                      
 
                                                     
                                                          FY 1994           FY 1995           FY 1996 
                                                                     (Thousands of Dollars) 
 


Program definition                                            500                --                 -- 
Flight experiments (in-space tech experiments program)     29,100	     30,600             30,100 
Space station utilization                                      --            15,000             37,100 
 

Experiment carriers and transporters                      107,200             2,000              8,100 
	COMET                                              21,700 
	CMAM                                               85,000                --              8,100 
	Sounding rockets/aircraft                             500             2,000	 
 

Experiment preparation, integration & mission 
	management                                          4,100             1,500               700 

 
	Total                                             140,900            49,100            76,000 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The primary goal of the Flight Programs budget element is to support the development and launch of flight experiments which will 
validate advanced space technologies, promote the creation of new knowledge, expand learning opportunities for students, and 
produce new jobs, products, and industries.  The primary goals of the In-Space Technology Experiments Program (IN-STEP) funded 
in the Flight Experiments budget element are:  to reduce the cost and risk associated with future space missions; and to improve 
U.S. Industry competitiveness by developing and operating the innovative flight experiments required to validate advanced 
technologies or investigate space environmental effects.  A secondary goal of the IN-STEP is to support U.S. educational objectives 
through the use of the “fast-track” student experiment program.   
 

The goal of the Space Station Utilization program is to support the development and operation of space processing and technology 
research using space stations as long-duration orbital facilities.  The long-duration space experiments created by the Space Station 
Utilization program will allow development of new products for both aerospace and non-aerospace applications, and for both 
commercial and government use.  An additional goal for the Phase I Space Station experiments is to reduce risk for follow-on Phase 
II/III Station experiments. 
 

The goal of the Commercial Mid-deck Augmentation Module (CMAM) contract with SPACEHAB, Inc. is to stimulate industry 
participation and investment in the commercial development of space by providing additional mid-deck-type accommodations. 



STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

In FY 1996, almost 90% of the Flight Programs funding supports the development of flight experiments in the IN-STEP and Space 
Station Utilization programs.  The remaining 10% of the funding provides for the balance of the accommodations leased in the  
SPACEHAB Commercial Mid-deck Augmentation Module (CMAM). 
 

Periodic open, competitive solicitations are utilized to ensure that the best, most innovative, and most relevant experiments from 
industry, academia, and government agencies are selected for the IN-STEP program.  The open competition also ensures the 
opportunity for diverse involvement in the program.  IN-STEP experiments are selected through a peer review competition based on 
technical categories and requirements developed in consultation with industry, other government agencies, and NASA program 
offices.  At the end of the definition phase, the experiments are reviewed by an independent panel for relevance, performance, cost, 
and schedule to determine if they should be authorized to proceed into the next phase of development (i.e., Phase C/D).  If an 
experiment is projected to exceed either its cost, schedule, or performance guidelines, a special review is conducted to consider 
termination of the experiment.  In addition, a “fast track” category was established in the 1992 IN-STEP solicitation that provides 
graduate students the opportunity to develop and fly space experiments to satisfy the needs stated in the solicitation as well as to 
support their educational plans (e.g. doctoral thesis). These “fast track” student experiments are peer-reviewed and ranked with the 
non-student proposals but are limited to a development cost and schedule of $200,000 and two years respectively. 
 

The Space Station Utilization program is organized into three phases.  In Phase I, experiments will be selected and flown on the 
Shuttle-Mir flights to reduce risk and validate technology for Phase II/III International Space Station systems and payloads, as well 
as to conduct space processing research.  Phase I will include eight Shuttle-Mir payloads, most of which use existing hardware or 
processes.  As a result, one major challenge is to accommodate unique Mir integration and operational requirements while delivering 
high-quality hardware on schedule.  Two of the payloads also require coordinated ground preparation with the Russians:  The first 
is the Liquid Phase Sintering Experiment which uses a Russian furnace.  The second, the Energy Module (Solar Dynamics), is 
funded jointly by Space Access and Technology and the Space Station programs.  The joint development with the Russian Space 
Agency and includes both U.S. and Russian hardware.  Each payload will be provided a set of milestones established by the Space 
Station program.  The cost and schedule performance for each payload will be monitored closely to ensure that the milestones will 
be met with quality hardware, on time and within budget. 
 

The Phase II/III Space Station Utilization program involves two main thrusts.  The first is to select and develop space processing and 
technology payloads, and the second is to define and develop common lab equipment and facilities for use on-orbit by payloads from 
multiple sponsor organizations.  The Phase II/III payload selection process is designed to ensure that the mission and goals of the 
NASA Strategic plan and the Space Technology Enterprise are supported by the selected payloads.  Moreover, Space Station 
Utilization planning will be done in close coordination with other user organizations to ensure optimum use of NASA resources.  The 
common equipment and facilities will also be developed in close cooperation with these other organizations.  For example, the NASA 
Offices of Space Access and Technology and Life and Microgravity Science and Applications have already defined a common set of 
lab equipment, including a special Space Station EXPRESS rack that will facilitate and speed the preparation of payloads for 
launch.   

 
The Space Station Utilization program goal will be achieved by involving all sectors of the US technology development community 
through industry/university/government partnerships.  The Centers for the Commercial Development of Space are 
university/industry/government partnerships.  They are usually centered at a university, which receives a modest grant from NASA, 
provides expertise and serves as the focus for industry to extend their R&D into space.  The Centers receive a significant percent of 
their resources for this program as cash and in-kind services from industry.  Access to space is extremely expensive in the context 
of industrial R&D; however, the attributes of space cannot be duplicated effectively on the ground.  Thus, industry must have space 
access to develop their unique products or to obtain data leading to the development of such products.  The Space Station 
Utilization program encourages the teaming of a number of industrial, university and government organizations by providing them 
access to space for a relatively modest investment of cash and/or in-kind services.   
 

The strategy for implementing the Flight Programs budget includes a series of management targets aimed at attaining the most 
return for the government's investment.  One of these targets is that experiment results will be successfully transferred to the user 
and baselined, or used in future commercial endeavors or NASA missions, within two years from completion of the experiment.   In 
addition, a minimum of 60% of IN-STEP funds will be provided to industry and universities, and experiment developers will reflect 
the diversity of America and include both big and small businesses and universities.  The IN-STEP program must also be in 
compliance with agency goals for cost and schedule control.  Similarly, the CMAM contract of leased accommodations must 
continue within cost and the two SPACEHAB/CMAM missions must perform successfully. Finally, the results of the "fast track" 
student experiments must provide valuable information to both NASA and industry and the results must be used to support student 
doctoral theses.     

 
MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

SPACEHAB-03 commercial                SPACEHAB flights provide access to space for continued validation of various new experiments
                                      commercial technologies and for Space Station risk reduction experiments. 

February 1995 
 

Mir Optizon furnace                   NASA researchers will work with the Russians to prepare for the use of a Russian Optizon   
experiment procedures                 furnace in the Liquid Phase Sintering metallurgy experiment.	 
developed in Russia 
February 1995 
 

Initial EXPRESS Rack delivered        This rack will be flown on the Shuttle to validate the fast and easy payload integration planned  
April 1996                            for the Space Station. 
 

OAST Flyer mission on STS-72          IN-STEP experiments will obtain the first actual measurements of space contamination,  
September 1995                        demonstrate an innovative technology to provide autonomous closed-loop control of 
                                      spacecraft, and validate a new inflatable antenna technology to reduce mass and volume. 
 

 
Energy Module (Solar ) Dynamic        This is a joint NASA/RSA risk mitigation experiment. 
hardware shipped to Russia  
for integration 
February 1996 

 

Flight of Commercial Generic          This facility will be used to validate a number of new commercial bioprocessing technologies  
Bioprocessing Apparatus with          to meet the needs of the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. 
industrial samples on STS-76 
March 1996 
 

Liquid Phase Sintering                This metal sintering experiment will use the Russian Optizon furnace to investigate the defect- 
experiment on Shuttle-Mir             trapping behavior of sintered metals in micro-gravity. 
Mission 3 (STS-76) 
March 1996 
 

SPACEHAB-04 commercial                SPACEHAB flights provide access to space for continued validation of various new commercial 
experiments                           technologies and for Space Station risk reduction experiments. 
April 1996 
 

Commercial Protein Crystal            This experiment will further develop capabilities to grow unique protein crystals in space. 
Growth experiment on	 
Shuttle-Mir Mission 4 (STS-79) 
August 1996 
 

Materials in Devices as               This experiment will test new super-conducting materials in space. 
Superconductors experiment 	 
on Shuttle Mir mission 4 (STS-79) 
August 1996 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

In FY 1994, the orbiter experiments (OEX) program was completed with the successful flight of the Orbiter Acceleration Research 
Experiment (OARE) accelerometer aboard STS-58.  The data collected over the years by the twelve OEX experiments have been an 
important source for defining, designing and developing performance improvements in the present orbiter program and have 
supplied data for validating models for the design of future space transportation vehicles.  The OARE was validated to an accuracy 
of 10-9g and is the most sensitive three-dimensional accelerometer ever flown aboard the shuttle.  This validated hardware will be 
utilized in future Life & Microgravity Sciences & Applications missions to accurately measure the microgravity environment.  
 

Also in FY 1994, SPACEHAB-02 flew aboard STS-60, fully utilizing the leased lockers by carrying 10 commercial experiments.  All 
experiments operated during the mission as required.  Six IN-STEP experiments were successfully flown on a common hitchhiker 
carrier (OAST-2) aboard STS-62.  These experiments investigated space environmental effects, providing the following results:  (1) 
they showed that the release of nitrogen gas created a decrease in the intensity of spacecraft glow in the visible and far ultraviolet 
spectrums; (2) they enhanced the understanding of the interaction of high voltage surfaces in space; (3) they demonstrated the use 
of phase change material for thermal energy storage; and (4) they measured cosmic background radiation with the extreme accuracy 
needed to deduce its origins.  Also on this mission, the re-flight of the Mid-deck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) was 
successful in predicting the dynamics of the truss structure and was able to capture all planned data.  MODE is an university 
experiment and has contributed to 6 graduate studies and several undergraduate studies.  In September 1994, the Lidar In-space 
Technology Experiment (LITE) successfully flew aboard STS-64 as a primary payload.  This experiment was the first space-borne 
LIDAR to measure critical atmospheric parameters.  LITE captured unprecedented atmospheric data that has been provided to the 
Office of Mission to Planet Earth's Earth Observation System (EOS) program for correlation with ground data.  These measurements 
are expanding our knowledge of complex weather patterns (e.g. typhoons) and will enhance future weather predictions. 
 

During FY 1994, 51 out of 352 IN-STEP flight experiment proposals were selected from an open, competitive solicitation and began a 
nine-month Phase A feasibility study.  Approximately 20 of these experiments will be selected in FY 1995 to continue into Phase B.  
The winning proposals include 109 participants from U.S. industries, universities, and government organizations located in 19 
states.  In addition, 5 "fast track" student experiments were selected from four different states.  In FY 1994 and FY 1995, over 80% 
of the IN-STEP funding was provided to industry and universities both big and small.  This demonstrates that open solicitation is an 
effective tool for obtaining innovative concepts from a broad section of America.  The flight of technology experiments will continue 
in FY 1995 including the flight of the Heat Pipe Performance experiment, Cryosystems experiments, and the Mid-deck Active Control 
Experiment. 

 
In FY 1996, the IN-STEP program will continue the efforts begun in previous years leading to the flights of highly innovative and 
relevant experiments.  The OAST Flyer mission will fly aboard STS-72 and obtain the first actual measurements of contamination 
due to the Return Flux Experiment (REFLEX).  OAST Flyer will also demonstrate an innovative technology that will provide 
autonomous closed-loop control of spacecraft pointing through the use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) signals.  The Inflatable 
Antenna Experiment (IAE) Flyer mission will validate an inflatable technology that will provide a highly reliable antenna system 
offering a high order of magnitude reduction in the cost, mass, and stored volume of large (10 - 50 meters in diameter) antennas 
when compared to current systems.  The Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) flight experiment (an international Space Station risk 
reduction effort) will be delivered for installation upon Mir and work will continue on the Hydrogen Maser Clock (HMC) experiment 
(another Mir experiment).  The Vented Tank Resupply Experiment (VTRE) and the FY 1994 student experiments will be delivered for 
flight aboard various FY 1996 Shuttle missions.  The next generation of approximately 20 new flight experiments that have 
successfully completed a Non-Advocate Review at the end of the definition phase will proceed into hardware design and 
development.  These experiments address the needs of industry and NASA in the areas of:  science sensors and sensor cooling; 
communications; vibration isolation; space power; in-space construction repair and maintenance; materials; and cryogenic fluid 
handling. 

 
The CMAM contract procures the services of 200 mid-deck locker volume equivalents (MLVEs) of space flight accommodations.  After 
the third flight (SPACEHAB-03), which is scheduled to occur in March 1995 (STS-63), 142 of the 200 MLVEs will have been utilized.  
The fourth flight (SPACEHAB-04) is scheduled for April 1996 and the contract is scheduled for completion in the last quarter of FY 
1996. 
 

The Space Station Utilization line item was initiated in FY 1995.  Eight payloads have been selected for Phase I Shuttle-Mir flights.  
These include four payloads involving industry/university/government partnerships accomplished through the Centers for the 
Commercial Development of Space.  The four CCDS payloads are:  the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) and the 
Korund Liquid Phase Sintering metallurgy research, both to be launched on STS-76 in March 1996; and the Materials in Devices as 
Superconductors and Commercial Protein Crystal Growth projects, both to be flown on STS-79 in August 1996.  Another of the 
Phase I payloads, the Energy Module, is sponsored jointly by two NASA offices (the Space Station Program Office and the Office of 
Space Access and Technology) and the Russian Space Agency.  Flight of the Energy Module is scheduled for September 1997.  The 
remaining three Phase I payloads are OSAT-funded technology/risk mitigation experiments which are manifested on Shuttle-Mir 
flights in 1995-1997.  

 
For the Phase II/III Space Station Utilization program, FY 95 activities include updating the traffic model and payload candidate 
lists, and establishing the payload selection process.  In addition, the OSAT is working closely with other user organizations to 
develop common equipment and facilities where appropriate and to establish programmatic mechanisms that will ensure optimum 
use of NASA resources.   Unique payload accommodation requirements for the Space Station are also being developed and 
coordinated with the Space Station Program Office and other users.  The Research Management Office at JSC is being utilized to 
analyze and integrate the user community requirements for the Space Station Program Office.  In FY 1996, the Phase II/III selection 
process will have been established and initial payloads will be selected for Space Station Missions.  Development schedules for these 
payloads will be based on the availability of user accommodations on the Station.  Coordination with other users and with the Space 
Station Program Office on both common and OSAT-unique requirements will also continue. 
 

 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                            COMMERCIAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS 

 


                                                        FY 1994            FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                                   (Thousands of Dollars) 

 
Technology dissemination and marketing                     9,000            11,700             10,000 
Commercial applications, business practices, and metrics  12,900            21,600             17,800 
	(RTTCs)                                           [7,000]           [7,000]            [7,000] 
Civil systems                                              5,900            12,500             12,600 
	(AdaNET)                                          [2,100]           [2,200]            [2,300] 
	(NTTC)                                            [3,400]           [9,800]            [9,800] 
 

             Total                                         27,800           45,800             40,400 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

NASA's goal is to elevate the commercial technology mission to a fundamental NASA mission, as important as any in the agency, by 
reinventing the way that the agency imparts the benefits of its knowledge, capabilities and research efforts into the national 
economy and the way that NASA derives benefits from the technological strength of American industry. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

NASA is in the process of implementing a new way of doing business in the area of technology transfer.  Changes in National R&D 
investment guidelines have elevated the commercial technology mission to a fundamental NASA mission.  NASA’s Agenda for 
Change, approved by Administrator Goldin in July 1994, is the agency’s blueprint for achieving this mission.  The Agenda for 
Change is organized into six sections, each reflecting an important aspect of this new way of doing business.  The six sections are:  
Commercial Technology Policy; Commercial Technology Business Practices; Marketing NASA’s Capabilities; Commercial Technology 
Metrics; Culture Change Through Training and Education; and the Commercial Technology Electronic Network.  Each section 
implements components of the national and agency policies in order to reinvent the way that NASA transfers technology to and from 
the national economy.  
 

Two elements of the Agenda are particularly important if the overall goal is to be reached.  The first element involves the creation of 
metrics which will allow program managers to determine the success rate of the various strategies.  The other element is the 
creation of a new information network for commercial technology transfer.  This network, to be fully operational by September 1996, 
will include 100% of current, non-sensitive technology activities and opportunities. 
 

In addition, if it is to succeed, the commercial technology mission must become a responsibility of every NASA employee, contractor 
and grantee.  The Agenda for Change marks the beginning of NASA’s new focus, management commitment, and employee 
empowerment to improve our contributions to America’s economic security through the pursuit of our aeronautics and space 
missions.  All NASA program offices and field centers will invest appropriately to achieve the above goals, and NASA has adopted a 
near-term target of investing 10 percent of the agency's R&D budget in commercial partnerships with industry by the end of FY 
1996.  It is also anticipated that the field center offices will need to invest additional personnel to implement the new technology 
transfer practices consistent with the National Performance Review (NPR) goal of increasing field center flexibility to invest in 
technology transfer opportunities. 

 
MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Complete development of               Performance metrics will allow the program managers to determine the effectiveness of various 
performance metrics                   commercialization methodologies and provide data for possible “mid-course corrections” to  
September 1995                        achieve greater program efficiencies from those areas requiring corrective action. 

 
Inventory 100% of NASA                An inventory of all NASA technologies is necessary to keep all partners in the technology 
technologies                          transfer process knowledgeable about the available NASA technologies and to facilitate  
September 1996                        transfer of information. 

 

Implement a detailed general          Marketing NASA technology and capabilities to industry is critical to NASA’s ability to form 
and targeted marketing                partnerships with the private sector.  A general and targeted marketing campaign will make it 
strategy                              possible to understand industry’s R&D requirements and identify where the synergies of NASA 
October 1995                          and industry technology partnerships can be most beneficial. 
 

Implement technology                  Implementation of these practices is necessary to meet the National Performance Review goal  
commercialization business            of conducting NASA’s technology development in partnership with industry to  
practice of investing 10% of          strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness. 
NASA’s R&D budget in  
commercial partnerships with  
industry by FY 1996.  
September 1996 
 

Provide Internet-based access to      Use of the Internet will allow easier access by the public to NASA information. 
the NASA commercial technology  
database 
September 1996 
 

 
ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 

 
In FY 1994, NASA initiated the Agenda for Change philosophy for implementing NASA’s commercial mission.  In FY 1995, efforts will 
be geared to accomplishment of the above goals based upon teamwork between the Office of Space Access and Technology and the 
other NASA program offices and each NASA field center. 
 

In FY 1995, initial steps have been taken to improve and strengthen the way NASA commercializes its technology.  These steps 
include:  the reorganization of field center technology commercialization offices to maximize the completion of commercial transfer 
and licensing agreements; increased involvement by the other NASA program offices and field center personnel in the transfer 
planning and coordination process; and the active cultivation and implementation of innovative technology transfer ideas at all 
levels.  In addition, comprehensive commercialization performance metrics are being developed in FY 1995 which will provide 
managers with the performance information necessary to determine whether each aspect of the commercialization program is 
meeting predetermined measures of success.  If performance in any area is marginal, a continual review of metrics data and 
examination of trends will provide early warning that program adjustments are necessary to improve performance to satisfactory 
levels.  The NASA Commercial Technology Management Team (which involves the other NASA program offices and serves as NASA’s 
technology transfer “board of directors”) will continue to meet in an effort to ensure that the Agenda for Change is implemented 
successfully throughout the agency.  
 

In FY 1996, NASA will continue to implement all aspects of the Agenda for Change.  Particular focus will be placed on achieving the 
goal of investing 10 percent of the NASA R&D budget in commercial partnerships with industry.   Based on experience to date, these 
commercial partnerships are expected to increase the return on the government's R&D investment, allowing NASA to do more with 
limited funds, as well as strengthening the international competitiveness of key industry sectors.   Another key activity in FY 1996 
will be the continued development and implementation of an Internet-based electronic network (E-NET) to integrate and support 
NASA's technology commercialization operations throughout the U.S.  The E-NET will provide U.S. industry and research 
organizations with electronic access to information and databases which highlight available NASA technologies, technical expertise 
and facilities.  The E-NET will serve as an electronic marketplace for these NASA assets, facilitating technology transfer and 
commercialization opportunities between U.S. industry and NASA.  FY 1996 plans also include the creation of an automated, on-
line, metrics collection system and technology transfer success story database for customer and stakeholder use. 

 


 
BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 


 
                                            LAUNCH VEHICLE SUPPORT 
 

                                      FY 1994            FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                  (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Launch services mission support	       37,100             37,000             37,600 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

NASA will provide the U.S. Civil Government payload community with successful, cost-effective, on-time, expendable launch vehicle 
(ELV) launch services. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Through the Launch Services Mission Support budget, the Launch Vehicles Office (LVO):  aggregates NASA and NOAA and 
international cooperative ELV mission requirements; establishes appropriate acquisition strategies for purchasing firm, fixed-price 
launch services from the U.S. industry to support the various performance classes of mission requirements; and imposes the scope 
and level of technical oversight of the commercial ELV operator’s delivery of service that reflects the criticality of the mission and the 
level of government resources at risk.  The objective is to provide affordable, 100%-successful delivery to space.  
 

Since the reintroduction of a national mixed-fleet strategy in 1987, the LVO has delivered 100%-successful launch services (24 ELVs 
and 9 upper stages).  The administration, procurement, and technical oversight of launch service delivery in the small and medium 
performance classes (Atlas-E, Titan II, Pegasus XL and Delta II, Ultra-Lite and Med-Lite) is managed by the Goddard Space Flight 
Center (GSFC).  Launch services for the intermediate and large performance classes (Atlas I/IIAS and Titan IV/Centaur) are 
managed by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC).  The Kennedy Space Center is delegated by GSFC and LeRC the responsibility for 
technical oversight of vehicle assembly and testing at the launch site and is responsible for launch site spacecraft processing.  The 
Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for management of Upper Stage missions.  The NASA ELV 100% success record attests 
to the value of its technical oversight program.   
 

The Launch Services Mission Support budget funds a variety of activities, including:  technical oversight of the commercial ELV 
providers; payload and launch vehicle integration work; maintenance of launch facilities, including telemetry laboratories, on both 
the east and west coasts; and the Secondary Payloads program, which allows university and international cooperative payloads of 
50 kilograms or less to be flown for less than $2 million by utilizing excess capacity on scheduled ELV launches.   
 

The LVO utilizes a variety of management techniques to ensure that the best possible launch services are provided at the lowest 
possible cost.  NASA launch services contracts are firm, fixed-price, for delivery on-orbit with reciprocal liquidated damages for late 
delivery and incentives for success.  NASA fixed-price contracts have limited launch costs growth to no more than 5% due to 
mission unique requirements and spacecraft delays.  
 

In addition to using fixed-price contracts, the LVO also controls costs by maintaining launch delay data bases, which identify 
spacecraft- vs. vehicle- vs. range-caused delays in order to minimize/avoid NASA launch delay penalties.  By maintaining an 
accurate database, the LVO can anticipate delays and can avoid making manifest changes just prior to launch, when penalties are 
generally much higher.  Moreover, with the database, the LVO can ensure that the agency is not charged for delays beyond its 
control.  The LVO also tracks launch services prices throughout the industry to ensure that the prices paid by NASA are comparable 
to those paid by the DoD and commercial communications satellite community.     

 
As part of the effort to improve its performance, the LVO conducts an annual customer survey to solicit feedback from customers 
regarding ways to enhance customer service. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

The key measure of performance is the successful delivery of the mission into the specified orbit at the time the spacecraft is ready 
for launch.  The LVO is working to maintain its 100% success standard.  The following launches are currently planned to be 
supported through FY 1999: 
 

FY 1995	                              4 Small ELVs 
                                      3 Medium ELVs 
                                      1 Intermediate ELV 
                                      1 Upper Stage 
 

FY 1996	                              2 Medium ELVs 
 

FY 1997                               2 Ultra-Lite ELVs 
                                      3 Medium ELVs 
 

FY 1998	                              1 Small ELV 
	                              1 Medium ELV 
	                              1 Intermediate ELV 
	                              1 Large ELV 
	                              1 Upper Stage 
 


FY 1999	                              3 Small ELVs 
	                              4 Med-Lite ELVs 
	                              1 Intermediate ELV 
 

Other critical milestone 
metrics include: 
 

Release of Med-Lite RFP	              Med-Lite enables NASA to provide low-cost launch services in support of recently downsized 
December 1994                         NASA spacecraft. 
 

Ultra-Lite contract award             Ultra-Lite enables NASA to provide low-cost launch services in support of recently downsized 
December 1994	                      NASA spacecraft. 
 

Med-Lite proposals due	              NASA is seeking ways to expedite the evaluation of these proposals. 
February 1995 
 

Intermediate ELV contract             Supports delivery of EOS-AM spacecraft payload adaptor to meet June 1998 launch date. 
final Award                           The IELV contract will provide pre-priced, fixed-price launch service funding profiles for all  
May 1995                              future intermediate-class missions through 2005. 
 

Med-Lite contract award	              NASA is seeking to expedite the proposal evaluation process and advance the date of 
August 1995                           this milestone. 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

In FY 1994, the Intermediate ELV (IELV) and Ultra-Lite ELV (UELV) launch services contractors were selected.  The Scout program 
was concluded and residual flight assets/launch facility were transitioned to USAF.  Modification of launch pad SLC-2W at 
Vandenberg Air Force Base was completed, enabling the launch of NASA, DoD and commercial payloads from the west coast on 
Delta II vehicles.  Design and development of the Pegasus dual-payload adapter was finished, allowing launch of NASA, DoD and 
commercial payloads on Pegasus.  In addition,  three tethered payloads were successfully launched into space as secondaries 
aboard the Delta II 
 

In FY 1995 the plan is to provide on-time, successful launch of the following spacecraft manifested for launch: TOMS/MTPE, 
FAST/OSS, dual launch of HETE/OSS and SAC-B (Argentine) cooperative, SWAS/OSS, Radarsat/Canadian cooperative, XTE/OSS, 
SOHO/ESA cooperative, TDRS-G/OSC (Upper stage on STS), and a secondary payload: SURFSAT. Also planned is the award of the 
IELV, UELV and Med-Lite contracts. 
 

In FY 1996 the plan is to provide on-time, successful launch of the following spacecraft manifested for launch: Polar/OSS in 
December 1995, NEAR/OSS in February 1996; and two secondary payloads on the USAF ARGOS launch in January 1995.  These 
secondaries represent launch of the first Danish spacecraft (Orsted) and launch of the first South African spacecraft (Sunsat).  



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                            SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH PROGRAMS 
 

                                                          FY 1994            FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                                      (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Small business innovation research (SBIR) awards         [107,300]	     118,000            120,100 
Small business technology transfer (STTR) pilot program 
awards                                                     (3,600)             5,900              9,000 
 

	Total                                            [110,900]           123,900            129,100 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goal of NASA's Small Business programs is to promote the widest possible award of NASA research contracts within the small 
business community and facilitate commercialization of these research results by the small business community. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Established by Congress, the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program helps NASA develop innovative technologies by 
providing competitive research contracts to US owned small businesses.  The program is structured in three phases:Error! 
Bookmark not defined. 
 

Phase I is the opportunity to establish the feasibility, technical merit and desirability of a proposed innovation.  Selected competi-
tively, Phase I contracts last for six months and currently do not exceed $70,000. 
 

Phase II is the major R&D effort in SBIR.  The most promising Phase I projects are selected to receive contracts worth up to 
$600,000 and lasting up to two years.  In general, about 50 percent of Phase I projects are approved for Phase II. 
 

Phase III is the completion of the development of a product or process to make it marketable.  The financial resources cannot come 
from SBIR funds.  Private sector investment in various forms is the usual source of Phase III funding. 
 

The NASA SBIR solicitation has 15 major topic areas, which are divided into sub-topics.  The description of each of these sub-topics 
is developed by various NASA installations to include current and foreseen agency program needs and priorities.  NASA typically 
receives 2300 or more individual proposals each year.  Proposals are evaluated by the NASA field centers for scientific and technical 
merit; key staff qualifications; soundness of the work plan; and anticipated commercial benefits.  NASA HQ program offices provide 
additional insight into commercial applications, program balance, and critical agency requirements.  Selections are made by NASA 
HQ based upon these recommendation and other considerations.  Typically about 400 Phase I awards are selected each year. 

 
In addition to an extensive on-line database regarding the program, NASA also provides information for public access via a bulletin 
board service and Internet servers.  Moreover, NASA has begun to use information technology for the process of developing the 
technical sub-topics in the solicitation, for the public release of the solicitation in electronic formats and for proposal evaluation.  
 

The NASA Small Business Technology Transfer Pilot program (STTR) is a three-year program established in 1994.  In STTR, small 
businesses and research institutions with technological and business expertise submit joint proposals to convert intellectual 
property resident in the research institution into products that meet a NASA need and have commercial potential.  The STTR 
program, though modeled after the SBIR program, is a separate activity with separate funding and important differences in scope 
relative to SBIR.  The STTR program objective is to stimulate and foster scientific and technological innovation, including increasing 
commercialization of Federal R&D.  The STTR program is structured in the following three phases: 

 
Phase I involves a solicitation of proposals to conduct experimental or theoretical research into the feasibility of technologies 
intended to meet described agency requirements.  The object of this phase is to utilize a relatively small agency investment to 
determine the scientific, technical and commercial merit and feasibility of the proposed cooperative effort, as well as the quality of 
performance of the small business concern, before consideration of further Federal support in Phase II. 
 

Phase II continues the R&D effort from Phase I toward a commercial outcome.  Only awardees in Phase I are eligible to participate 
in Phase II.  Funding of Phase II proposals is based on the results of Phase I, as well as the scientific and technical merit and the 
commercial potential of the Phase II proposal.  
 

Phase III continues the R&D effort with non-STTR funding.  Phase III objectives are pursuit by STTR contractors of commercial 
applications of their project results, using private sector funds, and/or further (non-STTR) contracts with the government relative to 
the STTR project. 
 

Although selected from different criteria than those of SBIR, the STTR program uses the same basic processes to determine 
requirements and select awardees.  The processes also utilize the same new information technologies as the SBIR program, and 
adds to them the ability to submit proposals in an electronic format.  As a result, NASA's paperless, electronic system will enable the 
electronic distribution of solicitations to the business community, the electronic submission of proposals from the business 
community, the provision of these proposals to evaluators electronically, and the receipt of review forms electronically.  The new 
information handling technologies should speed up the award process substantially, while also reducing the amount of staffing that 
NASA must devote to the process. 

 
The Agency will obtain commercialization metrics (revenue, jobs creation) from previous SBIR and STTR awardees in order to better 
measure the success or failure of the program to meet its commercialization objectives. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Select and announce new SBIR          Meets the requirements of public law. 
Phase I awards resulting from  
the FY 1994 solicitation 
October 1994 
 

Select and announce new SBIR          Meets the requirements of public law. 
Phase II awards resulting from 	 
the FY 1994 solicitation 
November 1994 
 

Complete development and              Necessary to ensure the success of the FY 1995 research program. 
issuance of the FY 1995	 
STTR solicitation 
January 1995 
 

Complete development and              Necessary to ensure the success of the FY 1996 research program. 
issuance of the FY 1995 
SBIR solicitation 
May 1995 
 

Select and announce new STTR          Meets the requirements of public law. 
Phase I awards resulting from  
the FY 1995 solicitation 
July 1995 

 
Implementation of Internet            Reduction of paper processing overhead costs and time needed to award contracts. 
access to SBIR and STTR  
documents 
August 1995 

 
Select and announce new SBIR          Meets the requirements of public law. 
Phase I awards resulting from  
the FY 1995 solicitation 
October 1995 

 
 
 
Select and announce new SBIR          Meets the requirements of public law. 
and STTR Phase II awards  
resulting from the FY 1995  
solicitation 
November 1995 

 
Complete development and              Necessary to ensure the success of the FY 1996 research program. 
issuance of the FY 1996 
STTR solicitation 
January 1996 
 

Compilation of                        Will improve knowledge of the success of the program in actually commercializing technology. 
commercialization metrics 
from 60% of previous Phase II 
awardees 
February 1996 

 
Complete development and              Necessary to ensure the success of the FY 1997 research program. 
issuance of the FY 1996 
SBIR solicitation 
May 1996 

 
Select and announce new               Meets the requirements of public law. 
STTR Phase I awards resulting  
from the FY 1996 solicitation 
July 1996 

 
ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 

 
The NASA SBIR program has contributed to the US economy by fostering the establishment and growth of some 975 small, high-
technology businesses.  Twenty major participants have produced more than $150 million in new revenues.   
  

In FY 1994, 383 new SBIR Phase I awards and 174 new Phase II awards were made.  The SBIR solicitation was made available 
electronically on Internet for the first time.  In 1994, its initial year, the STTR program solicitation addressed three specified NASA 
program needs. The STTR solicitation received responses from 151 firms, and 21 Phase I STTR awards were initiated.   
 

In FY 1995, another 412 new SBIR Phase I awards and 190 new Phase II awards were made.  The 1995 STTR solicitation addresses 
an even greater technology base through its expansion from three to five topic areas.  Approximately 30 new STTR Phase I awards 
and 10 new Phase II awards are planned for FY 1995.  NASA also plans to continue increasing the utilization of electronic methods 
to disseminate and receive information in FY 1995 .   
 

By the end of FY 1996, plans are to complete the creation of a paperless electronic process for SBIR and STTR and to obtain 
increased commercialization metrics from SBIR and STTR awardees in order to be able to more adequately measure progress in 
commercializing technology.  SBIR awards are anticipated to be made in approximately the same quantities as in FY 1995.   
FY 1996 is the last year of the three-year STTR pilot project; therefore, the focus will be on Phase II awards.
	

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