FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 

                                       BUDGET SUMMARY 


                              SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS 

                                                    FY 1994          FY 1995           FY 1996     
                                                               (Thousands of Dollars) 

Ground network                                      309,300          273,400           268,800    
Mission control and data systems                    206,481          175,800           162,200     
Space network customer service                       30,000           32,000            30,300    
Advanced systems                                     19,600               --                -- 
Construction of facilities                           15,600               --                -- 

       Total                                        580,981          481,200           461,300 

Distribution of Program Amount by Installation 

Johnson Space Center                                     50               --                -- 
Marshall Space Flight Center                          2,500            3,000             3,000 
Ames Research Center                                 14,300           16,600            13,900 
Lewis Research Center                                 1,397            1,800             1,900 
Goddard Space Flight Center                         322,113          260,400           240,700 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory                           215,159          176,700           178,300 
Headquarters (including foreign contracts)           25,462           22,700            23,500 

       Total                                        580,981          481,200           461,300 

                                  SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY 

                                       FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 



To enable the conduct of the NASA strategic enterprises by providing telecommunications systems and services.  Reliable electronic 
communications are essential to the success of every NASA flight mission, from interplanetary spacecraft to the Space Shuttle to 
aeronautical flight tests. 

NASA’s Office of Space Communications (OSC) manages the provision of telecommunication services needed to ensure that the goals 
of NASA's exploration, science, and research and development programs are met; that they are met cost-effectively; and that mission 
operations and planning are performed in an integrated and standardized way.  The OSC is committed to seeking and encouraging 
commercialization of NASA telecommunications capabilities and to participate with NASA's strategic enterprises in collaborative 
interagency, international, and commercial enterprises.  As NASA’s agent for operational communications and associated 
information handling services, the OSC seeks opportunities for using technology in pursuit of more cost-effective solutions, highly 
optimized designs of mission systems, and advancement of NASA's and the nation's best technological and commercial interests. 


The range of capabilities provided by NASA's Space Communications program is necessarily very broad.  This function provides all of 
NASA's capability to track, command, and acquire data from NASA spacecraft.  This function is performed through utilization of 
ground-based antennas and network systems; the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) of geosynchronous 
communications satellites and its Earth-bound ground stations; a telecommunications network needed to relay data among NASA 
mission control facilities; and the mission control and data processing facilities for NASA's currently operational Earth-orbiting 
robotics systems.  The function also provides for the telecommunications network used for all NASA administrative and scientific 
exchanges.  All NASA telecommunications scheduling, network management and engineering, flight system maneuver planning and 
analysis, and preflight communications interface verification is performed by this strategic function.  Near-term demonstration and 
application of advanced communications and information systems technologies are conducted through the support of various 
sponsored labs and facilities. 

Some NASA missions have unique needs -- e.g., communicating with spacecraft having low-powered transceivers flying in the outer 
reaches of our solar system and beyond or relaying very high rates of data from spacecraft anywhere over the roughly 785 million 
square miles of surface area of the Earth.  Specialized systems such as the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and 
the Deep Space Network (DSN) are required.  Other needs can be satisfied using alternate approaches, including smaller ground 
transceive systems and commercially-available systems and services.  Key to NASA's future is our ability to take advantage of 
emerging communications technologies, especially the increasing levels of automation and standardization of systems and 
procedures that these technologies allow.   

Integrated solutions to Agency communication and information management needs are sought based on understanding and 
accommodating common aspects of all of NASA's programs.  Cost-effective systems are achieved through an integrated, end-to-end 
approach to the design of communication systems, including the large and costly data processing systems needed to support 
current and future NASA missions.  NASA flight programs are supported through study and coordination of the data standards and 
communications frequencies to be used in the future. 

The Space Communications function is carried out collaboratively with other NASA programs in the formulation of NASA's policy 
interests.  When science or exploration goals require coordination of international or other U.S. telecommunications, mission control 
or data processing capabilities, NASA's space communication assets are incorporated into agreements and understandings.  
International and interagency agreements are entered into for the exchange of communication services among space-faring nations, 
other U.S. agencies, and in support of commercial U.S. space enterprises. 

The Mission Communication Services program, one part of NASA's Space Communications program, provides support to the breadth 
of NASA missions, including planetary and interplanetary missions; Human Space Flight missions; near-Earth and Earth-orbiting 
spacecraft missions; suborbital and aeronautical test flight systems.  Services include tracking, orbit and attitude determination, 
maneuver analysis, communications scheduling, spacecraft command, spacecraft health and safety data acquisition, and science 
data acquisition.  Mission control and science data processing for select NASA missions; communications technology initiatives; 
coordination of flight mission planning; and management and coordination of NASA's use of radio frequencies is also conducted 
under this program. 

The facilities and systems of NASA's Deep Space Network; Wallops Orbital Tracking Station; Space Network Control Center; and the 
Mission Control and Data Systems program are in the process of being automated and modernized so that the burgeoning workload 
of NASA flight systems can be accommodated within the decreased funding levels assigned to this NASA strategic function. 


                                            GROUND NETWORK 

                                                         FY 1994             FY 1995             FY 1996 
                                                                       (Thousands of Dollars) 

Deep space network systems implementations                98,324             103,800             107,000 
Deep space network operations                            100,371              88,200              85,200 
Spaceflight tracking and data network systems 
	implementation                                     3,400               9,200               8,500 
Spaceflight tracking and data network operations          55,055              29,000              25,300 
Aeronautics, balloons, and sounding rockets systems 
	implementation                                    27,250              16,800              17,700 
Aeronautics, balloons, and sounding rockets operations    24,900              26,400              25,100 

       Total                                             309,300             273,400             268,800 


To provide reliable, cost-effective ground-based tracking, command and data acquisition systems and services for NASA science and 
aeronautics programs.  These missions include planetary, interplanetary, near-Earth and Earth-orbiting science missions; 
aeronautical test flights; and suborbital balloon and sounding rocket flights.  Launch, emergency communications, and landing 
support for the Space Transportation System (STS) is also provided by Ground Network facilities.  Advanced Technology initiatives 
for NASA's Ground Network are also supported.  The Ground Network program provides for the implementation, maintenance and 
operation of the tracking and communication facilities necessary to ensure the health and safety and the sustained level of high 
quality performance of NASA flight systems. 

The Ground Network program supports NASA's programs in collaborative interagency, international, and commercial enterprises, 
and independently provides support to other national, international, and commercial space-faring enterprises on a reimbursable 


NASA's Ground Network is comprised of the Deep Space Network (DSN), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); the Space 
Flight Tracking and Data Network (STDN), managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); the tracking and data acquisition 
facilities of the Aeronautics, Balloon and Sounding Rocket (AB&SR) program, managed by GSFC's Wallops Flight Facility (WFF); and 
the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR).  The WATR is also funded under the AB&SR program and managed by the Dryden 
Flight Research Center (DFRC).  The AlliedSignal Technical Services and Computer Science Corporations are the primary support 
service contractors responsible for ongoing implementation and operation of these ground networks. 

The operational facilities of the Ground Network enable tracking, command and data acquisition of space flight systems.  The 
Ground Network is the primary telecommunications interface for planetary and deep space missions; for suborbital and aeronautical 
test programs; for small and medium-class Earth-orbiting spacecraft with limited capacity for high data rate communications; and, 
increasingly, for high data rate, polar-orbiting systems.  Support for launch, tracking, backup and emergency access, and landing of 
the STS is also provided as is emergency access to all other NASA Earth-orbiting spacecraft; those same facilities are used to 
support expendable launch vehicle (ELV) deployments of NASA, other U.S. agency, international, and commercial enterprises.  All of 
the science disciplines that NASA supports are either directly or indirectly supported by NASA's Ground Network. 

The DSN, managed by the JPL, Pasadena, California provides telecommunications for NASA's planetary and solar system 
exploration missions and Earth-orbiting missions that operate outside the capability of other NASA communication systems.  The 
DSN receives spacecraft telemetry and download of scientific data and transmits command, control and navigation signals to a 
variety of spacecraft from distances relatively near the Earth to those as great as 8 billion kilometers from the Earth.  Three DSN 
antenna and communications support complexes are maintained at Goldstone, California; Canberra, Australia; and Madrid, Spain.  
The central Network Operations Control Center (NOCC) is located at the JPL in Pasadena, California. 

The systems required to perform tracking and data acquisition of spacecraft at the limits of the solar system are highly specialized 
and include large aperture antennas which can receive extremely weak radio signals.  These antennas use ultra-sensitive receivers 
and powerful transmitters.  Extremely stable time standards are also required for precise navigation of distant spacecraft.  Advanced 
data handling systems are required at both the NOCC located at the JPL and the deep space communication complexes located in 
California, Spain, and Australia.  The DSN also supports collaborative ground-based radar and radio astronomy observations.  The 
network's ultra-sensitive antennas are used to study pulsar high energy sources, quasars, and other interstellar and intergalactic 
phenomena.  Radar studies of the surface characteristics of planets, planetary rings, asteroids, comets, moons, and near-Earth 
asteroids are also supported. 

The STDN consists of two ground stations at Bermuda and Merritt Island, Florida.  These stations provide pre-launch payload 
support and system verification testing, launch, and landing communication for the STS; and payload verification, launch support, 
and range safety functions, in coordination with the WFF, for other U.S. and commercial launch activities on the Eastern Range. 

The STDN ground communication stations provide primary operational support during the launch and landing phases of STS 
missions; backup and emergency support for STS while on-orbit is also provided by the DSN and WFF.  Emergency access to 
scientific spacecraft supported by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), and to the TDRS spacecraft themselves, is 
also provided by DSN and STDN systems.  Command destruct capabilities for the STS and ELVs are maintained at the WFF and 
Bermuda STDN sites. 

The AB&SR system of facilities and services is used to conduct a very diverse range of activities, in support of NASA, other U.S., 
international and commercial space and aeronautics initiatives.  Tracking, radar, telemetry, data acquisition, data processing, data 
display, communications, and special purpose optical equipment are provided for the various uses supported by the facilities of the 
AB&SR system. 

The WFF, located at Wallops Island, Virginia supports tracking, command and data acquisition for scientific and meteorological 
spacecraft and sounding rockets; the STS; small meteorological balloons; and for NASA and commercial launch vehicle deployments.  
The WFF also provides tracking and communication support for aeronautics flight programs in the areas of automatic landing 
operations using Global Positioning System (GPS) inputs; aircraft wake studies; the Shuttle Microwave Scanning Beam landing 
system; range surveillance; and Langley drop model testing.  The WFF provides a wide range of reimbursable services, primarily for 
the Department of Defense (DoD).  These include tactical systems of the Department of the Navy; meteorological systems of the 
Department of the Army; landing operations for Dover Air Force Base and launch support for the Department of the Air Force's 
Eastern Range; and support for experiments of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO). 

The WFF also manages several off-site facilities at the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico; the Poker Flat Research Range, 
Fairbanks, Alaska; the National Scientific Balloon Facility, Palestine, Texas and Ft. Sumner, New Mexico.  Mobile tracking and data 
acquisition systems are also used to support remote balloon and sounding rocket launches, and a growing number of small 
spacecraft systems.  These systems include the Transportable Orbital Tracking System (TOTS).  Two TOTS are maintained at NASA's 
Poker Flat facility for primary support of the NASA's Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST), Submillimeter Wave Astronomy 
Satellite (SWAS), future Small Explorer missions, and launch of Total Ozone Mapping System-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) and several 
international deployments.  A third TOTS is currently deployed at Andoya, Norway for sounding rocket studies of Earth's aurora. 

Additionally, the WFF provides the administrative, technical, and operational support needed to establish new ground 
communication facilities in Earth's polar regions for future missions related to the international Earth observing program.  Through 
a series of interagency and international agreements and collaborations, NASA's Ground Network program is providing an 
increasing level of tracking, command, and data acquisition support for NASA, other U.S., and international flight systems dedicated 
to international and U.S. studies of global change.  In cooperation with other U.S. agencies, facilities at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica 
and at Fairbanks, Alaska, are being developed as the principal ground stations for the joint U.S.-Canada RadarSat mission and the 
international Advanced Earth Observing System (ADEOS) mission, respectively.  The Fairbanks, Alaska site serves as the principal 
U.S. ground communication facility for the international Earth Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS) and Japanese Earth Remote Sensing 
Satellite (JERS) synthetic aperture radar missions. 

The WATR, which has conducted operations for 35 years, provides tracking and communication systems and services for 
aeronautical research flight testing at the DFRC, Moffett Field and Crows Landing.  Tracking and communication services for STS 
landings are also provided in cooperation with DSN facilities at Goldstone.  Tests of high performance aircraft, advanced technology 
research aircraft, and complex control systems and powered lift technologies are conducted through the support of these facilities. 


Early development of advanced technologies and operational approaches for deep space and Earth-orbiting systems is conducted by 
NASA's Ground Network program.  These initiatives support the need to provide tracking, navigation, command and data acquisition 
functions in a way that economizes NASA's total investment in new space flight and telecommunications support systems.  The 
continued emergence of small, less expensive, but often more capable NASA flight systems makes it necessary to find new, 
inexpensive but reliable telecommunications systems and services for support of these missions.  For example, the JPL will develop 
Ka-band command and receive systems that will support miniature spacecraft systems and other low-cost approaches for deep 
space exploration.  Other JPL investments in autonomous ground tracking stations for Earth-orbiting systems; atmospheric 
calibration techniques; highly stable frequency standards; commercial low-noise amplifiers; a new low-cost, low-power deep space 
transponder; and high data rate, optical communication systems promise to enable a new generation of low-cost, highly capable 
space flight systems. 

Another cost-saving program is to demonstrate the potential uses of the GPS for NASA flight systems, in conjunction with NASA's 
Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) and the STS programs.  If successful, these demonstrations would allow NASA to replace 
expensive ground tracking subsystems and lower future operations expense.  Following demonstration of GPS technology for STS 
deployments, further reduction of STDN capabilities will be evaluated. 

Both the number of missions served by NASA's Ground Network facilities and the unique requirements of those missions are 
expected to increase dramatically over the next several years.  The Ground Network program will continue to implement reliability 
and maintainability initiatives to ensure that necessary planning and operational support is provided to NASA flight programs and 
to decrease the operational cost of NASA telecommunications.  Reengineering efforts now in process are expected to reduce the cost 
of operating the DSN by approximately 30% while supporting NASA's increased flight rate.  These initiatives include upgrade of the 
DSN monitor control system and compatibility test systems, and a new digital receiver.  Similarly, upgrades of the WFF and the 
WATR are expected to reduce operating costs while also providing the opportunity for additional utilization of these highly cost-
effective facilities.  The WFF upgrade will replace two obsolete antenna systems with new 11 meter antennas, and replace labor-
intensive support systems with automated equipment.  The improvements will result in higher data capacity X-band services in 
coordination with NASA's Earth science programs.  The WATR upgrade will consolidate the operation of radar and other ground 
communication systems while also providing for faster, higher resolution display of aeronautical flight system data.  This project is 
expected to result in improved services to NASA's flight test program. 

In addition to the pursuit of cost-saving measures, NASA is also in the process of upgrading its ground network systems to 
accommodate future missions.  NASA's Ground Network program seeks to ensure that integrated, cost-effective solutions for 
accomplishing the goals of NASA's programs are supported and the advanced mission requirements of NASA space flight systems 
are accommodated by NASA ground systems.  The "capability" and "capacity" of the network systems is continuously subject to 
changes as NASA's flight system goals become more challenging, economical, and numerous.  The expansion of ground network 
facilities in Antarctica and Alaska, as discussed above, fulfills the need to provide innovative solutions for the emerging demands of 
new polar-orbiting, Earth observing flight systems.  Increased on-orbit data storage capacity of emerging spacecraft designs allows 
for more economical data acquisition approaches to be pursued.  Use of ground network facilities to support NASA's Earth 
Observing System (EOS) series of spacecraft beyond AM-1 is currently being reviewed. 

Similar upgrades of the DSN are ongoing.  The DSN is the world's premier facility for tracking deep space probes.  This world-wide 
network can occasionally be supplemented by the facilities of other agencies or nations, but there is no other network that compares 
in coverage and sensitivity to the DSN.  Several development initiatives are underway to improve the capacity and quality of DSN 
services, including the installation and upgrade of several new antennas.  New 34 meter Beam Wave Guide (BWG) antennas are 
being installed at the DSN complexes to handle the projected number of deep space missions and provide for future capability 
upgrades.  These antennas are also expected to reduce the operations complexity and cost of the DSN system.  Once in place, these 
new DSN antennas will allow three obsolete antennas to be phased out and better enable NASA to provide continuous and more 
efficient support to its growing list of deep space and planetary missions. 

Other DSN systems modifications include a new convolutional decoder for the Cassini mission, which will provide a significant 
improvement in science data return.  NASA is also modifying its 70 meter DSN antennas to support high power, X-band 
commanding of Cassini.  Finally, a specialized Ka-band radio science capability needed for experiments related to the density and 
composition of Saturn's atmosphere is being developed by NASA's Ground Network program.  The latter capability will also support 
gravity wave experiments. 

The Galileo mission, currently enroute to Jupiter, required special enhancement of data compression, modulation and antenna 
arraying capabilities of the DSN due to the inability to use the spacecraft's high gain antenna as planned.  NASA will also modify the 
Australian Parkes Radio Astronomy Observatory to augment the return of data from Galileo.  Modification of the antennas 
mechanical assembly will allow for shared use for Galileo and current radio astronomy users. 

Another mission-specific implementation is the Orbiting Very Long Baseline Interferometry (OVLBI) program.  This joint NASA-
National Science Foundation and international program is to add spacecraft systems to Earth's existing radio astronomy facilities to 
achieve unprecedented levels of accuracy and sensitivity in this domain of highly precise astrophysical measures.  The Japanese 
VLBI Space Operation Program (VSOP) and the Russian Radioastron missions, scheduled for launch in 1996 and 1997 respectively, 
are to provide for much higher resolution radio-astronomy than is currently possible using only ground systems. 

The Ground Network program also supports the Apple Valley Science and Technology Center, a private science and education 
organization located in Apple Valley, California, to encourage young people to become interested in Radio Astronomy and space 
communications.  Under this project, students will be allowed access to an obsolete DSN antenna to conduct radio astronomy 


                                                                FY 1994               FY 1995           FY 1996 
Deep Space Network 
Number of NASA missions supported                                    39                    45                46 
Number of hours of service                                       63,000                64,000            70,000 

Mission support provided by the DSN is composed of a wide range of services.  For example, in FY 1994 the DSN provided 
telecommunications services for 10 deep space missions; 10 Earth-orbiting missions for which the DSN provided primary 
operational support; 7 flights of the STS; and 12 Earth-orbiting missions for which the DSN provided emergency support, including 
the TDRS constellation. 

                                                                FY 1994               FY 1995           FY 1996 
Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network 
Number of STS deployments supported                                   7                     7                 7 
Number of ELV deployments supported                                  11                    13                12 

The STDN is required to be available during the launch countdown sequence so as not to cause a launch hold condition and to 
provide at least 99% of the Space Shuttle data to the Mission Control Center at Johnson Space Center during the Shuttle launch 
phase, a standard that was met consistently in FY 1994.  This standard of performance will be maintained. 

Wallops Flight Facility 
Number of NASA Earth-orbiting 
 missions supported                                                  21                   25                 26 
Number of Sounding Rocket deployments 
 supported                                                           33                   40                 40 
Number of Balloon deployments supported                              22                   29                 29 
Number of hours of service (Wallops Orbital 
 Tracking Station only)                                          27,227               32,000             31,000 

Mission support provided by the WFF is also composed of a wide range of services, including support to the STS and to high data 
rate synthetic aperture radar systems.  The WFF also supported 52 meteorological sounding rocket deployments; 253 NASA and 
DoD small meteorological balloon deployments; 31 deployments of DoD drones, missiles, and rockets; and 90 NASA and 193 DoD 
aeronautical tracking events in FY 1994. 

Western Aeronautical Test Range 
Number of NASA missions supported                                 1077                 1100               1100 
Number of NASA research flights supported                          494                  500                500 


In FY 1994, the DSN provided primary operational support to the deep space Ulysses, Voyager 1 and 2, Pioneer 10 and 11, 
Clementine and International Cometary Explorer (ICE) missions; the Magellan and Galileo planetary missions; the international 
ASCA, YOHKOH, Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), and Geotail missions; NASA's Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer 
(SAMPEX), NIMBUS-7, and Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS); and seven flights of the STS.  The launch of the first of the next 
generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-I) was also supported in 1994; operational support is 
provided on a contingency basis to this meteorological spacecraft series.  Launch and operation of the joint U.S.-British Space 
Technology Research Vehicle (STRV), a year long demonstration of several advanced technologies, was also supported in  
FY 1994 and will continue through FY 1995.  Emergency operational support is provided for spacecraft normally supported by 
NASA's TDRS System (TDRSS), including the TDRS, Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), and Upper 
Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) systems.  Contingency support is also provided for the Landsat series of spacecraft.  
Reimbursable launch support was provided for the international Eutelsat II F-5 and ETS-VI missions in FY 1994. 

Magellan operations ceased in FY 1994 after the spacecraft entered Venus' atmosphere.  Mars Observer was lost during orbit 
insertion; the DSN search for Mars Observer continued for 3 months in FY 1994 prior to confirming the satellite's loss.  NIMBUS-7 
operations also ended in FY 1994.  Primary operational support for the ROSAT, SAMPEX, NIMBUS-7 and ERBS missions are shared 
among NASA's telecommunications networks. 

Several new missions are to be deployed in FY 1995 through the support of the DSN.  NASA's WIND spacecraft was launched in 
November 1994, to be followed by the TOMS-EP, SWAS, and the FAST missions.  Launch of the international Infrared Space 
Observatory (ISO), Space Flyer Unit (SFU-1), and RadarSat missions is also to occur in FY 1995.  The DSN will provide primary 
operational support for all of these missions; primary operations of the SWAS, FAST, TOMS-EP and RadarSat missions are also 
supported by WFF systems. 

Launch of NASA's X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), GOES-J, and the seventh TDRS spacecraft will also be supported by the DSN.  
Reimbursable support will be provided for deployment of the international Eutelsat II F-6, SFU-1, Geostationary Meteorological 
Satellite (GMS-5), Helios-1, and Telecom 2-C missions in FY 1995. 

In FY 1996, NASA's Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) and POLAR and the international Solar Observatory for Heliospheric 
Observation (SOHO), Cluster, and VSOP will be deployed and operated through the support of the DSN.  Reimbursable support for 
the deployment of Telecom 2-D is to be provided.  Launch preparations for the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Pathfinder 
missions, also to be operated by the DSN, will occur late in FY 1996 for deployment in CY 1996. 

The first of the new 34 meter BWG antennas is to become operational at the Goldstone complex in FY 1995; a second and third 
antenna will follow in FY 1996 and FY 1997.  An additional 34 meter BWG antenna at Canberra, Australia is scheduled to be 
operational in FY 1997.  A fifth antenna has been added to the Ground Network program during the current funding cycle to resolve 
scheduling conflicts among several future planetary missions.  This antenna is to be installed at Madrid, Spain and made 
operational by the time of Cassini deployment in November 1997.  Upgrade of an experimental 34 meter antenna, transferred to 
NASA under agreement with the U.S. Department of the Army, will also proceed in FY 1995 and FY 1996.  This antenna, located 
contiguously with the Goldstone complex, is a different design than DSN antennas and will require extensive modifications to 
support deep space operations.  It will be used to track satellites in highly elliptical Earth orbits beginning in FY 1995.  Ongoing 
sustainment activities will continue throughout this period, including efforts to extend the life of the DSN 70 meter antenna.  
Replacement of the DSN's S-band transmitters and masers will be initiated in FY 1996. 

Emergency X-band uplink service for Cassini will begin to be developed in FY 1996.  A prototype of Ka-band ground systems will be 
developed in FY 1995 and 1996, in preparation for development of an operational system in FY 1997.  Work on convolutional 
decoders will continue throughout this period in preparation for Cassini deployment early in FY 1998.  Changes to the DSN to 
accommodate communication with Galileo are to be completed in time for encounter with Callisto in FY 1997.  Data compression 
systems and hardware procurement for DSN antenna arraying are complete.  Installation of signal combining and recording systems 
required for arraying is underway.  The modification of the Parkes antenna will be performed throughout the current period.  
Finally, two new 11 meter antennas will be added to the DSN sites at Goldstone and Canberra in FY 1995 and at Madrid in FY 
1996, to support the international OVLBI program.  A similar capability has been completed at Greenbank, West Virginia through 
restoration of a 14 meter antenna at the National Science Foundation (NSF) facility. 

In FY 1994, the STDN was transitioned to only providing launch and landing support for deployments of the STS.  Reduction of 
STDN operations began in FY 1994.  Further transition of STDN support requirements are contingent on FY 1996 and FY 1997 
demonstrations of GPS technology for STS position and attitude determination.  A third STDN station at Dakar was closed in  
FY 1994.  Ultra high frequency (UHF) voice communication with the STS will continue to be provided from a Senegalese government 
communication facility until December 1995, when all support from Senegal will be terminated.  Termination is feasible at that time 
because of the completion of redundant Space Network ground terminal capability at the White Sands, New Mexico complex.  The 
STDN will continue to provide launch support for ELVs when these can be accommodated by existing support systems.  In FY 1994, 
the STDN supported the deployment of GOES-I and 2 GPS payloads and provided reimbursable support for deployment of Telstar, 
Milstar, DSCS, Galaxy, UHF, DoD, NATO, and DIRECTV payload systems.  In FY 1995, deployment of WIND, XTE, SOHO, GOES-J 
will be supported.  Reimbursable support for deployment of 3 Intelsat systems, ERS-2, Helios-1, Orion, Koreasat, EHF, DoD, and 
MSAT will be provided.  Launch support for the NASA's NEAR mission will also be provided in FY 1996.  Reimbursable support for 
11 ELV deployments will be provided, including Koreasat, Telstar, DBS, JCSAT, 4 UHF, 2 Inmarsat, and Hotbird payloads. 

In FY 1994, the WFF served as the primary ground station for NASA's International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), ERBS, SAMPEX, 
Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and NIMBUS-7 missions.  WFF is also the primary U.S. ground station for the international 
Total Ozone Mapping System-Meteor (TOMS-Meteor), ERS-1, JERS-1, ROSAT, and Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP-8).  
Prime operational support for IUE, ERBS, SAMPEX, COBE, NIMBUS-7, and IMP-8 is also provided by other NASA ground and space 
network facilities.  COBE and NIMBUS-7 operations were discontinued in FY 1994.  Operational support for NOAA-9 and  
-10, which carry NASA Earth science instruments; and Meteosat-2, which supports STS trans-Atlantic emergency landings, was 
also provided. 

In FY 1995, the WFF will add primary operational support for the SWAS, FAST, TOMS-EP, SeaStar, ERS-2, and RadarSat missions.  
Deployment of the U.S.-Argentine SAC-B aboard a Pegasus launch system will also be supported.  Reimbursable support for Ariane 
deployments of ERS-2 and Helios-1; Conestoga deployment of Comet; and operational support of Express and SFU-1 will be 
provided.  Primary operational support of ADEOS will begin in FY 1996.  In FY 1996, reimbursable support for 3 Pegasus launches 
of Orbcom systems is to be provided. 

The upgrade of the WFF will be completed by FY 1997.  In FY 1994, systems design was completed, to be followed by installation of 
data handling systems in FY 1995.  In FY 1996, installation of one 11 meter antenna is to be completed followed by a second in 
FY 1997.  FY 1994 also saw continued progress toward establishment of tracking, command and data acquisition facilities at 
McMurdo Station, Antarctica and at Fairbanks, Alaska in support of the RadarSat and ADEOS missions, respectively.  Installation 
of a 10 meter antenna at McMurdo is scheduled to be completed in FY 1995 and an 11 meter antenna at Fairbanks, Alaska is to be 
completed in FY 1996. 

Demonstration of GPS technology in collaboration with NASA's SSTI program will occur in FY 1996.  Two flight qualified GPS 
receivers and associated software will be deployed aboard the Lewis spacecraft.  Development of these articles by NASA's Ground 
Network program will occur in FY 1995.  A GPS time reference and distribution testbed will also be established for receiver 


                                  MISSION CONTROL AND DATA SYSTEMS 

                                                  FY 1994         FY 1995           FY 1996 
                                                            (Thousands of Dollars) 

Mission control systems                            16,600          12,000            11,300 
Mission control operations                         54,000          51,300            45,300 
Data processing systems                            46,381          42,500            41,400 
Data processing operations                         89,500          70,000            64,200 

        Total                                     206,481         175,800           162,200 


To provide reliable, cost-effective mission control and data processing systems and services for space flight missions of the Goddard 
Space Flight Center (GSFC); data processing for NASA's Spacelab program; and flight dynamics services for NASA flight systems.  
The Mission Control and Data Systems program also provides for data systems and other telecommunications systems technology 
demonstrations and initiatives and coordination of data standards and communications frequency allocations for NASA flight 
systems.  The Mission Control and Data Systems program provides for the implementation, maintenance and operation of the 
mission control and data processing facilities necessary to ensure the health and safety and the sustained level of high quality 
performance of NASA flight systems. 

The Mission Control and Data Systems program supports NASA's programs in collaborative interagency and international initiatives.  
Limited flight dynamics support is provided to national, international and commercial enterprises on a reimbursable basis. 


NASA's Mission Control and Data Systems program is comprised of a diverse set of facilities, systems and services required to 
support NASA flight systems.  The Computer Science Corporation and AlliedSignal Technical Services are the support service 
contractors responsible for ongoing engineering support, development and operations. 

The mission control function consists of planning scientific observations and preparing command sequences to be transmitted to 
spacecraft to control all spacecraft activities.  These services range from the relatively inexpensive to the more complex and 
sophisticated.  The Hubble Space Telescope (HST), NASA's most complex spacecraft, requires 10,000 commands per day to carry out 
its mission.  Mission control centers interface with flight dynamics and communications network facilities in preparation of 
command sequences, perform the real-time uplink of command sequences to spacecraft systems, and monitor spacecraft and 
instrument telemetry for health, safety, and system performance.  Real-time management of information from costly spacecraft 
systems is crucial to rapid determination of the condition of the spacecraft and scientific instruments and to prepare commands in 
response to emergencies. 

Mission control facilities operated and sustained under this program are Mission Operations Centers for the HST, the several 
missions of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics program, International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), Total Ozone Mapping 
System (TOMS), and Small Explorer (SMEX) programs; and the Multi-satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) which serves the 
Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS), Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), 
Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), International Cometary Explorer (ICE), and Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP-8). 

EUVE will be the last satellite controlled by the aging Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center.  It and the CGRO system are being 
transitioned to new Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) architecture of distributed workstations first used for 
the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) mission.  NASA's SAMPEX, Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer 
(FAST), Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) missions will be operated from a common control facility for SMEX 
missions; TOMS-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) will likewise be operated from the current TOMS control center.  TPOCCs for the X-ray 
Timing Explorer (XTE), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) are in development.  
These workstation systems allow for increased mission control capability at reduced cost. 

Other mission control systems include the Shuttle POCC Interface Facility (SPIF) and the Command Management System.  The SPIF 
provides a single interface to the Mission Control Center for the Space Transportation System (STS) for use of spacecraft mission 
control facilities to access spacecraft to be deployed by the STS.  The Command Management System generates all command 
sequences to be used by mission control centers to support spacecraft systems.  A User Planning System (UPS) is provided for 
scheduling communications with spacecraft supported by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS); the Flight-to-
Ground Interface Engineering Center provides pre-flight and in-flight simulation and development support for NASA flight systems; 
and an Operations Support Center maintains status records of in-flight NASA systems. 

The data processing function captures spacecraft data received on the ground, verifies the quality of the data and the transmission 
circuits used to transport the data, and prepares data sets ready for scientific analysis.  These facilities perform the first order of 
processing of spacecraft data prior to its distribution to science operations centers and to individual instrument managers and 
research teams. 

Data processing facilities that provide general services to NASA flight systems include the Packet Data Processing (PACOR) facility 
and the Telemetry Processing Facility.  The PACOR facility, which utilizes a new type of data protocol to ease spacecraft message 
handling, is to replace the Telemetry Processing Facility, which serves spacecraft employing Generic Time Division Multiplexed 
(GTDM) message handling, once the latter approach is no longer used by NASA spacecraft.  The PACOR system is being upgraded to 
a distributed workstation environment in order to manage the increasing volume and rate of data processing.  An Advanced Orbiting 
Systems Testbed (AOST) is used to test and support continued standardization of NASA flight system data handling. 

Specialized data processing services are provided by the HST Data Capture Facility (HSTDCF), the International Solar Terrestrial 
Physics DCF, and the Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF)  A Central Data Acquisition Facility provides backup data capture 
services and the Data Distribution Facility performs electronic media production and distribution of NASA space flight data to 
interested users.  Specialized telemetry processing systems for NASA's Space Network systems are also provided under this 

The Mission Control and Data Systems program also provides for the operation, sustainment and improvement of NASA's Flight 
Dynamic Facility (FDF).  The FDF provides orbit and attitude determination for operating NASA space flight systems, including the 
TDRS and Space Transportation System (STS); develops high-level operations concepts for future space flight systems; modifies 
existing FDF systems to accommodate future missions; develops mission-unique attitudinal software and simulator systems for 
specific flight systems; generates star catalogues for general use; and conducts special studies of future orbit and attitude flight and 
ground system applications.  It is critical to continuously know the location of spacecraft so as to communicate with the system and 
to know the orientation of the spacecraft to assess spacecraft health and safety and to perform accurate scientific observations.  The 
types and level of support required by spacecraft systems is dependent on the design of its on-board attitude and control systems, 
including its maneuver capabilities, and the level of position and pointing accuracy required of the spacecraft.  Automated orbit 
determination systems for TDRS and other spacecraft systems are also under development.  The FDF performs studies of 
atmospheric, geodetic, geopotential, and tidal effects upon space flight systems; special attention is currently being paid to the 
geopotential models being developed through support of NASA's Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) mission. 

Besides the operation of currently deployed spacecraft and the modification and development of mission control and data processing 
systems to accommodate flight systems, the Mission Control and Data Systems program also supports the study of future flight 
missions and ground system approaches not yet approved for development.  The more significant investments -- for spacecraft, 
instrument, science planning and scheduling, and scientific products generation systems -- are made by NASA's strategic 
enterprises.  Mission control and first-order data processing systems are less costly systems.  Yet, proper economy of mission 
planning requires solutions that integrate ground and flight system development considerations.  Special emphasis is given by the 
Mission Control and Data Systems program to seeking integrated solutions to spacecraft and ground system designs which 
emphasize spacecraft autonomy; ease and low cost of operation; reuse of software; and selected use of advanced technology to 
increase the return of space flight system investments at equal or lower-cost than is required to support today's mission systems. 

NASA's Mission Control and Data Systems program supports two forms of advanced technology:  near-term demonstration and 
application of data management systems and procedures; and more long-range development of ground and space flight 
communications systems.  A Data Systems Technology Laboratory was recently established at GSFC to assess the prospect of 
various advanced applications in command and control, data processing, flight dynamics, and communications network systems.  
This facility will be used to examine the feasibility, performance and cost of future applications in the areas of artificial intelligence, 
expert systems, human factors, distributed systems, remote systems, user interfaces, mission planning and scheduling, very large 
scale integration (VLSI), mass data storage, object-oriented languages, and high volume/high rate data capture. 

More long-range applications being developed under the Mission Control and Data Systems program include the development of low-
cost, low-power TDRS user transponders; evaluation of Space Network data modulation and compression strategies; advanced 
communications receivers; VLSI-based communications gateways; and Ku-band phased array technologies.  The Mission Control 
and Data Systems program also provides for advanced development of a limited number of deep space communications 
technologies, including Ka-band flight subsystems and Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna calibration. 

The Mission Control and Data Systems program also provides the coordination needed to plan for NASA's International Space 
Station program. 

Finally, in order to carry out the duties of the Space Communications program, the Mission Control and Data Systems program also 
seeks to ensure the availability of adequate allocation of communication frequencies for the performance of NASA flight mission and 
administrative functions.  NASA's Office of Space Communications coordinates licensing arrangements with other U.S. agencies and 
regulatory groups and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).  In compliance with the 1992 Telecommunications Act, 
NASA actively participates with the Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee (IRAC) and working groups of the Federal 
Communications Commission (FCC) and Department of State. 


                                               FY 1994                FY 1995             FY 1996 
Number of NASA spacecraft supported by 
 GSFC mission control facilities                    12                     18                  19 
Number of mission control hours of service      40,000                 40,000              40,000 
Number of billions of bits of data processed    10,200                 12,200              15,500 
Number of NASA missions provided 
 flight dynamics services                           25                     29                  30 


In FY 1994, mission control was performed for the HST, CGRO, UARS, EUVE, IUE, SAMPEX, ICE, IMP-8, ERBS, TOMS-Meteor, the 
Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and NIMBUS systems; including support for the Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing 
Mission.  Hubble's mission control center was instrumental to the exceptional performance of the First Servicing Mission -- in 
sequence with each new installation of equipment, the mission control center verified the electrical performance of the systems in 
real-time, thereby assuring that repairs were successful.  Support for NIMBUS-7 and COBE were ended in FY 1994. 

In November 1995, the WIND spacecraft was deployed under the control of GSFC's mission control facilities, to be followed by the 
TOMS-EP, XTE, SWAS, and FAST missions throughout the fiscal year.  In FY 1996, deployment of the Solar and Heliospheric 
Observatory (SOHO) and POLAR missions is planned.  Note that the spacecraft managed by GSFC's mission control facilities are 
supported by various NASA communication networks, including the TDRSS, the DSN, the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) and 
transportable ground systems.  A wide range of communications and systems interfaces must be managed to accomplish the 
function of mission control.  Note that NASA mission operations personnel support the planning and development of future mission 
systems and continuous changes to operational spacecraft software systems, as well as the operation of current ground control 

Among systems implementation projects in FY 1994, development of TPOCC systems for the upcoming FAST, SWAS, SOHO, and 
XTE spacecraft was continued, including the procurement of workstations, processors, and software.  TOMS-EP was integrated into 
the TOMS mission control center.  FAST and SWAS mission control systems will be combined into a generic SMEX mission 
operations center.  Modification of the Command Management System for the SOHO mission was also supported.  TPOCC 
development for the CGRO and EUVE missions was initiated in order to allow closure of the aging MSOCC facility by FY 1997.  
Preparations for the First Servicing Mission for the HST were followed by ongoing ground system software changes to improve 
observation scheduling and operations. 

In FY 1995, SOHO, XTE, SWAS, and FAST mission control centers will be completed prior to their deployment, and procurement of 
systems for the TRMM and ACE missions will be initiated.  Emphasis upon artificial intelligence applications and advanced 
graphical displays will accelerate with the latter procurements.  NASA's Command Management System will be maintained in its 
current form, pending the results of further studies of the future configuration of NASA mission control systems.  In FY 1996, 
conversion of CGRO and EUVE to TPOCC systems is to be completed; support for the HST Second Servicing Mission will accelerate; 
TRMM and ACE control systems procurement will be completed; and transition to support of the next series of SMEX missions will 

In FY 1994, packet data processing operations were provided for the HST, CGRO, EUVE, SAMPEX, and Geotail missions.  The 
GTDM services were provided for the UARS, ERBS, ICE, IMP-8, and NOAA-10 systems.  Data processing of the Spacelab missions 
was also performed.  In FY 1995, GTDM services were initiated for the WIND mission, and will continue for the POLAR mission upon 
its deployment.  The XTE and SWAS missions will also be supported by GSFC's data processing program in FY 1995; operational 
support for SOHO will begin in FY 1996. 

Beginning with the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) mission, all Spacelab data processing was 
consolidated with the Spacelab mission control facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) at reduced cost. 

Development of the PACOR II upgrade continued in FY 1994, and will proceed with the completion of the core processing system in 
FY 1995.  Current PACOR supported missions will be accommodated by the upgraded system; additional changes to the system will 
support the SOHO, SWAS, and XTE missions.  In addition to these flight programs, preparation for the TRMM mission and other 
follow-on SMEX missions will continue through FY 1996 for future year deployment. 

Flight dynamics services were provided to all NASA space flight missions which utilize NASA's Space Network and selected elements 
of the Ground Network, including the STS, expendable launch vehicles (ELV), and satellite systems.  Orbit and attitude control of 
the TDRS itself is also provided.  In FY 1994, reimbursable support for the SPOT-3, GOES-Next, DSPSE, and 3 commercial ELV 
deployments was performed.  In FY 1995, operational orbit determination for the WIND, SOHO, XTE, SWAS, FAST, and TOMS-EP 
will be added; reimbursable support is to be provided for 7 missions, including the HELIOS-1, Earth Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-
2), SAC-B and GOES and NOAA programs.  Support for the POLAR mission will begin in FY 1996.  Mission planning for the future 
ACE, Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), Wide-field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer 
(FUSE), Landsat-7, and Earth Observing System (EOS) missions is supported. 

Attitudinal software and simulator development is being provided for the SOHO, XTE, SWAS, FAST, TOMS-EP, TRACE, WIRE, ACE, 
TRMM, EOS-AM, and Landsat-7 flight systems.  Specification of requirements to transition the FDF to a workstation environment 
will continue in FY 1996. 

In FY 1994, transfer of data systems technologies to flight project use occurred in the areas of software reuse, VLSI applications, 
expert system monitoring of spacecraft control functions, and packet data processing systems.  Software reuse, expert systems, 
VLSI, user interface, workstation environments, and object-oriented language applications will continue through FY 1996, including 
application of new technologies to the EOS Data Information System (EOSDIS).  Continued exploration of the promise of advanced 
communications technologies will continue throughout this period. 

In FY 1994, NASA actively supported the objectives of the United States of America at the 1994 ITU Plenipotentiary Conference; 
preparations are underway to continue this support at the FY 1995 and FY 1997 World Radio Conferences (WRC). 


                                  SPACE NETWORK CUSTOMER SERVICE 

                                                FY 1994          FY 1995           FY 1996 
                                                           (Thousands of Dollars) 

Space network customer service                   30,000           32,000            30,300 


To provide reliable, cost-effective user access to NASA's space-based tracking, command and data acquisition systems and selected 
elements of NASA's Ground Network system.  These services are provided for NASA’s Human Space Flight program, other low-Earth 
orbiting science missions, including observatory-class systems, and selected sub-orbital flight systems.  The Space Network 
Customer Service program provides for the implementation, maintenance and operation of the network control and scheduling 
facilities of the Space Network and selected elements of NASA's Ground Network necessary to ensure the health and safety and the 
sustained level of high quality performance of NASA flight systems. 

The Space Network program supports NASA's programs in collaborative interagency, international, and commercial enterprises; and 
independently provides support to other national and commercial space-faring enterprises on a reimbursable basis. 


The Space Network Customer Service program provides user access to NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System 
(TDRSS) and selected elements of NASA's Ground Network.  This function is performed by the Network Control Center (NCC) located 
at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).  The NCC provides user scheduling, remotely configures the TDRSS ground terminals 
and satellites, and provides network fault isolation services.  The NCC also performs scheduling for the Spaceflight Tracking and 
Data Network (STDN) and coordinates support of the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) and the Deep Space Network (DSN), elements of 
NASA's Ground Network, on behalf of NASA's Human Space Flight program.  The NCC also controls the STDN, including all fault 
isolation and service evaluation functions, for the deployment of expendable launch vehicles (ELV) from the Canaveral Air Force 
Station.  The Computer Science Corporation provides the primary systems engineering, software development and maintenance, and 
analytical services. AlliedSignal Technical Services Corporation provides operations and maintenance personnel as well as some 
specialized engineering, analysis, and software development tasks. 

The NCC serves as a common interface for the flight systems it supports.  Tracking, command and data acquisition requirements of 
user flight systems are coordinated by mission control facilities with the NCC.  Schedules to access user spacecraft via the TDRSS 
are established prior to the scheduled event; re-scheduling is performed as necessary; and command uplink or downlink is 
performed.  NASA's Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) also supports these efforts by providing predictions of user and TDRS spacecraft 
locations and attitudes.  The Bilateration Ranging and Tracking System (BRTS), also funded by the Space Network Customer Service 
program, provides precise determinations of the TDRS spacecraft position necessary for accurate user spacecraft tracking. 

The NCC also coordinates the use of NASA's Ground Network facilities in support of the launch, emergency access, and landing of 
the Space Transportation System (STS).  In addition, the NCC coordinates the NASA Ground Network facilities support for the 
Department of the Air Force's Eastern Launch Range. 

In addition, the Space Network Customer Service program provides simulation and testing to ensure telecommunications network 
readiness and compatibility of flight and ground communication systems.  NASA's Simulations Operations Center (SOC) emulates 
Space Network, Ground Network, and user spacecraft and mission control facilities, including the Johnson Space Center Mission 
Control Center, and Hubble Space Telescope Operations Control Center.  A Radio Frequency Simulations Operations Center 
(RFSOC) provides forward and return link access to the TDRS spacecraft and also serves as a spacecraft emulator for support of 
TDRS testing and evaluation.  NASA's Compatibility Test Van (CTV) provides a transportable test capability for user systems; it 
supports radio frequency link assurance for Space Network, STDN, WFF, and Transportable Orbital Tracking Station (TOTS) 
supported systems.  End-to-end compatibility verification can be performed using the CTV as an RF link between network and 
mission control facilities and user spacecraft prior to shipment from the manufacturer's plant.  This capability also allows for 
advanced flight operations team training.  SOC and CTV services are provided to international, other U.S. agency and commercial 
enterprises on a reimbursable basis. 

The development, upgrade, maintenance and operation of the NCC, SOC, and CTV are provided by the Space Network Customer 
Service program.  The NCC is being upgraded to accommodate the new TDRSS ground terminals and to enhance user scheduling 
services of the NCC.  SOC, RFSOC, and CTV systems are being upgraded due to system obsolescence and the need to incorporate 
digital technology in support of future high data rate systems. 

A new initiative to develop a low-power, low-weight transponder system for spacecraft applications, co-funded under the Mission 
Control and Data Systems long-range technology program and the Space Network Customer Service program, promises to expand 
the scope and number of users of the TDRSS.  This project will produce a number of flight qualified units for use by several NASA 
flight systems. 

NASA's Space Network Customer Service program also provides mission planning for NASA flight missions and engineering support 
for the TDRSS ground terminals, including adaptation of TDRSS to meet specific user needs and assistance in testing and 
demonstrating emerging communications technology and procedures.  TDRS spacecraft are being made available to industry for test 
and demonstration of new mobile satellite systems, including remote hand-held terminals, personal communications services, and 
digital broadcast of compact disk quality radio applications .  In addition, development of low power, portable transmit/receive 
terminals which operate with TDRS spacecraft is underway; potential applications include ocean buoy data collection, data 
collection from Antarctic sites, and the interagency environmental science and education Global Observations to Benefit the 
Environment (GLOBE) program.  A series of tests with future Japanese and European data relay satellite systems will be conducted 
to explore interoperability with Space Network for emergency operational support of NASA spacecraft. 


                                              FY 1994           FY 1995          FY 1996 

Number of Space Network spacecraft events 
 supported by the NCC                          57,333            63,700           68,700 


In FY 1994, the TDRSS Space Network provided support for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) First Servicing Mission and 6 other 
missions of the STS, including the Space Radar Lab (SRL-1), Spacehab-2, International Microgravity Lab (IML-2), and Space Life 
Sciences (SLS-2).  Operational support was also provided to the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), the Upper Atmosphere 
Research Satellite (UARS), the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), the Ocean 
Topography Experiment (TOPEX).  Space Network support is also provided for classified users of NASA’s Space Network system.  The 
NCC also supported interface testing of the new Danzante, or Second TDRSS Ground Terminal (STGT), in FY 1994, including 
software changes to the NCC needed to accommodate dual ground terminals. 

SOC and CTV support was provided for missions of the STS and for NASA's Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST), Submillimeter 
Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), WIND, POLAR, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), Total 
Ozone Mapping System-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP), and Long Duration Balloon programs.  Support was also provided for the new 
Danzante ground terminal and in preparation for deployment of the TDRS Replacement Spacecraft.  Reimbursable support was 
provided for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-Next), NOAA-K, and RadarSat programs. 

In FY 1995, XTE, the Long Duration Balloon Program, and NASA’s ER-2 high altitude Earth sciences aircraft will be added to the 
workload of the TDRSS Space Network.  The NCC will also support the deployment of the TDRS Replacement Spacecraft.  Seven 
flights of the STS are planned, including Spacehab-3, U.S. Microgravity Lab (USML-2), Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and 
Science (ATLAS-3), SRL-2, Astro-2, and the first Shuttle/MIR rendezvous.  Continued support for TDRSS ground terminal testing is 

Modification of NCC software to operate more than three TDRS spacecraft will be completed in FY 1995, allowing for the operation of 
partially failed TDRS spacecraft.  SOC and CTV support for aforementioned space flight systems still in development will continue; 
support for the Universal Spacecraft Clock Calibration System will also be provided.  Upgrade and automation of the SOC RF 
equipment will also begin in FY 1995. 

No new robotic spacecraft missions are to be added to the Space Network workload in FY 1996.  Seven flights of STS are scheduled, 
including Tether Satellite System, Spacehab-4, Life and Microgravity Spacelab, and three additional Shuttle/MIR rendezvous 
missions.  SOC and CTV support is planned for the missions of the STS and NASA's SWAS, SOHO, Tropical Rainfall Measurement 
Mission (TRMM), follow-on Small Explorers, Landsat-7, and EOS programs.  Reimbursable support for GOES-Next will also be 

Development of an improved, distributed architecture scheduling system for the NCC will begin in FY 1996.  When completed, this 
system will provide more efficient use of the network capabilities and improved ability to resolve scheduling conflicts among user 
missions.  A cooperative effort, jointly funded with the Ground Network program, will initiate development of a radio frequency 
interface in Antarctica for access to the Space Network.  This capability will allow rapid retrieval of science data from the Canadian 
RadarSat mission for real-time, quick-look data validation; this application also may be used for other polar orbiting systems. 

                                                                                                                  SAT 6