NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
                                                 FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
                                      ANALYSIS OF NASA/RUSSIAN COOPERATIVE MIR PROGRAM 
	 
 
                                                                       FY 1994          FY 1995         FY 1996 
                                                                                 (Thousands of dollars) 

HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT 
  US-Russian cooperative program*                                       170,800          150,100         129,200 
    (Russian support)                                                  (100,000)        (100,000)       (100,000) 
    (Mir)                                                               (70,800)         (50,100)        (29,200) 
  Space station (Flight technology demonstrations)*                          --           30,000          10,400 
 

SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND TECHNOLOGY 
  Russian cooperation*                                                   52,900           61,600          63,100 
    (Life sciences)                                                     (31,500)         (16,600)        (20,800) 
    (Microgravity)                                                      (10,200)         (11,300)         (9,300) 
    (Spacelab mission management)                                       (11,200)         (27,700)        (23,000) 
    (Space access and technology)                                           (--)          (6,000)        (10,000) 
 

      Total                                                             223,700          241,700         202,700 
 

*  Russian cooperation program elements are also included under the special analysis of the Agency's Space Station-related 
   support. 
 

The cooperative U.S.-Russian Mir program consists of seven (with a capability of ten) flights of the Space Shuttle to the Mir Space 
Station with the objective of conducting a joint experiment program for microgravity and life sciences and a technology 
demonstration program to mitigate risk involved in the development of the international Space Station, as well as extending the 
useful life of the Mir station through 1997.  The initial flight of this joint program is scheduled for mid-1995.  A minimum of five 
flights will carry pressurized experiments and other hardware to the Mir -- the first in a Spacelab module, with four others via a 
pressurized Spacehab carrier.  During this period, Russia will enhance the Mir capabilities by adding two experiment/logistics 
modules to the core Mir station (Spektr and Priroda), which will also carry U.S. hardware.  Other flights will supply logistics and Mir 
life-extension hardware, and conduct flight technology demonstrations. 
 

The Russian support funding provides for hardware and services provided by Russia on a firm, fixed-price contractual basis which 
will benefit the joint Mir activities (Phase 1) as well as future Space Station-related design, technologies and other services  
(Phase 2/3). 



                                       NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
                                                 FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
                                        ANALYSIS OF AGENCY SUPPORT FOR SPACE STATION 
	 

                                                                        FY 1994          FY 1995         FY 1996 
                                                                                 (Thousands of dollars) 
HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT 
  Space station                                                       1,939,200        1,889,600       1,833,600 
  Russian cooperation                                                    70,800           50,100          29,200 
 

SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS & TECHNOLOGY 
  Life and microgravity sciences and applications 
    Russian cooperation                                                  52,900           55,600          53,100 
      (Life sciences)                                                   (31,500)         (16,600)        (20,800) 
      (Microgravity)                                                    (10,200)         (11,300)         (9,300) 
      (Spacelab mission management)                                     (11,200)         (27,700)        (23,000) 
    Space station facility payloads                                      37,000           90,500         137,300 
    Space station utilization 
      (Life sciences)                                                                        500           4,200    
      (Microgravity)                                                      6,100           11,800          16,200 
 

    Mission to planet earth space station attached  
      payload                                                                --               --           4,100 
 

    Space Access and Technology Space Station 
      Utilization                                                            --           15,000          37,100 
 

    Total                                                             2,106,000        2,113,100       2,114,800 
 

Space station-related activities are funded in the Human Space Flight (HSF) appropriation and in the Science, Aeronautics & 
Technology (SAT) appropriation.  Activities funded in the HSF appropriation include the development and operation of the Space 
Station, and the flight support component of the Russian cooperation program of joint flights to the Mir Space Station.  Both 
programs are managed by the Office of Space Flight.  Space Station-related funding in the SAT appropriation provides for the 
development, operation and science research associated with the scientific, technology and commercial payloads being built for 
utilization of the Space Station or in conjunction with the joint Mir program.  The majority of these activities are managed by the 
Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications for these discipline-specific experiments.  An externally-attached Space 
Station payload is being developed by the Mission to Planet Earth program.  The Space Access and Technology program is providing 
technology and commercial payloads for both external and pressurized Space Station deployment. 


 
	
 



                                       National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
 

                                              Major NASA Development Programs 
                                                   Program Cost Estimates 
 

This special section of the FY 1996 budget justifications provides information about major NASA programs that are either in the 
design and development phase or have not completed their initial operational phase.  In several instances, information about 
programs which are not "major" but are of special interest has been included.  The budgetary estimates are expressed in millions of 
dollars of budget authority.*  Estimates of the FY 1994 and prior fiscal year budget authority are the "actual" amounts.  The  
FY 1995 amounts are consistent with the NASA Operating Plan as of January 1995.  The amounts for FY 1996 and future fiscal 
years are expressed in "real year" economics, that is, they include an adjusting factor for the future inflation expected to be 
experienced.  If the term "constant dollars" is used in the budget justifications, that phraseology indicates that the numbers do not 
include inflationary adjustments beyond the fiscal year referenced (e.g., "constant FY 1994 dollars"). 
 

The estimates provided below are intended to be comprehensive, including all related mission-unique costs, but there are 
limitations.  The direct and indirect costs incurred by foreign governments or other federal agencies in support of these missions 
have not been included.  (The reader is referred to the NASA Program Status Reports, a biannual document published by NASA, for 
the most accurate information available to NASA on the amounts incurred or to be incurred.)  The estimates of civil service 
workyears for these missions are not available at this time, but will be provided to the Congress as soon as practicable, following the 
completion of the civil service workforce review now being conducted by NASA.  This review was undertaken in response to the 
direction from the Administration and Congress to cut the government's total civil service population by 272,900 by 1999.  The 
NASA workforce review will study how the reductions in the NASA workforce should be made to meet our 1999 target. 




*Budget authority is a term used to represent the amounts appropriated by the Congress in a given fiscal year; budget authority 
provides government agencies with the authority to obligate funds.  The ensuing obligations, cost incurrence, and expenditures 
(outlays) can differ in timing from the fiscal year in which Congress provides the budget authority in an appropriations act. 



                                            High Speed Research Program 
 

The High Speed Research Program is a cooperative government-industry program to develop the technologies required by U.S. firms 
to design and build an environmentally compatible and economically competitive high-speed civil transport aircraft for the post-
2000 period.  The program consists of two phases.  Phase I was initiated in FY 1990.  Research was initiated at that time into 
environmental issues, such as atmospheric effects (e.g., ozone depletion), take-off and landing noise levels, and sonic booms for 
overland flight.  Potential technology solutions have also been investigated.  Phase II began in FY 1994, following a presentation of 
the encouraging preliminary results from Phase I activities.  This phase involves both government funding and industry 
contributions of facilities, personnel, and supporting R&D.  Development and validation of specific airframe and engine designs, 
design tools, and technologies for manufacturing processes are underway.  This phase will conclude in 2001.  It should be noted 
that the government funding does not provide for the development of a prototype aircraft.   
 

The budgetary estimates provided below are the amounts included in the specific budget justification within the Aeronautics section 
in the Science, Aeronautics and Technology appropriation for this program.  They do not include the amounts being contributed by 
industry, NASA civil service workforce salary and expenses (S&E), and the use of government facilities and general support used to 
carry out the research.  A more detailed exposition of the program goals, objectives and activities is provided in the specific budget 
justification narrative.  
 

                                       (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000  Balance     TOTAL


HIGH SPEED RESEARCH                    261.9   197.2   221.3   245.5   276.7   286.2   211.6   127.3     58.8   1,886.5



                                            Advanced Subsonic Technology 
 

The Advanced Subsonic Technology program is a cooperative government-industry program to develop technologies in areas where 
such developments will facilitate the economic and technological competitiveness of U.S. subsonic aircraft producers.  These 
developments include not only airframe, engine, and avionics technology improvements, but also short-haul aircraft, environmental 
studies, efficiency and safety improvements, advanced air traffic technology, and aircraft design and manufacturing tools.  This 
systems technology program was preceded by activities funded within the research and technology base for many years; the decision 
to create a focused program was made in the FY 1991 budget.  The specific objectives set forth for this program are intended to be 
completed by FY 2002.   
 

The budgetary estimates provided below are the amounts included in the specific budget justification within the Aeronautics section 
in the Science, Aeronautics and Technology appropriation for this program.  As such, they do not include the amounts being 
contributed by industry,  NASA civil service workforce salary and expenses (S&E), and the use of government facilities and general 
and administrative support used to carry out the research.  A more detailed exposition of the program goals, objectives and activities 
is provided in the specific budget justification narrative.  
 

                                       (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 

                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000  Balance     TOTAL


ADVANCED SUBSONIC TECHNOLOGY            17.4    89.3   125.8   188.4   216.9   257.3   244.0   182.2    142.0   1,463.3



                                            International Space Station 
 

In FY 1983, NASA received approval to enter into a preliminary definition phase of a space station.  A cost target was established at 
that time by President Reagan; this target provided guidance to the team undertaking the definition of what capabilities a space 
station could have for this amount of money.  Due to the uncertainty of future inflation, the target was expressed in constant 1984 
dollars.  The target value of $8 billion was intended to cover the costs which would be incurred to perform the preliminary definition 
and the development of space station hardware and ground systems.  The President also directed NASA to solicit the involvement of 
international parties in the space station. 
 

After three years studying numerous design concepts, a final reference design was established by NASA and our international 
partners--Japan, Canada, and the member nations of the European Space Agency.  Prior to requesting from the Administration and 
Congress the authority to proceed into the development phase, NASA undertook a comprehensive cost estimate.  The resultant 
estimate of $14.5 billion (expressed in 1984 dollars for comparison purposes) was presented to the Administration in early 1987.  
After consideration, the Administration directed a National Research Council (NRC) review of the reference design and the cost 
estimate.  The NRC reported back that the space station could be built in two phases, with the second phase adding the dual keel 
configuration, the co-orbiting platform, servicing capabilities, and additional solar dynamic power modules.  The NRC included in its 
estimate of $21.0-25.0 billion (1984 dollars), a number of additional cost elements : operations, marginal Shuttle flight costs, a crew 
rescue vehicle, civil service salaries and expenses, facilities, and provision for additional testing and backup hardware.  These 
estimates were furnished to the Congress in mid-1987 for their review prior to action on NASA's FY 1988 appropriation. 
 

Over each ensuing year, Congress approved continuation of the Space Station Freedom program, but reduced each year's 
appropriations request.  On several occasions, Congress directed NASA to redesign the Station to conform not only  to the reduced 
appropriations request in that year but also to reduced projections of future funding availability for NASA's overall budget.  In early 
1993, President Clinton directed NASA to undertake a 90 day study of lower cost redesign options for the Space Station, and 
appointed an Advisory Committee on the Redesign of the Space Station.  In June 1993, upon receiving the final reports and the 
Advisory Committee's recommendations, President Clinton selected an option (A) from the three options presented and directed 
NASA to execute the Space Station program for no greater than $2.1 billion per year.  This figure encompassed not only the 
development and operational costs of the Space Station itself but also the costs for a program of precursor scientific research, the 
expenses for integrating the Space Shuttle and the Space Station and the development of experimental facilities and capabilities for 
the Space Station.  The cap excluded the costs of civil service salaries and expenses, Space Shuttle operational flight costs, and 
performance improvements to the Shuttle.  
 

In the Fall of 1993, President Clinton invited the Russian Government to become a participant in the program.  The Russians offered 
access to their Mir space station in the interim period between 1995 and the beginning of the international Space Station's 
assembly.  The Congress and Administration agreed in late 1993 that the $100 million amount to be paid annually to the Russian  
Space Agency for hardware and services over the FY 1994-97 period was outside the $2.1 billion annual cap.  Since late 1993, the 
U.S. and the newly expanded set of international partners have proceeded with the final design and hardware development for an 
international Space Station with significantly greater capabilities for research than those which would have been provided on Space 
Station Freedom or the option selected in the redesign process. 
 

The budgetary estimates provided below include the amounts for this program in both the Human Space Flight and the Science, 
Aeronautics and Technology appropriations .  The totals provide the current estimate for the costs to be incurred through the date 
when the completion of assembly milestone in June 2002 is accomplished.  They do not include the amounts being contributed by 
the international partners, the NASA civil service workforce salaries and expenses (S&E), the $400 million contract with the Russian 
Space Agency, the costs of the non-program unique NASA facilities, Shuttle performance improvements and flight operations costs, 
and the general and administrative support used to execute the program.  The present cost estimate for the average costs of the 19 
Space Shuttle flights for assembly of the U.S. elements is $9.8 billion.  An additional 6 Shuttle flights will be made for science and 
technology utilization purposes before June 2002; at average costs, these utilization flights are estimated at $3.1 billion.  A more 
detailed exposition of the program goals, objectives and activities is provided in the specific budget justification narrative for the 
program within the budget justifications for the Space Station; Russian cooperation; Payload Utilization and Operations; Life and 
Microgravity Sciences and Applications; Space Access and Technology; and, Mission to Planet Earth.  



International Space Station 
                                       (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 

                                       PRIOR     1994     1995     1996     1997     1998     1999     2000  Balance     TOTAL


PROGRAM ELEMENTS WITHIN $2.1                  2,106.0  2,113.1  2,114.8  2,120.9  2,098.1  2,106.8  1,950.2  2,750.0  17,359.9
BILLION ANNUAL FUNDING CAP


HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT                  10,234.1  2,010.0  1,939.7  1,862.8  1,796.2  1,743.3  1,719.0  1,531.6  2,312.5  25,149.2


SPACE STATION                       10,113.1  1,939.2  1,889.6  1,833.6  1,782.0  1,742.0  1,719.0  1,531.6  2,312.5  24,862.6
    DEVELOPMENT                      9,190.1  1,918.2  1,752.4  1,612.8  1,409.2  1,184.3    837.7    566.8    326.2  18,797.7
    UTILIZATION SUPPORT                [75.2]    21.0     28.3     67.9     86.9     95.1    106.3    111.9    204.2     721.6
    OPERATIONS                                           108.9    152.9    285.9    462.6    775.0    852.9  1,782.1   4,420.3
    OTHER                              923.0                                                                             923.0


U.S./RUSSIAN COOPERATIVE PROGRAM       121.0     70.8     50.1     29.2     14.2      1.3                                286.6




SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS & TECHNOLOGY                96.0    173.4    252.0    324.7    354.8    387.8    418.6    437.5   2,444.8


LIFE & MICROGRAVITY SCIENCES                     96.0    158.4    210.8    262.2    298.4    331.9    360.7    387.5   2,105.9
    SPACE STATION FACILITIES                     37.0     90.5    137.3    184.2    210.4    226.2    228.7    262.5   1,376.8
    LIFE SCIENCES                                31.5     17.1     25.0     28.9     43.8     52.7     76.0     72.0     347.0
    MICROGRAVITY RESEARCH                        16.3     23.1     25.5     37.4     43.1     53.0     56.0     53.0     307.4
    STS/SPACELAB MISSION MANAGEMENT              11.2     27.7     23.0     11.7      1.1                                 74.7


SPACE ACCESS AND TECHNOLOGY                               15.0     37.1     52.6     51.3     52.8     53.7     50.0     312.5


MISSION TO PLANET EARTH  (SAGE III)                                 4.1      9.9      5.1      3.1      4.2               26.4 
 
 
 



                                            Alternate Turbopump Development 
 

Funding to begin development of an alternate design for the two turbopumps driving the Space Shuttle's Main Engine was initiated 
in FY 1987  The development of a new high-pressure oxygen turbopump and hydrogen fuel turbopump was undertaken to improve 
the safety, reliability, producibility, and maintainability of the current turbopumps.  After an initial period of design and 
development, problems experienced in early development testing and accompanying increased costs resulted in suspension of the 
fuel turbopump's development, while development activities concentrated on the oxygen turbopump.  Although further development 
problems were encountered with the oxygen turbopump, their successful resolution led to Congress agreeing in Spring 1994 to 
resumption of the fuel turbopump's development.  The first flight of the oxygen turbopump will occur in 1995, followed two years 
later by the initial flight of the fuel pump.  The budgetary estimates provided below include not only the funding required for the 
design, development, and extensive testing of these two turbopumps, but also the funding needed to produce the flight turbopumps 
for installation into the main engines for the four-orbiter fleet. 
 

The budgetary estimates provided below are the amounts included in the Human Space Flight appropriation for this program.  They 
do not include the amounts for NASA civil service workforce salary and expenses (S&E), and the use of  government facilities and 
general and administrative support used to carry out the development.  A more detailed exposition of the program goals, objectives 
and activities is provided in the specific budget justification narrative for the Space Shuttle program. 
 

                                       (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 

                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000   Balance     TOTAL


DEVELOPMENT                            437.6    54.1    57.6    68.2    42.1    18.7    11.6    10.0               699.9   
IMPLEMENTATION                          20.2    11.9    40.6    56.5    65.1    50.5    38.5    19.8      27.4     330.5


TOTAL                                  457.8    66.0    98.2   124.7   107.2    69.2    50.1    29.8      27.4   1,030.4



                                            Super Lightweight Tank 
 

The design and development of a lighter external tank for the Space Shuttle was undertaken in 1993 after tests of new aluminum-
lithium materials indicated that a significantly lighter external tank could be produced.  The anticipated weight savings of 
approximately 8000 pounds would recover some of the ascent performance losses resulting from safety and reliability improvements 
instituted after the Challenger disaster.  Coupled with other performance gains, the super lightweight tank will facilitate the Space 
Shuttle's operations at new higher inclination orbit established in 1993 for the international Space Station.  The first launch of a 
Space Shuttle with the new tank is planned for the second half of 1997.  In addition to the design and development costs, the 
figures below as "recurring cost" provide the estimate of the funding required for the external tank program's production of the new 
tanks.   The estimates include the additional material cost which will be incurred in the production of subsequent tanks.  The 
aluminum-lithium material is a specialty metal produced to rigorous specifications and accordingly costs more than the aluminum 
used at present.   
 

The budgetary estimates provided below are the amounts included in the Human Space Flight appropriation for this program.  They 
do not include the amounts for NASA civil service workforce salary and expenses (S&E), and the use of government facilities and 
general and administrative support used to carry out the development activities.  A more detailed exposition of the program goals, 
objectives and activities is provided in the specific budget justification narrative for the Space Shuttle program. 
 

                                       (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 

                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL


DEVELOPMENT COST                                50.8    39.6    32.7    30.4    11.7     1.6      .5               167.3
RECURRING COST                                   9.2    19.5    40.3    42.1    39.6    40.3    32.4 Continues


TOTAL                                           60.0    59.1    73.0    72.5    51.3    41.9    32.9               390.7



                                            Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility 
 

The design and development of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) was approved by Congress in the FY 1989 budget.  
The AXAF is the third of the four "Great Observatories" intended to observe the universe in four electromagnetic spectrum regions: 
visible, infrared, gamma ray, and x-ray.  The initial phase of the AXAF's development was limited to a feasibility demonstration of the 
new mirror technology required to achieve the AXAF's objectives.  A specially designed x-ray calibration facility was constructed to 
assure the mirrors meet their design specifications.  The second phase was approved by Congress after the demonstration mirrors 
were successfully tested.  In 1992, NASA management directed the restructuring of the AXAF program to reduce projected future 
funding requirements.  A two-spacecraft approach was selected, a large imaging spacecraft (AXAF-Imaging) and a smaller 
spectroscopy spacecraft (AXAF-Spectroscopy).  In 1993, Congress directed the elimination of the AXAF-S.  The launch of the AXAF-I 
spacecraft is scheduled for September 1998 aboard the Space Shuttle, with an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) providing delivery into a 
highly elliptical orbit around the Earth.  The budgetary estimates provided below encompass: the early development of the mirror 
technology; the design and development phase; establishment of a mission-unique science center and preflight ground system 
development, followed by a five year period (1998-2002) of mission operations and science data analysis; the purchase of the IUS and 
integration activities; the average cost (including recurring costs for improvements and upgrades) of an FY 1998 Space Shuttle flight; 
mission-unique tracking and data support costs; and, the construction of the X-ray Calibration Facility.   
 

The budgetary estimates provided below are the amounts included in the Human Space Flight for Space Shuttle flights and the 
Science, Aeronautics and Technology appropriations for the this program.  They do not include the amounts being contributed by 
international participants, NASA civil service workforce salary and expenses (S&E), and the use of non-program-unique government 
facilities and general and administrative support used to carry out the research and development activities.  A more detailed 
exposition of the program goals, objectives and activities is provided in the specific budget justification narrative for the program 
within the Space Science/Physics and Astronomy section. 
 

                                       (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 

                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000   Balance     TOTAL


ADVANCED TECH DEVELOPMENT               54.2                                                                        54.2
DEVELOPMENT                            480.2   239.3   234.3   237.6   187.3    93.7                             1,472.4
MISSION OPS & DATA ANALYSIS             22.0    11.6    18.9    40.4    42.4    47.8    64.0    66.1     216.3     529.5
UPPER STAGE                              8.2     6.9    15.2    18.3    19.1     9.6                                77.3
FY 1998 SHUTTLE AVERAGE COST                                                   476.5                               476.5
TRACKING & DATA SUPPORT                           .1      .2      .5      .4      .3      .2      .2       1.8       3.7
CONSTRUCTION OF FACILITIES              17.7                                                                        17.7


TOTAL                                  582.3   257.9   268.6   296.8   249.2   627.9    64.2    66.3     218.1   2,631.3




                                            Relativity Mission/Gravity Probe-B 
 

The development of the Gravity Probe-B mission began in 1993, after many years of studying mission design alternatives and 
developing the advanced technologies required for this mission to verify Einstein's theory of general relativity.  The scheduled launch 
date is October 2000, using a Delta II launch vehicle.  The development phase is currently underway, with award of the spacecraft 
development contract being made in 1994.  The estimates provided below assume continuation of funding through the completion of 
the operational phase.  It should be noted that the National Academy of Sciences has agreed to undertake a review of the scientific 
merits of the program; this review was triggered by questions raised within the science community as to relative value of the 
experimental approach given other developments in the field.  The budgetary estimates below include funding for the experiment 
development activities initiated in 1993, 18 months of mission operations, and the launch services. 
 

The budgetary estimates below are the amounts included in the Science, Aeronautics and Technology appropriation for this 
program.  They do not include the amounts for the definition phase studies carried out from FY 1985-87, but they do provide the 
amounts for the Shuttle Test of Relativity Experiment program initiated in FY 1988 and subsequently restructured into a ground 
test program only.  The estimates also exclude: NASA civil service workforce salary and expenses (S&E), and the non-program-
unique government facilities and general and administrative support used to carry out the research and development activities.  A 
more detailed exposition of the program goals, objectives and activities is provided in the specific budget justification narrative for 
the program within the Space Science/Physics and Astronomy section. 
 

                                       (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 

                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000   Balance     TOTAL


STORE                                  125.5     2.4                                                               127.9
DEVELOPMENT                              1.9    40.0    50.0    51.5    53.0    53.7    56.3    36.8       7.8     351.0
MISSION OPS & DATA ANALYSIS                                                                               20.6      20.6
LAUNCH SUPPORT                                                            .6    14.2    24.4    16.8       6.0      62.0
TRACKING & DATA SUPPORT                                                                                              N/A


TOTAL                                  127.4    42.4    50.0    51.5    53.6    67.9    80.7    53.6      34.4     561.5



                                            Global Geospace Science Missions 
 

The development of the two Global Geospace Science (GGS) missions was approved by Congress in the budget for 1989.  The Wind 
and Polar spacecraft are parts of a coordinated international science program to improve our understanding of the complex 
interactions between the sun and the Earth.  Nineteen instruments aboard the two spacecraft will make measurements of the 
interaction between the solar wind with the Earth's magnetic field.  The Wind spacecraft was successfully launched on a Delta II 
launch vehicle in November 1994.  Final spacecraft integration and test activities are underway on the Polar spacecraft, as it heads 
for a launch in December 1995, also on a Delta II.  The budgetary estimates provide for the experiment and spacecraft development, 
a three-year period of mission operations, the launch services, and unique tracking and data acquisition support required during 
the mission.  
 

The budgetary estimates provided below are the amounts included in the Science, Aeronautics and Technology appropriation for this 
program.  They do not include the amounts being contributed by international participants, NASA civil service workforce salary and 
expenses (S&E), and the use of non-program-unique government facilities and general and administrative support used to carry out 
the research and development activities.  A more detailed exposition of the program goals, objectives and activities is provided in the 
specific budget justification narrative for the program within the Space Science/Physics and Astronomy section. 
 

                                       (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 

                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000   Balance    TOTAL


DEVELOPMENT                            385.1    27.6    40.0     5.4                                              458.1
MISSION OPS & DATA ANALYSIS              4.6     3.8     8.2    21.7    25.5    15.7                               79.5
LAUNCH SUPPORT                         110.2     2.7     9.2     3.0                                              125.1
TRACKING & DATA SUPPORT                 20.6     4.0     1.6     1.3      .1                                       27.6


TOTAL                                  520.5    38.1    59.0    31.4    25.6    15.7                              690.3




                                       Collaborative Solar Terrestrial Research Program 
 

The Collaborative Solar Terrestrial Research (COSTR) program is another key U.S. contribution to the international solar terrestrial 
research program.  Beginning in FY 1987, funding provided for this program has enabled NASA to provide instruments and launch 
support for international spacecraft.  In return, the U.S. obtains access to the science data collected by the five European Space 
Agency spacecraft and one Japanese spacecraft.  The initial launch was carried out in July 1992 with the launch of the Japanese 
Geotail spacecraft on a U.S.-funded Delta II.  The October 1995 launch of the ESA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) will 
be on a U.S.-funded Atlas IIAS.  Mission operations and data analysis provides for the operations support to the U.S. furnished 
instruments and the analysis of the scientific data gathered by them. 
 

The budgetary estimates provided below are the amounts included in the Science, Aeronautics and Technology appropriation for this 
program.  They do not include the amounts being contributed by international participants, NASA civil service workforce salary and 
expenses (S&E), and the use of non-program-unique government facilities and general and administrative support used to carry out 
the research and development activities.  A more detailed exposition of the program goals, objectives and activities is provided in the 
specific budget justification narrative for the program within the Space Science/Physics and Astronomy section. 
 

                                       (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 

                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000   Balance    TOTAL


DEVELOPMENT                            274.9    32.8    23.2     3.8                                              334.7
MISSION OPS & DATA ANALYSIS              7.5     9.7    11.7    28.1    28.3     8.4                               93.7
LAUNCH SUPPORT                         102.4    43.0    31.0                                                      176.4
TRACKING & DATA SUPPORT                 28.9     5.3     4.8     2.2     1.4                                       42.6


TOTAL                                  413.7    90.8    70.7    34.1    29.7     8.4                              647.4




                                            The Explorer Development Program 
 

The Explorer development program consists of small to mid-sized spacecraft conducting investigations in all space physics and 
astrophysics disciplines.  The program provides for frequent, relatively low-cost missions to be undertaken as funding availability 
permits within an essentially level overall funding profile for the program.  The funding profile provided below covers the design and 
development phase; other budget elements provide the related funding for launch services, mission-unique tracking and data 
acquisition support, mission operations and data analysis, and civil service workforce salary and expenses.  A more detailed 
exposition of the program goals, objectives and activities is provided in the specific budget justification narrative for the program 
within the Space Science/Physics and Astronomy section. 
 

                                       (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 

                                       PRIOR    1994   1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000   Balance    TOTAL


X-ray Timing Explorer                  136.1    36.5   32.6                                                      205.2
Advanced Composition Explorer                   33.2   44.1    31.8    24.5     7.5                              141.1
Small Explorers                        117.9    39.4   33.1    37.9    40.2    43.9    44.9    46.1      continues
Planning & Future Developments                  14.2   15.1    55.3    69.8    91.1   101.7   104.9      continues




                                                X-ray Timing Explorer 
 

Development on the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) began in FY 1990.  The spacecraft is an in-house build at the Goddard Space 
Flight Center; instruments are being developed by the principal investigators.  The XTE is scheduled for launch in August 1995 on a 
Delta II launch vehicle. 
 

                                        (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 


                                       PRIOR    1994   1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL   


DEVELOPMENT                            136.1    36.5   32.6                                                       205.2
MISSION OPS & DATA ANALYSIS                             1.0    11.0    10.6     6.0     5.6                        34.2
LAUNCH SUPPORT                          11.5    20.8   14.9     4.0                                                51.2
TRACKING & DATA SUPPORT                  3.8     4.3    4.7     1.8      .7                                        15.3


TOTAL                                  151.4    61.6   53.2    16.8    11.3     6.0     5.6                       305.9   


 
                                              Advanced Composition Explorer 
 

Development on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) began in FY 1994.  The spacecraft is being built by the John Hopkins 
Applied Physics Lab; instruments are being managed by the California Institute of Technology.  The ACE is scheduled for launch in 
August 1997 on a Delta II launch vehicle. 


                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL


DEVELOPMENT                                     33.2    44.1    31.8    24.5     7.5                               141.1 
MISSION OPS & DATA ANALYSIS                                              1.0     8.3     8.6     8.6                26.5
LAUNCH SUPPORT                            .1      .8    11.5    24.0    19.1                                        55.5 
TRACKING & DATA SUPPORT                   .4     1.6     3.1     4.6     4.2      .8      .2                        14.9


TOTAL                                     .5    35.6    58.7    60.4    48.8    16.6     8.8     8.6               238.0



                                       Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 
 

The initial development funding for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is being requested in the  
FY 1996 budget.  This new airborne observatory will provide a significant increase in scientific capabilities over the current Kuiper 
Airborne Observatory, which it would replace.  The Kuiper is a Lockheed C-141A aircraft with 0.9 meter reflecting telescope, used to 
conduct scientific investigations at infrared and submillimeter wavelengths.  The SOFIA would be accommodated in a Boeing 747 
and would feature a 2.5 meter infrared telescope to be provided by the German Space Agency (DARA).  If the program is approved for 
development, the initial operational date for SOFIA would be at the end of 2000.  The budgetary estimates provided below do not 
include the preliminary design studies carried out in previous years or the funding contribution of the German Space Agency.  
 

The budgetary estimates provided below are the amounts included in the Science, Aeronautics and Technology appropriation for this 
program.  They do not include the amounts being contributed by the international participants, NASA civil service workforce salary 
and expenses, and the use of government facilities and general and administrative support used to carry out the research and 
development activities.  A more detailed exposition of the program goals, objectives and activities is provided in the specific budget 
justification narrative for the Suborbital program within the Space Science/Physics and Astronomy section. 
 

                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL    

DEVELOPMENT                                                     48.7    27.8    65.6    68.2    29.1               239.4
MISSION OPERATIONS                                                                              30.3     CONT.     CONT.




                                                           CASSINI 
 

The Cassini mission will provide intensive, long term observations of Saturn's atmosphere, rings, magnetosphere and moons.  The 
Huygens Probe will conduct direct physical and chemical analyses of the atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan.  Cassini was 
approved as a new start by Congress in the FY 1990 budget.  At the time it was initiated, a second spacecraft, the Comet 
Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) was included.  Congressionally-imposed reductions to FY 1992-93 funding requirements led 
to the termination of the CRAF mission and the deferral of the Cassini launch from April 1996 to October 1997.  The Cassini 
program later underwent a significant redesign in early 1992 to reduce total program cost, mass and power requirements, while 
maintaining the October 1997 launch aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle.  After an extensive cruise phase, the spacecraft is scheduled 
to arrive at Saturn in 2004 and will begin a four year study of the Saturnian system.  The program involves significant cooperation 
from international partners as well as U.S. government partners.  The European Space Agency is providing the Huygens Probe and 
the Italian Space Agency is contributing the High Gain/Low Gain antenna for the spacecraft.  There are twelve science instruments 
on the orbiter and six on the probe from international Principal Investigators.  The Titan IV launch vehicle is being procured from 
the Department of Defense, and the Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) and Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are being 
procured by NASA from the Department of Energy. 
 

The budgetary estimates provided below are the amounts included in the Science, Aeronautics and Technology appropriation for this 
program.  They do not include the amounts being contributed by the international participants, NASA civil service workforce salary 
and expenses, and the use of government facilities and general and administrative support required to implement the program  A 
more detailed description of the program goals, objectives and activities is provided in the specific budget justification narrative for 
the program within the Space Science/Planetary Exploration section. 
 

                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL


DEVELOPMENT                            588.2   266.6   255.0   191.5   107.3    13.8                             1,422.4
MISSION OPS & DATA ANALYSIS                                                     49.3    56.4    56.3      593.0    755.0    
LAUNCH SUPPORT                          33.0    86.4    78.1    98.9   115.3    40.0                               451.7
TRACKING & DATA SUPPORT                 15.8      .6     3.2     3.6     4.2     4.5     9.0    13.2                54.1


TOTAL                                  637.0   353.6   336.3   294.0   226.8   107.6    65.4    69.5      593.0  2,683.2   

 
 


                                                    Discovery Missions 
 

Discovery missions are designed with focused science objectives that can be met with limited resources.  Total development costs 
are not to exceed $150 million in constant FY 1992 dollars, and development schedules are limited to three years or less.There are 
two approved Discovery missions, the Mars Pathfinder and the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous.  Future missions will be 
undertaken after selection through a peer review process. 
 

The budgetary estimates provided below are the amounts included in the specific budget justification for this program within the 
Space Science/Planetary Exploration section  in the Science, Aeronautics and Technology appropriation.  Under the specific mission 
descriptions, see below, other direct program cost elements are included: the development of the spacecraft and experiments, one 
year of mission operations, the launch services, and unique tracking and data acquisition services.  They do not include NASA civil 
service workforce salary and expenses, and the use of  government facilities and general and administrative support required to 
implement the program.  A more detailed description of the program goals, objectives and activities is provided in the specific budget 
justification narrative for the program.  
 

                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 



                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL


MARS PATHFINDER                         60.8     77.5   35.9                                                       174.2
NEAR EARTH ASTEROID RENDEZVOUS          66.6     52.2   31.3                                                       150.1
FUTURE MISSIONS                                                 36.6    80.0   115.3   125.2   123.0   Continues




                                                        Mars Pathfinder 
 

The Mars Pathfinder was approved as a new start in FY 1994 as one of the initial missions in the Discovery Program.  The Mars 
Pathfinder mission will demonstrate the cruise, entry, descent, and landing system approach that will be used in future missions to 
place a network of small science landers on the Martian surface.  Launch is scheduled for December 1996 on a Delta II expendable 
launch vehicle.  The Mars Pathfinder is being conducted as an in-house effort at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.  Portions of the 
science instruments are being provided by Germany and Denmark.  
 

                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL


DEVELOPMENT                                     60.8    77.5    35.9                                               174.2
MICROROVER                               2.8     5.9     8.5     5.8     2.0                                        25.0
MISSION OPS & DATA ANALYSIS                                              9.7     5.9     2.0                        17.6
LAUNCH SUPPORT                            .3     9.6    19.0    18.5     4.9                                        52.3


TOTAL                                    3.1    76.3   105.0    60.2    16.6     5.9     2.0                       269.1



 
                                           Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) 
 

The NEAR was approved as a new start in FY 1994 as one of the initial Discovery Program missions.  The NEAR mission is being 
conducted as an in-house effort at the Applied Physics Laboratory, with many subcontracted subsystems.  The NEAR spacecraft will 
conduct a comprehensive study of the near-Earth asteroid 433 EROS, including its physical and geological properties and its 
chemical and mineralogical composition.  Launch of the NEAR spacecraft is scheduled for February 1996 on a Delta II launch 
vehicle.   
 
                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 

 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL


DEVELOPMENT                                     66.6    52.2    31.3                                               150.1
MISSION OPS & DATA ANALYSIS                                      3.3     5.4     8.8    22.3     7.8                47.6
LAUNCH SUPPORT                                  24.6    15.9    11.2                                                51.7


TOTAL                                           91.2    68.1    45.8     5.4     8.8    22.3     7.8               249.4





                                                     Mars Surveyor Program 
 

The Mars Surveyor program is a series of small missions designed to resume the detailed exploration of Mars.  The first mission in 
this program was approved as a new start in FY 1994, the Mars Global Surveyor mission.  Future small missions are targeted for 
launch in the launch windows that occur approximately every two years. 
 

The budgetary estimates below are the amounts indicated in the budget justification within the Space Science/Planetary 
Exploration section in the Science, Aeronautics and Technology appropriation.  The specific write-up for the Mars Global Surveyor 
includes the amounts for the development of the spacecraft and instruments, two years of mission operations, and launch services.  
It does not include the NASA civil service workforce salary and expenses, the use of government facilities and general and 
administrative support used to carry out the program.  A more detailed description of the program goals, objectives and activities is 
provided in the specific budget justification narrative. 
 

                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL


MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR                            14.6    58.0    58.2     9.4                                       140.2
FUTURE MISSIONS                                          1.4    50.3    80.1    98.6   104.2   107.3     Continues





 
                                                    Mars Global Surveyor 
 

This mission will obtain a majority of the expected science return from the lost Mars Observer mission by flying a science payload 
comprised of spare Mars Observer instruments aboard a small, industry-developed spacecraft.  Launch is planned for November 
1996 on a Delta II launch vehicle.  The funding estimates provided below do not include the previous expenditures of spare Mars 
Observer instruments or the amount recovered from the prime contractor after the Mars Observer untimely failure. 
 

                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL


DEVELOPMENT                                     14.6    58.0    58.2     9.4                                       140.2
MISSION OPS & DATA ANALYSIS                                             16.6    19.8    20.8                        57.2
LAUNCH SUPPORT                                          21.8    20.1    10.4                                        52.3


TOTAL                                           14.6    79.8    78.3    36.4    19.8    20.8                       249.7





                                                   New Millennium Spacecraft 
 

In this FY 1996 budget request, NASA has recommended approval of a new program to demonstrate how complex scientific 
spacecraft--such as those required for planetary missions--can be built for lower mission costs and to have short development 
times, while still possessing considerable scientific merit.  The New Millennium Spacecraft program will enable the introduction of 
the latest technology advances into planetary spacecraft.  The primary objectives of the program are to increase the performance 
capabilities of spacecraft and instruments while simultaneously reducing total costs of future science missions, thereby allowing 
more frequent flight opportunities even under the severe budget constraints of the future.  In previous years, NASA and the 
Department of Defense have funded technology developments which offer extraordinary promise.  This precursor work on 
technologies can now be demonstrated in a series of flight technology demonstration missions occurring at rate of one or more per 
year, with initial flights planned for the 1997-1998 timeframe.   
 

The budgetary estimate below represents funding included in the Science, Aeronautics and Technology appropriation.  The program 
is designed as an ongoing program, and funding is included for development and launch of one mission per year, tentatively 
beginning in the 1997-1998 timeframe.  Launches are targeted for a small expendable launch vehicle.  The budget estimate below 
does not include the NASA civil service workforce salary and expenses, the government facilities and general and administrative 
support used to carry out the research and development activities.  A more detailed description of the program goals, objectives and 
activities is provided in the specific budget justification narrative for the program within the Planetary Exploration section. 
 

                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL


ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT                         10.5
DEVELOPMENT                                                     30.0    30.0    50.0    50.0    50.0      Continues
LAUNCH SUPPORT                                                           3.0    10.0    17.0    17.0      Continues


TOTAL                                                   10.5    30.0    33.0    60.0    67.0    67.0   








                                                   Earth Observing System 
 

Before the Earth Observing System (EOS) was authorized in November 1990 in the FY 1991 budget as a new start, EOS planning 
had been in progress for over eight years.  The EOS is key to achieving the objectives set forth in the Mission to Planet Earth 
program plan and the overall goal and scientific objectives of the interagency U.S. Global Change Research Program.  EOS is an 
international science program, drawing upon the contributions of ESA, Canada, and Japan both in terms of spacecraft and 
instruments.  This extraordinary collaboration is essential to reach the objective of providing long-term (15 years), comprehensive 
measurements of the nature of global climate change.   
 

At its outset, the EOS program was based on the flights of two series of large platforms, in addition to platforms from Japan and 
ESA and instruments carried on Space Station Freedom.  Although EOS was understood to be a program having a 15-year period of 
flight operations, the initial estimates provided to Congress focused on the period through fiscal year 2000.  The initial estimate of 
$18-21 billion included development, mission operations, data analysis, launch services, communications, construction of facilities 
and the amounts carried in the Space Station program for the polar platform's development.  In the FY 1992 appropriations process, 
Congress directed NASA to modify the scope and cost of the program.  The cost through FY 2000 was to be reduced by $5 billion, 
the FY 1993 funding level had to be reduced, and NASA was to examine the feasibility of using smaller platforms.  In 1991, the 
program was restructured to employ five smaller flight series.  In 1992, in response to the constrained budget environment, NASA 
further rescoped the program by implementing a common spacecraft approach for all flights after the first morning series (AM-1) 
spacecraft, increasing reliance on the cooperative efforts of international and other government agencies, and adopting a build-to-
cost approach for the first unit of a multiple instrument build.  The estimated NASA funding through FY 2000 was further reduced 
to $8.0 billion in this effort. 
 

In the FY 1995 budget process, the program's cost estimate was further adjusted downward by approximately $0.9 billion, of which 
$0.3 billion reflected an accounting transfer for small business innovative research out of individual programs into a common NASA 
account, and $0.1 billion reflected the change to lower-cost launch vehicles.  The further reductions in program funding were 
addressed in 1994 through a program rebaselining activity.  A number of small spacecraft were introduced into the program's flight 
plans.  In addition, alterations were made in flight phasing and accommodations were provided for a follow-on instrument to the 
enhanced thematic mapper being flown in 1998 on Landsat-7.  Funding for the science investigations and data analysis was 
separated from the algorithms being developed to convert the instrument data into information.  This change recognized the close 
relationship to similar science investigations and data analysis funded in the Mission to Planet Earth research and analysis 
account.  (The amounts transferred are provided in the EOS science line in the table below.)  In addition, it was decided to 
incorporate the development funding for the Landsat-7 into the EOS program in light of the integral ties between the two activities. 
 

The budgetary estimate below are the amounts now included in the Science, Aeronautics and Technology appropriation for this 
program.  The estimates also reflect the related program costs for Landsat-7's activities previously funded by the Department of 
Defense and planned for future funding by the Department of Commerce.  They do not include the NASA civil service workforce 
salary and expenses, the non-program-unique government facilities and general and administrative support used to carry out the 
research and development activities.  For comparability purposes, the estimates are provided only through FY 2000.  A more 
detailed description of the program goals, objectives and activities is provided in the specific budget justification narrative for the 
program within the Mission to Planet Earth section. 
 

                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 



                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000         TOTAL


MORNING SERIES (AM)                    385.1   198.8   260.8   202.2    97.0   107.6    56.7    82.6       1,390.8   
AFTERNOON SERIES (PM)                   64.3    50.1    88.8   127.3   188.2   239.8   235.7   226.1       1,220.3
CHEMISTRY                                9.6     2.2    10.3    27.7    82.1   107.4   147.5   182.0         568.8
SPECIAL SPACECRAFT                      40.0    20.9    85.5    69.7    92.9    95.8    89.1    93.0         586.9
LANDSAT 7 DEVELOPMENT                   32.5    74.1    87.4    78.8    56.1    48.8     8.0     1.6         387.3
ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT                   91.8    46.8    58.3    85.4   122.7   154.5   200.8   221.7         982.0
EOSDIS                                 244.4   188.2   230.6   289.8   309.8   291.9   317.4   358.7       2,230.8


      SUBTOTAL                         867.7   581.1   821.7   880.9   948.8 1,045.8 1,055.2 1,165.7       7,366.9




SPACE STATION PLATFORM                 104.0                                                                 104.0
EOS SCIENCE                            [60.0] [17.7]    37.3    58.4    47.5    56.4    63.4    73.2         336.2
LAUNCH SERVICES                          3.1   16.2     41.7    86.7    95.3   100.9    46.8    33.2         423.9                        
CONSTRUCTION OF FACILITIES              45.2   18.0     17.0    17.0                                          97.2
TRACKING & DATA SUPPORT                                          1.6     2.1     2.3     1.1     1.3           8.4


TOTAL                                1,020.0  615.3    917.7 1,044.6 1,093.7 1,205.4 1,166.5 1,273.4       8,336.6




                                                     Earth Probes 
 

The Earth Probes program consists of spacecraft and instrument developments to address specific, highly-focused mission 
requirements in Earth science research.  They are complementary to the scientific data gathering activities carried out within the 
EOS program.  The currently approved Earth probes are the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), NASA Scatterometer 
(NSCAT), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission.  Future missions will be funded to take advantage of the new technologies in 
spacecraft and instrument design being developed by other federal agencies and by NASA in the Space Access and Technology 
program (Smallsat and the research and technology program) and program to develop New Millennium Spacecraft (funded in the 
Planetary program). 
  

The budgetary estimates below represent funding included in the Science, Aeronautics and Technology appropriation.  The program 
is designed as an ongoing program.  The budget estimates immediately below do not include the estimated costs incurred by the 
international collaborators, mission operations and data analysis costs, launch services, related funding included in the Earth 
Observing System program, NASA civil service workforce salary and expenses, use of government facilities and general and 
administrative support used to carry out the research and development activities.  A more detailed description of the program goals, 
objectives and activities is provided in the specific budget justification narrative for the program within the Mission to Planet Earth 
section. 
 

                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    Total


SCATTEROMETER                          174.3    17.1    15.4     3.9                                               210.7
TOTAL OZONE MAPPING SPECTROMETER.       74.5    13.8    14.9     8.5     6.4    11.8     7.0     4.8               141.7 
TROPICAL RAINFALL MEAS. MISS.           85.5    65.5    51.3    24.5    21.6                                       248.4
NEW TECHNOLOGY EARTH PROBES                                                             50.0    50.0      Continues











                                                     Scatterometer 
 

NASA began the development of the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) in October 1984 as a host instrument on the Navy Remote 
Sensing Satellite (N-ROSS).  The N-ROSS program was canceled in March 1988.  In August 1989, NSCAT was selected by the 
Japanese space agency for their planned Advanced Earth Observing System (ADEOS) mission.  The instrument's design was altered 
to allow it to be accommodated on the ADEOS.  The Japanese plan to launch the ADEOS spacecraft on their H-II launch vehicle in 
February 1996. 

                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL


DEVELOPMENT                            174.3    17.1    15.4     3.9                                               210.7
MO & DA                                                          6.2     9.3     6.8     3.1                        25.4

TOTAL                                  174.3    17.1    15.4    10.1     9.3     6.8     3.1                       236.1


 
                                            Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer 
 

The TOMS Earth Probes program is a follow-on to the Total Ozone Mapper (TOM) instrument flown with such great success on the 
Nimbus-7 spacecraft from 1978 until just recently.  A TOM instrument was also flown on the Russian METEOR spacecraft in 1991.  
The TOMS program consists of a set of instruments (flight models 3, 4, 5) and one small spacecraft being launched in mid-1995 on a 
Pegasus launch vehicle.  Flight model 3 will be flown on this TOMS Earth Probe spacecraft.  Flight model 4 is planned for launch on 
the Japanese ADEOS spacecraft in February 1996.  Flight model 5 is currently planned for a cooperative mission with the Russian 
Space Agency in the year 2000.  
 

                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL
                                       

DEVELOPMENT                             74.5    13.8    14.9     8.5     6.4    11.8     7.0     4.8               141.7
MO & DA                                  2.3     3.2     3.7     3.3     2.6     2.7     2.7     2.8        6.3     29.6
LAUNCH SUPPORT                          15.8      .9                                                                16.7
TRACKING (TOMS EARTH PROBE)              2.5     1.4      .5      .7                                                 5.1


TOTAL                                   95.1    19.3    19.1    12.5     9.0    14.5     9.7     7.6        6.3     193.1




                                         Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 
 

The development of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) began in FY 1992, after a four-year period of concept studies 
and preliminary mission definition.  The TRMM objective is to obtain a minimum of three years of climatologically significant 
observations of tropical rainfall.  TRMM data will be useful to understand the ocean-atmosphere coupling, especially in the 
development of El Nino events, which form in the tropics but whose effects are felt globally.  The observatory spacecraft is being 
built in-house at the Goddard Space Flight Center.  The Japanese are building a critical instrument, the Precipitation Radar.  Two 
other instruments are being developed with TRMM program funding, the Visible and Infrared Scanner and TRMM Microwave 
Imager.  In 1992, two EOS-funded instruments were added to the payload, the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) 
and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS).  The budget estimates provided below include the costs of accommodating these two 
instruments on the TRMM observatory.  The TRMM is currently planned for launch in August 1997 on the Japanese H-II launch 
vehicle.  The EOS Data and Information System will have a specific capability for disseminating TRMM data.  The TRMM Science 
line provides the amounts funded in the research and analysis budget for science investigations. 
 

                                        (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL


DEVELOPMENT                             85.5    65.5    51.3    24.5    21.6                                       248.4
EOS-FUNDED INSTRUMENTS/SCIENCE/DIS              [8.2]   [9.4]  [21.9]  [10.3]   [8.8]  [12.6]                      [71.2]
MO & DA                                                                  4.9    25.7    29.1    29.4     38.6      127.7
SCIENCE                                 12.8     5.9     4.9     5.9     5.9                                        35.4
TRACKING & DATA SUPPORT                  1.4     3.4     3.4     3.6     3.1      .9                                15.8


TOTAL                                   99.7    74.8    59.6    34.0    35.5    26.6    29.1    29.4     38.6      427.3


 


                             Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Replacement Spacecraft Program 
 

The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Replacement Spacecraft program began in FY 1987 to replace the loss 
of a TDRS spacecraft aboard Challenger.  The TDRS-7 is now in the latter stages of development and will result in the 
addition of a sixth functionally-identical, nearly design-identical spacecraft to the current constellation of TDRS.  
This spacecraft will help ensure continuation of Space Network operations in support of all compatible low-Earth 
orbital missions by maintaining the operational satellite system.  Launch of the TDRS-7 is currently scheduled for 
the July 1995. 
 

The budgetary estimates provided below cover the design and development phase and Shuttle launch costs.  The 
Shuttle average launch cost has been used to indicate the launch support costs; the Shuttle program costs are 
included in the Human Space Flight appropriation. The  spacecraft development and the launch services for the 
Inertial Upper Stage are now included under the Mission Support appropriation.  The estimates do not include the 
NASA civil service workforce salary and expenses (S&E), and the use of government facilities and general and 
administrative support used to manage and support the program.  A more detailed exposition of the program goals, 
objectives and activities is provided in the specific budget justification narrative for the program within the Office of 
Space Communications section. 
 

                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL


SPACECRAFT DEVELOPMENT                 342.1     5.7    22.2                                                       370.0
LAUNCH SERVICES (IUS)                   46.4    34.7    15.6                                                        96.7
LAUNCH SUPPORT  (STS)                                  469.6                                                       469.6


TOTAL                                  388.5    40.4   507.4       0       0                                                         936.3








                                         TDRS Replenishment Spacecraft Program 
 

As a result of reliability assessments which indicate that a sufficient number of TDRS may not be available by the 
end of the decade, the TDRS Replenishment Spacecraft program is being initiated.  This program will provide for 
three additional TDRS spacecraft.  Contract proposals for three additional TDRS spacecraft have been under review 
by NASA since the latter part of 1994.  A firm fixed price contract award and initiation of development of these 
spacecraft is scheduled to occur in February 1995.  Due to the high degree of sensitivity regarding this firm fixed 
price, commercial practices procurement, further details on the proposed design, capabilities, launch requirements, 
and other relevant issues are not available. 
 

The budgetary estimates provided below covers the design, development and launch of three spacecraft  and are 
included in the Missions Support appropriation.  The estimates do not include the NASA civil service workforce salary 
and expenses (S&E) and the use of government facilities and general and administrative support used to carry out 
the program.  A more detailed exposition of the program goals, objectives and activities is provided in the specific 
budget justification narrative for the program within the Office of Space Communications section. 
 

                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL


DEVELOPMENT AND LAUNCH                           2.6    42.0   195.8   239.0   238.6   179.0   105.1      86.7   1,088.8    
SERVICES


TOTAL                                            2.6    42.0   195.8   239.0   238.6   179.0   105.1      86.7   1,088.8    



 


                         Second TDRS Ground Terminal/White Sands Ground Terminal Upgrade Program 
 

The TDRS ground terminals are necessary for providing continuing, reliable Space Network capabilities required by 
all compatible low-Earth orbital missions.  The Second TDRS Ground Terminal (STGT) Program was initiated in  
FY 1989.  The new ground terminal will preclude the possibility of loss of the Space Network system by eliminating 
the single failure point of the original ground terminal at White Sands, New Mexico, which could result in a complete 
loss of communications.  The STGT, Danzante, is the new ground terminal that was completed and approved for 
primary operations in December 1994.  Upgrade of the White Sands Ground Terminal (WSGT), Cacique, is currently 
operating in a backup mode to Danzante and will begin its own refurbishment once Danzante has fully demonstrated 
stable support to all of its users.  Danzante is expected to be operational by the end of  
FY 1995. 
 

The budgetary estimates provided below are the amounts included in the Missions Support appropriation for this 
program.  They do not include the NASA civil service workforce salary and expenses (S&E) and general and 
administrative support used to carry out the program.  A more detailed exposition of the program goals, objectives 
and activities is provided in the specific budget justification narrative for the program within the Office of Space 
Communications section. 
 

                                         (Budget Authority in Millions of Dollars) 
 


                                       PRIOR    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    Balance    TOTAL


DEVELOPMENT                            537.1    19.0    18.6      .2                                               574.9
COMMUNICATIONS                           2.8                                                                         2.8
CONSTRUCTION OF FACILITIES              23.2                                                                        23.2


TOTAL                                  563.1    19.0    18.6      .2                                               600.9





SI