NASA PREFERRED RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY PRACTICES

This site provides web access to the NASA Preferred Reliability and Maintainability Practices from NASA Technical Memorandum 4322, NASA Reliability Preferred Practices for Design and Test and NASA Technical Memorandum 4628, Recommended Techniques for Effective Maintainability.  Hardcopies of the original issues of these documents are available from the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) 7121 Standard Drive Hanover, MD 21076-1320 Phone: (301) 621-0390 E-mail: help@sti.nasa.gov Website: www.sti.nasa.gov.  Note:  Later practices were not incorporated into the hardcopies of these documents as the individual practices were placed on the web in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System (http://search.nasa.gov/offices/oce/llis/home/index.html).

The information presented below represents the “best technical advice” that NASA has to offer on reliability and maintainability design and test practices and techniques.  These practices and techniques should not be interpreted as requirements, but rather as proven technical approaches that can enhance system reliability and maintainability.  Application of the practices, guidelines, and techniques is strongly encouraged, but the final decision regarding applicability resides with the particular program or project.  The information is presented by Preferred Practice number with cross-reference to the corresponding Lessons Learned Information System number.

Design and Test Practices for Aerospace Systems

This section contains Reliability Design Practices that have contributed to the success of previous space flight programs.  The practices include recommended analysis procedures, redundancy considerations, parts selection, environmental requirements considerations, and test requirements and procedures.

Environmental Series

Preferred Practice Number

Lessons Learned Number

Title

1101

0643

Environmental Factors

1102

0679

Meteoroids/Space Debris

1103

0644

Nickel-Cadmium Conventional Spacecraft Battery Handling and Storage Practice

1104

0706

Monitoring Spacecraft Exposure to Magnetic Fields

1105

0647

Solar Flare Proton and Heavy Ion Modeling for Single Event Effects

1106

0708

Plasma Noise in EMI Design

1107

0705

Micrometeoroid Protection

1108

0694

Super Ni-Cd Spacecraft Battery Handling and Storage Practice

1109

0704

Ni-H2 Spacecraft Battery Handling and Storage Practice

1110

0645

Optical Fiber Cable Terminations and Procedures

Engineering Design Series

Preferred Practice Number

Lessons Learned Number

Title

1201

0676

EEE Parts Derating

1202

0677

High Voltage Power Supply Design and Manufacturing Practices

1203

0709

Class S Parts in High Reliability Applications

1204

0703

Part Junction Temperature

1205

0663

Welding Practices for 2219 Aluminum and Inconel

1206

0646

Power Line Filters

1207

0702

Magnetic Design Control for Science Instruments

1208

0701

Static Cryogenic Seals for Launch Vehicle

1209

0698

Ammonia-Charged Aluminum Heat Pipes with Extruded Wicks

1210

0654

Assessment and Control of Electrical Charges

1211

0652

Combination Methods for Deriving Structural Design Loads Considering Vibro-Acoustic, etc. Responses

1212

 

Design and Analysis of Electronic Circuits for Worst Case Environments and Part Variations

1213

0653

Electrical Shielding of Power, Signal, and Control Cables

1214

0658

Electrical Grounding Practices for Aerospace Hardware

1215.1

0655

Preliminary Design Review

1215.2

0656

Hardware Review/Certification Requirements

1215.3

0657

Critical Design Review for Unmanned Missions

1215.4

0667

Common Review Methods for Engineering Products

1215.5

0668

Pre-Ship Review

1216

0697

Active Redundancy

1217

0669

Structural Laminate Composites for Space Applications

1218

0672

Application of Ablative Composites to Nozzles for Reusable Solid Rocket Motors

1219

0713

Vehicle Integration/Tolerance Build-up Practices

1220

0671

Demagnetization of Ferromagnetic Parts

1221

0714

Battery Selection Practice for Aerospace Power Systems

1222

0711

Magnetic Field Restraints for Spacecraft Systems and Subsystems

1223

0674

Vacuum Seals Design Criteria

1224

0712

Design Considerations for Fluid Tubing Systems

1225

0767

Conducted and Radiated Emissions Design Requirements

1226

0768

Thermal Design Practices for Electronic Assemblies

1227

0764

Controlling Stress Corrosion Cracking in Aerospace Applications

1228

0723

Independent Verification and Validation of Embedded Software

1229

0893

Selection of Electric Motors for Aerospace Applications

1230

0762

System Design Analysis Applied to Launch Vehicle Configurations

1231

0739

Design Considerations for Lightning Strike Survivability

1232

0691

Spacecraft Orbital Anomaly Report (SOAR) Systems

1233

0670

Contamination Control Program

1234

0820

Global Positioning System (GPS) Timing System

1235

0673

Over-Speed Protection System for DC Motor Driven Cranes

1236

0725

EEE Parts Selection Criteria for Flight Systems

1237

 

Reserved

1238

0722

Spacecraft Electrical Harness Design Practice

1239

0727

Spacecraft Thermal Control Coatings Design and Application

1240

0803

Identification, Control, and Management of Critical Items Lists

1241

0804

Contamination Budgeting for Space Optical Systems

1242

0721

Design Considerations for Space Trusses

1243

0772

Fault Protection

1244

0773

Design Practice to Control Interference from Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)

1245

 

Reserved

1246

0707

Fault Tolerant Design

1247

 

Spacecraft Lessons Learned Reporting System

1248

0731

Spacecraft Data Systems (SDS) Hardware Design Practice

1249

0732

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Control in Flight Hardware

1250

0733

Pre-Flight Problem/Failure Reporting Procedures

1251

0734

Instrumentation System Design and Installation for Launch Vehicles

1252

0735

Material Selection Practices

1253

0736

Arcjet Thruster Design Considerations for Satellites

1254

0737

Design Reliable Ceramic Components with CARES Code

1255

0738

Problem Reporting and Corrective Action System

1256

0821

Automatic Transfer Switches (ATS) in Critical Applications

1257

0759

Solid Rocket Motor Joint Reliability

1258

0824

Space Radiation Effects on Electronic Components in Low-Earth Orbit

1259

0787

Acoustic Noise Requirements

1260

0792

Radiation Design Margin Requirement

1261

0793

Characterization of RF Subsystem Susceptibility to Spurious Signals

1262

0789

Subsystem Inheritance Review

1263

0754

Contamination Control of Space Optical Systems

1264

0753

Integrated Optical Performance Modeling of X-Ray Systems

1265

0755

Precision Diamond Turning of Aerospace Optical Systems

1266

0751

Binary and Hybrid Optics for Space Applications

1267

0752

Check Valve Reliability in Aerospace Applications

1268

0750

High Performance Liquid Hydrogen Turbopumps

1269

0890

High Performance Liquid Oxygen Turbopumps

1270

 

Reserved

1271

 

Reserved

1272

0826

Manned Space Vehicle Battery Safety

1273

0827

Quantitative Reliability Requirements Used as Performance-Based Requirements for Space Systems

Analysis Series

Preferred Practice Number

Lessons Learned Number

Title

1301

0788

Surface Charging/Electrostatic Discharge Analysis

1302

0786

Independent Review of Reliability Analyses

1303

0782

Part Electrical Stress Analysis

1304

0790

Problem/Failure Report Independent Review/Approval

1305

0791

Risk Rating of Problem/Failure Reports

1306

0794

Thermal Analysis of Electronic Assemblies to the Piece Part Level

1307

0795

Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)

1308

0796

Electromagnetic Interference Analysis of Circuit Transients

1309

0797

Analysis of Radiated EMI from ESD Events Caused by Space Charging

1310

0798

Spurious Radiated Interference Awareness

1311

0758

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in Launch Vehicle Applications

1312

0757

The Team Approach to Fault-Tree Analysis

1313

0825

System Reliability Assessment Using Block Diagraming Methods

1314

0756

Sneak Circuit Analysis Guideline for Electromechanical Systems

1315

0799

Redundancy Switching Analysis

1316

0800

Thick Dielectric/Internal Electrostatic Discharge (IESD)

1317

0815

Flight Load Analysis as a Spacecraft Design Tool

1318

0819

Structural Stress Analysis

Test Series

Preferred Practice Number

Lessons Learned Number

Title

1401

0814

EEE Parts Screening

1402

0810

Thermal Cycling

1403

0828

Thermographic Mapping of PC Boards

1404

0783

Thermal Test Levels and Durations

1405

0784

Powered-On Vibration

1406

0894

Sinusoidal Vibration

1407

0785

Assembly Acoustic Tests

1408A

0780

Pyrotechnic Shock Testing

1409

0781

Thermal Vacuum Versus Thermal Atmospheric Test of Electronic Assemblies

1410

0778

Selection of Spacecraft Materials and Supporting Vacuum Outgassing Data

1411

0809

Heat Sinks for Parts Operated in Vacuum

1412

0779

Environmental Test Sequencing

1413

0775

Random Vibration Testing

1414

0777

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Test Practice

1415

0813

Power System Corona Testing

1416

0776

Radiated Susceptibility System Verification

1417

0774

Electrical Isolation Verification

1418

0818

Qualification of Non-Standard EEE Parts in Spaceflight Applications

1419

0817

Vibroacoustic Qualification Testing of Payloads, Subsystems, and Components

1420

0730

Sine-Burst Load Test

1421

0760

Eddy Current Testing of Aerospace Materials

1422

0765

Ultrasonic Testing of Aerospace Materials

1423

0811

Radiographic Testing of Aerospace Materials

1424

0812

Leak Testing of Liquid Hydrogen and Liquid Oxygen Propellant Systems

1425

0808

Magnetic Particle Testing of Aerospace Materials

1426

0807

Penetrant Testing of Aerospace Materials

1427

0806

Rocket Engine Technology Test Bed Practice

1428

0805

Practice of Reporting Parts, Materials, and Safety Problems (Alerts)

1429

0729

Integration and Test Practices to Eliminate Stresses on Electrical and Mechanical Components

1430

0719

Short Circuit Testing for Nickel/Hydrogen Battery Cells

1431

0771

Voltage/Temperature Margin Testing

1432

0770

RF Breakdown Characterization

1433

0728

Mechanical Fastener Inspection System

1434

0802

Battery Verification through Long-Term Simulation

1435

0769

Verification of RF Hardware Design Performance Early in the Design Phase

1436

0801

Advanced Computed X-Ray Tomography

1437

0726

End to End Compatibility and Mission Simulation Testing

1438

0766

Reliability Considerations for Launch Vehicle Command Destruct Systems

1439

0763

Systems Test Considerations for High Performance Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines

1440

0823

Modal Testing: Measuring Dynamic Structural Characteristics

1441

0816

Design of an Improved Gas Transfer Valve for Leak Tight Testing

1442

0822

Design of a Small Apparatus for Improved Vibration/Thermal Testing

Design and Test Guidelines for Aerospace Systems

This section contains Reliability Design Guidelines.  These guidelines represent technically credible processes that can be applied to ongoing NASA programs/projects.  Unlike a Reliability Design Practice, a guideline lacks specific operational experience or data to indicate that a topic area has contributed to mission success.  However, a guideline does contain information that represents current “best thinking” on a particular topic and is a well thought out approach to resolving a particular issue or problem.

Engineering Design Series

Preferred Practice Number

Lessons Learned number

Title

2201

0675

Fastener Standardization and Selection Considerations

2202

0678

Design Considerations for Selection of Thick-Film Microelectronic Circuits

2203

0680

Design Checklists for Microcircuits

2204

0681

Concurrent Engineering Guidelines for Aerospace Systems

2205

0682

Design and Manufacturing Guideline for Aerospace Composites

2206

0686

Selection of Compatible Materials for Use with Fluorine

2207

0684

Designing for Dormant Reliability

2208

0683

Fabrication of Gaseous and Liquid Fluorine Systems

2209

0687

Spacecraft Deployed Appendage Design Guidelines

2210

0689

Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite Material Selection

2211

0692

Coordinate Systems for Attitude Determination and Control

2212

 

Reserved

2213

0688

Management of Limited Failure Analysis Resources for EEE Parts

2214

0690

Marman Clamp System Design Guidelines

2215

0761

Guideline for Developing Reliable Instrumentation for Aerospace Systems

Analysis Series

Preferred Practice Number

Lessons Learned Number

Title

2301

0693

Earth Orbit Environmental Heating

2302

0695

Guidelines for Thermal Analysis of Spacecraft Hardware

2303

0696

Spectral Fatigue Reliability

2304

0700

Fracture Mechanics Reliability

2305

0699

Structural Analysis in the Design of Optical Mirrors

Test Series

Preferred Practice Number

Lessons Learned Number

Title

2401

0710

EMC Guidelines for Payloads, Subsystems, and Components

2402

0715

Near Field Measurements for Large Aperture Antenna Pattern Determination

2403

0716

Spacecraft Deployed Appendage Test Guidelines

2404

0717

Guideline for Use of Fizeau Interferometer in Optical Testing

2405

0718

Star Image Metrology Part 1: Visual Measurements

2406

0720

Star Image Metrology Part 2: Irradiance Measurements

Design and Test Practices for Ground Support Equipment

This section contains design and procedural practices that have contributed to successful ground support of space flight and ground-based aerospace programs.  This material is primarily concerned with design and test techniques, procedures for control of critical items, and control of environmental influences on successful launch.

Ground Support Equipment Practices

Preferred Practice Number

Lessons Learned Number

Title

3001

0660

Flow Fuses for Elimination of Hazards in Pneumatic and Hydraulic Systems

3002

0650

Fire Safe Firex/Deluge System

3003

0659

Redundancy in Critical Mechanical Systems

3004

0648

Use of Design Review Checklists for Space Shuttle GSE

3005

0649

Identification, Control, and Management of GSE Critical Items

3006

0651

Environmental Test Methods for Ground Support Equipment

3007

0661

Redundancy Considerations for Ground Communications Systems

3008

0685

Electrostatic Discharge Control for GSE

3009

0662

Uninterruptable Power Supply Systems (UPS)

3010

0665

Oil-Free Vacuum Pumps in the LOX/LH2 Transfer System

3011

0666

Foreign Object Debris (FOD) Program at KSC

Recommended Techniques for Effective Maintainability

Maintainability is a process for assuring the ease by which a system can be restored to operation following a failure.  Designing and operating cost effective, maintainable systems (both on orbit and on the ground) has become a necessity within NASA.  These techniques provides (1) program management considerations – key elements of an effective maintainability effort; (2) design and development considerations; (3) analysis and test considerations – quantitative and qualitative analysis processes and testing techniques; and (4) operations and operational design considerations that address NASA field experience.

Program Management

Preferred Practice Number

Lessons Learned Number

Title

PM-1

0835

Benefits of Implementing Maintainability on NASA Programs

PM-2

0831

Maintainability Program Management Considerations

PM-3

0724

Maintenance Concept for Space Systems

PM-4

0891

Preventative Maintenance Strategies Using Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM)

Design Factors and Engineering

Preferred Practice Number

Lessons Learned Number

Title

DFE-1

0892

Selection of Robotically Compatible Fasteners and Handling Mechanisms

DFE-2

0837

False Alarm Mitigation Techniques

DFE-3

0842

Common Charge Points for Lubrication Systems for Mechanical Ground Support Equipment

DFE-4

0843

Use of Digital Potentiometers in Electrically Powered Systems

DFE-5

0844

Ground Piping Systems Color Coding and Identification

DFE-6

0838

Software Design for Maintainability

DFE-7

0839

Fault-Detection, Fault-Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) Techniques

Analysis and Test

Preferred Practice Number

Lessons Learned Number

Title

AT-1

0833

Neutral Buoyancy Simulation of On-Orbit Maintenance

AT-2

0840

Mean Time To Repair Predictions

AT-3

0841

Availability Prediction and Analysis

AT-4

0829

Availability, Cost, and Resource Allocation (ACARA) Model to Support Maintenance Requirements

AT-5

0830

Rocket Engine Failure Prediction Using an Average Signal Power Technique

AT-6

0846

Wear Particle Analysis Using Ferrography

AT-7

0848

Maintenance and Test Criteria for Circuit Breakers

AT-8

0845

Vibration Analysis of Rotating Ground Support Machinery

AT-9

 

Reserved

AT-10

0847

Ultrasound Testing

Operations and Operational Design Considerations

Preferred Practice Number

Lessons Learned Number

Title

OPS-1

0836

SRB Refurbishment Practices

OPS-2

0850

Electrical Connector Protection

OPS-3

0832

Robotic Removal and Application of SRB Thermal Systems

OPS-4

0851

GHe Purging of Hydrogen Systems

OPS-5

0852

Programmable Logic Controllers

OPS-6

0853

DC Drive – Solid State Control

OPS-7

0880

AC-Variable Frequency Drive Systems

OPS-8

0881

Fiber Optic Systems

OPS-9

0854

Pneumatic Systems – Pilot-Controlled Pressure Regulator Loading

OPS-10

 

Modular Automated Power Switching Device

OPS-11

0855

Pneumatic System Contamination Protection

OPS-12

0870

Fault Isolation Using Terminal Blocks

OPS-13

0849

Predictive Maintenance Program

OPS-14

0882

Computer-Aided Laser Shaft Alignment of Rotating Machinery

OPS-15

0883

Facility Chilled Water for Thermal Conditioning Unit

OPS-16

0867

Use of GN2 for Valve Corrosion Control

OPS-17

0879

Electrical Equipment Protection from Liquid Intrusion

OPS-18

0878

Orbiter S-Band Uplink Monitoring System

OPS-19

0834

Maintainability Considerations in EVA Design an Astronaut’s Perspective

September 22, 2006