# Mathematics Resources

For centuries, the progress of astronomy and that of mathematics went hand in hand. As astronomers recorded more and more exact locations of where the planets, the Sun, and the Moon were in the sky, mathematicians strove to keep up by making more and more exact formulæ to predict how the planets would move. Indeed, some of the greatest mathematicians, such as Newton, Lagrange, and Laplace, were working on astronomical problems when they made their breakthroughs. Today, mathematics figures in every aspect of NASA's operations, from testing the behaviour of a wing or control surface in a wind tunnel, to calculating the necessary support a couch inside a space capsule must have so that an astronaut can survive liftoff or emergency maneuvers, to the design of a satellite's antenna.

- American Astronomical Society Division on Dynamical Astronomy - Dynamical astronomy is the study of the different forces acting on any given body inside a system, such as the solar system, the Earth-Moon system, a cluster of stars, a galaxy, or even a cluster of galaxies. This part of astronomy is one of the most mathematically intense subjects within astronomy.
- American Mathematical Society
- Association for Women in Mathematics
- International Association of Mathematical Physics
- Mathematical Association of America
- National Association of Mathematicians
- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
- Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

**Last Updated: Feb. 2013**