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Diffusion of Innovations

Program/Project Management Resource List #39

Revised Nov. 2010

Provided by the NASA Headquarters Library

Technology transfer is the process by which inventions and practices that were developed at an organization flow into the American economy at large. NASA is required by law to share its discoveries and inventions as widely as possible. For instance, devices that were designed to keep track of the astronauts' health while in space are now used in hospitals to monitor patients. Also, NASA will adopt products developed elsewhere to fit its needs, sometimes to such a degree that the product is identified with NASA. Tang is the classic example.

This resource list covers technology transfer from NASA and other R&D organizations to America's economy at large. For the rules and regulations covering technology transfer between NASA and other countries, please see International Cooperation in Space. For resources on NASA's contributions to America's economy, please see Measuring Return on Investment for Government Programs and Agencies. For resources on specific innovations from NASA that have entered the economy, please see Benefits of Space Exploration. If you are a NASA HQ employee, please consider subscribing to our news alert on commercialization and technology transfer to get the latest news.

All items are available at the Headquarters Library, except as noted. NASA Headquarters employees and contractors: Call x0168 or email Library@hq.nasa.gov for information on borrowing or in-library use of any of these items. Members of the public: Contact your local library for the availability of these items. NASA Headquarters employees can request additional materials or research on this topic. The Library welcomes your comments or suggestions about this webpage.

Contents: Policies Books E-books Articles and Reports Internet Resources

NASA Policies

The following policies and procedural requirements can be accessed by anyone through the NASA Online Directives Information System:
NASA Policy Directive 2090.6: Authority To Enter Into License Agreements and Implementation of Licensing Authority
NASA Policy Directive 2091.1B: Inventions Made By Government Employees
NASA Policy Directive 2092.1B: Royalties and Other Payments Received by NASA from the Licensing or Assignment of Inventions
NASA Procedural Requirements 2092.1A: Distribution of Royalties Received by NASA from the Licensing or Assignment of Inventions
NASA Policy Directive 2110.1F: Foreign Access to NASA Technology Transfer Materials
NASA Procedural Requirements 2210.1A: External Release of NASA Software
NASA Procedural Requirements 7500.1: NASA Technology Commercialization Process
NASA Policy Directive 7500.2B: NASA Innovative Partnerships Program


Beam, Sheri, and Tim Allen. Innovation Happens Here: NASA's Small Business Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs. Hampton, VA: NASA Langley Research Center, 2007.
TL521.312 .L1 I556 2007 DVD VIDEO-COLL
Beam, Sheri, Tim Allen, and Peter K. Homer. NASA's Innovative Partnerships Program: Adding Value for NASA and the Nation. Hampton, VA: NASA Langley Research Center, 2009.
TL173.8 .N37 I563 2009 DVD VIDEO-COLL
Goddard Space Flight Center. Report on the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs at NASA. Greenbelt, MD: NASA SBIR/STTR Program Management Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2001.
TL521.312 .R46 2001 BOOKSTACKS
Kit, Walter. The Effectiveness of Software Technology Transfer and Commercialization at NASA: An Analysis and Evaluation. Washington, DC: George Washington University, 2002.
T174.3 .K58 2002 BOOKSTACKS
Marcure, Judy. Marketing Scientific Results and Services: A Toolkit. Washington, DC: Calibre Communications, 2000.
HF5415.2 .M37 2000 BOOKSTACKS
Palmintera, Diane. Partners on a Mission: Federal Laboratory Practices Contributing to Economic Development. Washington, DC: Office of Technology Policy, Technology Administration, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 2003.
T176 .P35 2003 BOOKSTACKS
Popper, Steven W. New Foundations for Growth: The U.S. Innovation System Today and Tomorrow. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Science and Technology Policy Institute, 2002.
T173.8 .P65 2002 BOOKSTACKS
Toregas, Costis. Technology Transfer: Bringing Innovation to NASA and the Nation. Washington, DC: National Academy of Public Administration, 2004.
TL521.312 .N38 T4 2004 BOOKSTACKS
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Environment, Technology, and Standards. Manufacturing R&D: How Can the Federal Government Help?. Washington, DC: U.S. G.P.O., 2003.
KF27 .S32 M36 2003 BOOKSTACKS
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology (2007). Subcommittee on Research and Science Education. The Transfer of National Nanotechnology Initiative Research Outcomes for Commercial and Public Benefit. Washington, DC: U.S. G.P.O., 2008.
KF27 .S3984 2008A BOOKSTACKS
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology (2007). Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation. The Bayh-Dole Act (P.L. 96-517, amendments to the Patent and Trademark Act of 1980): The Next Twenty-five Years. Washington, DC: U.S. G.P.O., 2008.
KF27 .S39956 2007B BOOKSTACKS
United States. General Accounting Office. Intellectual Property: Federal Agency Efforts in Transferring and Reporting New Technology. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office, 2002.
KF2979 .U55 2002 BOOKSTACKS
Wessner, Charles W. Government-industry Partnerships for the Development of New Technologies: Summary Report. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2003.
T176 .G58 2003 BOOKSTACKS


The e-books listed here are available to NASA civil servants and contractors through the Books 24x7 service of SATERN.
Rafinejad, Dariush. Innovation, Product Development, and Commercialization: Case Studies and Key Practices for Market Leadership. J. Ross Publishing, 2007.
Speser, Phyllis L. The Art and Science of Technology Transfer. John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
Touhill, Joseph, Greory J. Touhill, and Thomas A. O'Riordan. Commercialization of Innovative Technologies: Bringing Good Ideas to the Marketplace. John Wiley & Sons, 2008.
The e-books listed here are available to the general public through the National Academies Press.
Wessner, Charles (ed.). An Assessment of the SBIR Program, 2008.
__________. An Assessment of the Small Business Innovation Research Program at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2009.
__________. SBIR and the Phase III Challenge of Commercialization: Report of a Symposium, 2007.
__________. SBIR Program Diversity and Assessment Challenges: Report of a Symposium, 2004.

Articles and Reports

Brady, Collin, et al. "Feasibility Study of Commercial Markets for New Sample Acquisition Devices", in: AIAA SPACE 2010 Conference and Exposition, Anaheim, CA, Aug. 30-Sept. 2, 2010.
(20100033635: (Oct. 2010) NTRS)
Bryant, Robert G. "Commercialization of LARC™-SI Polyimide Technology", in: POLYCOM 2008, Galveston, TX, May 4-7, 2008.
(20080018690: (May 2008) NTRS)
Comstock, Douglas A. "NASA’s Innovative Partnerships Program: Matching Technology Needs with Technology Capabilities", High Frontier, vol. III, no. 3 (May 2007), p. 22-26.
This issue of High Frontier is available as a PDF online.
Lindvall, Mikael, et al. "Connecting Research and Practice: An Experience Report on Research Infusion with SAVE", Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering: A NASA Journal, June 2010, p. 1-23.
Preprint available as document no. 20090038684 through NTRS.
McMillan, Vernotto C. "Technology Transition a Model for Infusion and Commercialization", in: 57th International Astronautical Congress: Connecting Space People, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2-6, 2006.
(20070002636: (Feb. 2007) NTRS)
Quick, Jason. "Technology Transfer Challenges: A Case Study of User-Centered Design in NASA's Systems Engineering Culture", in: 39th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Savannah, GA, July 12-16, 2009.
(20090033140: (Sept. 2009) NTRS)

Internet Resources

Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer. 2010 [Nov. 30, 2010].
National Technology Transfer Center. 2009 [Nov. 30, 2010].
Ray, Carl. Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer. Nov. 19, 2010. [Nov. 30, 2010].
Talbert, Tricia. NASA Innovative Partnerships Program. Oct. 4, 2010 [Nov. 30, 2010].
UNEP/GRID-Arendal. Methodological and Technological issues in Technology Transfer. 2010 [Nov. 30, 2010].

Last Updated: Nov. 2010