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Project Budgeting and Cost Control

Program/Project Management Resource List #8

Revised Oct. 2012

"A billion here, a billion there, and pretty soon you're talking about real money.", attributed to Senator E.M. Dirksen

Proper budgeting and cost control are vital ingredients of a successful project. When a project is insufficiently funded or given an improper timetable, the quality of the work and the speed of the project will suffer. On the other hand, the project manager must be careful to keep costs under control and also try to keep everything running on time, so that the clients will receive the most value for their money. This is more than just a matter of pushing the team to work more-a good manager can only succeed after taking account of, as Rumsfeld put it, "known unknowns" and "unknown unknowns". For instance, a boy running a lemonade stand will probably take the weather into account before he brings his pitcher of lemonade out to the curb, but has he considered the possibility of electricity going out, and thus running out of ice?

This bibliography provides an overview of project budgeting and cost control resources available through the NASA HQ Library. In addition, the HQ library has reports from the Government Accountability Office and NASA's Office of the Inspector General. You may also find useful resources in our webpages on Project Risk Management, Earned Value Management, and Vision and Strategic Planning.

The following is a select bibliography of pertinent materials accessible to the patrons of the NASA HQ Library. All items are available at the Headquarters Library, except as noted. NASA Headquarters employees and contractors: Call x0168 or email Library@hq.nasa.gov for information on borrowing or in-library use of any of these items. Members of the public: Contact your local library for the availability of these items. NASA Headquarters employees can request additional materials or research on this topic. The Library welcomes your comments or suggestions about this webpage.

Contents: Policies Books E-books Articles and Reports Internet Resources

NASA Policies

The following policies and procedural requirements can be accessed by anyone through the NASA Online Directives Information System:
The policies and procedural requirements governing NASA's project and financial management are in § 7000-7999 and § 9000-9799 of the NASA Online Directives Information System.


Brathwaite, Joy D. Value-informed Space Systems Design and Acquisition. Atlanta, GA: Georgia Institute of Technology, 2011.
TL796.5 .U5 B738 2011 BOOKSTACKS
Online at http://www.ssdl.gatech.edu/papers/phdTheses/BrathwaiteJ-Thesis.pdf
Brethauer, Dale M. The Power of Strategic Costing: A Proactive Competitive Approach for Setting Future Strategic Plans. New York, NY: AMACOM, 2000. ISBN: 0814404863
HF5686 .C8 B64 2000 PPM-STACKS
Cappels, Thomas M. Financially Focused Project Management. Boca Raton, FL: J. Ross Pub., 2004. ISBN: 1932159096
HD69 .P75 C37 2004 PPM-STACKS
Online as an e-book through SATERN.
MCR Federal, Inc. (eds). Parametric Estimating Handbook. Vienna, VA?: International Society of Parametric Analysts/Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis, 2003. ISBN: 097202042X
HJ9777 .A3 P373 2003 PPM-STACKS
National Research Council. Space Studies Board. Controlling Cost Growth of NASA Earth and Space Science Missions. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2010. ISBN: 9780309157377
QA76.9 .A93 C678 2010 BOOKSTACKS
Online as an e-book at the National Academies Press.
United States. Government Accountability Office. GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide: Best Practices for Developing and Managing Capital Program Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Govt. Accountability Office, 2009.
HD47.3 .G36 2009 BOOKSTACKS
Online at http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-09-3SP.
United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 2008 NASA Cost Estimating Handbook. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Admistration, Cost Analysis Division; Cleveland, OH: Booz Allen Hamilton, 2008.
TL521.312 .A4 2008 BOOKSTACKS
Online at http://ceh.nasa.gov/ceh_2008/nasa_costing_estimating_handbook_2008.htm.


All e-books listed here are available to NASA civil servants and contractors through the Books 24×7 service of SATERN.
Callahan, Kevin R., Gary S. Stetz and Lynne M. Brooks. Project Management Accounting: Budgeting, Tracking, and Reporting Costs and Profitability, Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 2011 ISBN: 9780470952344
Shim, Jae K., and Joel G. Siegel. Budgeting Basics and Beyond, Third Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 2009 ISBN: 9780470389683
Taylor, James C. Project Scheduling and Cost Control: Planning, Monitoring and Controlling the Baseline. J. Ross Publishing, 2008. ISBN: 9781932159110
Venkataraman, Ray R., and Jeffrey K. Pinto. Cost and Value Management in Projects. John Wiley & Sons, 2008. ISBN: 9780470069134

Articles and Reports

Amer, Tahani R. Development of Risk Uncertainty Factors from Historical NASA Projects, HQ-STI-11-201, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC, Dec. 2011.
(20120013069: (Aug. 2012) NTRS)
Banerjee, Bakul. "Estimating design costs for first-of-a-kind projects", in: IEEE International Engineering Management Conference, Salvador, Brazil, Sept. 17-20, 2006.
(879083: (May 2008) DoE Information Bridge)
Dorey, Sean P., Josef Oehmen, and Ricardo Valerdi. "Enhancing Cost Realism through Risk-Driven Contracting: Designing Incentive Fees Based on Probabilistic Cost Estimates", Defense Acquisition Research Journal, vol. XIX, no. 2 (April 2012), p. 133-158.
Available online at DTIC as document no. ADA563821.
Hansen, Patricia A., Dianne Day, and Mark Secunda. "The Swift Project Contamination Control Program: A Case Study of Balancing Cost, Schedule and Risk", in: 21st Aerospace Testing Seminar, Manhattan Beach, CA, Oct. 21-23, 2003.
(20030102244: (July 2009) NTRS)
Hunt, Charles D, and Michel O. van Pelt. "Comparing NASA and ESA Cost Estimating Methods for Human Missions to Mars; Final Report", in: International Society of Parametric Analysts Conference, Frascati, Italy, May 10-12, 2004.
(20040075697: (June 2008) NTRS)
Ryan, E., D. Jacques, J. Colombi, and C. Schubert. "A Proposed Methodology to Characterize the Accuracy of Life Cycle Cost Estimates for DoD Programs", Procedia Computer Science, vol. VIII, 2012, p. 361-369.
Available online at DTIC as document no. ADA557941.
Shishko, Robert. "Developing Analogy Cost Estimates for Space Missions", in: AIAA Space 2004, San Diego, CA, Sept. 28-30, 2004.
(20090007578: (Feb. 2009) NTRS)
Swan, Christopher, and Shawn Jarrett. "Correlation of Spacecraft Mission and Project Costs", in: NASA Cost Symposium, Denver, CO, July 17-19, 2007.
(20090026401: (Aug. 2009) NTRS)
White, J Chris, and Robert M. Sholtes. "Agent-Based Simulations for Project Management", in: Selected Papers and Presentations Presented at MODSIM World 2010 Conference and Expo, NASA/CP-2011-217069/PT1, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, March 2011.
(20110012101: (June 2011) NTRS)

Internet Resources

NASA Websites
Bonilla, Erin L. Ask Magazine Archive. Budgets. May 12, 2010 [Oct. 3, 2012]
Cyr, Kelley. Cost Estimating Web Site. May 25, 2007 [Oct. 3, 2012]
King, Katherine. Cost Analysis Division. Independent Program Assessment Office. April 14, 2010. [Oct. 3, 2012]
Tremper, Nadine. Office of the Chief Financial Officer. July 27, 2012 [Oct. 3, 2012]
Other Websites
American Society of Professional Estimators. 2009 [Oct. 3, 2012]
Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering. 2011 [Oct. 3, 2012]
International Cost Engineering Council. 2012. [Oct. 3, 2012]
International Society of Parametric Analysts. 2012 [Oct. 3, 2012]
Space Systems Cost Analysis Group. 2012. [Oct. 3, 2012]

Last Updated: Oct. 2012