Alter, Dinsmore. Editor. Pictorial Guide to the Moon. 3d edition. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1973. A general work using imagery and information from Project Apollo for its presentation.
Beeler, Mary, and Michlovitz, K. Lunar Orbiter Photographic Data: Data Users' Note. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Science Data Center, 1969. This volume announces the availability of lunar orbiter pictorial data and seeks to help users select photographs for study. Purely a reference tool with charts showing locations of the photographic coverage by mission.
Benson, Charles D. and Faherty, William Barnaby. Moonport: A History of Apollo Launch Facilities and Operations. Washington, DC: NASA SP-4204, 1978. An excellent history of the design and construction of the lunar launch facilities at Kennedy Space Center. Of Moonport, a reviewer in the Journal of American History said in 1979, "The authors had access to official documents, letters, and memoranda, and they have apparently consulted all the relevant historical, technological, and scientific secondary materials...; all the involved historians obviously spent considerable time studying and intellectually digesting technical reports and manuals in order to give their lay readers such lucid accounts of highly complex procedures and operations...; it is important to public knowledge to have professionally trained historians employ historical methods to explain significant events and place them in a meaningful historical context. Here is a broad lesson...that contemporary society can ill afford to ignore."
Bowker, David E. and Hughes, J. Kenrick. Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon. Washington, DC: NASA SP-206, 1971. This is an atlas of the photographs returned from five spacecraft put into lunar orbit from 1966 to 1967 in the effort to determine the nature of the lunar surface so astronauts could land there. These photographs cover "landing sites and specific areas of high scientific interest." This volume contains 675 plates along with their photo numbers, plus indexes and maps showing the locations on the Moon that the photos depict.
Brooks, Courtney G., Grimwood, James M., and Swenson, Loyd S., Jr. Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft. Washington: NASA SP-4205, 1979. The authors of this book describe it accurately in their preface (p. xiv) as beginning "with the creation of NASA itself and with the definition of a manned space flight program to follow Mercury. It ends with Apollo 11, when America attained its goal of the 1960s, landing th>
Byers, Bruce K. Destination Moon: A History of the Lunar Orbiter Program. Washington, DC: NASA TM X-3478, 1977. This study discusses the origins of the lunar orbiter program and covers the lunar orbiting missions from 1963-1970 when they collected photographic and selenodetic data in support of NASA missions to the Moon.
Compton, W. David. Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions. Washington, DC: NASA SP-4214, 1989. This clearly-written account traces the ways in which scientists with interests in the Moon and engineers concerned with landing people on the Earth's satellite resolved their differences of approach and carried out a mission that made major contributions to science and developed remarkable engineering achievements. Roughly half of the volume is devoted to preparations for the lunar landings, with the remainder of the book detailing the lunar explorations that followed Apollo 11, in which twelve astronauts visited the Moon and brought back lunar samples for scientists to investigate.
Disher, John H. "Space Transportation: Reflections and Projections." In Durant, Frederick C., III, editor. Between Sputnik and the Shuttle: New Perspectives on American Astronautics. San Diego, CA: American Astronautical Society, 1981. pp. 199-224. This article is part of a larger publication focusing on various aspects of the space program. A presentation by the director of advanced programs for NASA's office of space transportation systems at the AAS, it contains no notes or other scholarly apparatus. It does survey the methods of spaceflight for piloted missions since Mercury.
Gutschewski, Gary L.; Kinsler, Danny C.; Whitaker, Ewen. Atlas and Gazetteer of the Near Side of the Moon. Washington, DC: NASA SP-241, 1971. This reference work consists of 404 photographs from Lunar Orbiter IV of the near side of the Moon, accompanied by alphabetical guides to specific lunar features and five indices of lunar names.
Hall, R. Cargill. Lunar Impact: A History of Project Ranger. Washington, DC: NASA SP-4210, 1977. This is a thorough and readable history of the project to photograph the lunar surface from its initial failures to its ultimate successes. In the process of recounting them, the author has analyzed the transformations in the project, the institutions, and the people involved in it that led from the one to the other.
______. Project Ranger: A Chronology. Pasadena, CA: JPL/HR-2, 1971. A companion piece to the history above, this publication provides an almost day-by-day account of the evolution of the project.
Hyatt, Abraham. "Stranded in Lunar Orbit." Astronautics and Aeronautics. 7 (March 1969): 72-80. The scenario for what would happen during the Cold War if humans were stranded on the Moon. Would the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. cooperate to save him? A short play characterizes the imagined rescue.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Ranger VI Photographs of the Moon. Washington, DC: NASA SP-61, 1964. Some 199 photos of the Moon taken by Ranger VII in 1964 together with related reference material.
______. Ranger IX Photographs of the Moon. Washington, DC: NASA SP-112, 1966. Contains 170 photos of the Moon taken by Ranger IX in 1965 plus related reference material.
Kosofsky, L. J. and El-Baz, Farouk. The Moon as Viewed by Lunar Orbiter. Washington, DC: NASA SP-200, 1970. "This book includes selected parts of Lunar Orbiter photographs that illustrate some salient features of the lunar surface," as the book's preface states, with more complete coverage provided by Bowker and Hughes' Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon, discussed above.
Kranz, Eugene F., and Covington, James O. "Flight Control in the Apollo Program." Astronautics and Aeronautics. 8 (March 1970): 64-71. This account by two leading officials at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston covers the Apollo flight control program through Apollo 12 in clear language with some complicated diagrams to illustrate technical points.
McKee, Daniel D. "The Gemini Program." Air University Review. 16 (May-June 1965): 6-15. This article by an Air Force officer assigned to NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center discusses the differences between Mercury and Gemini and the relevance of Gemini to Air Force goals. The author emphasizes that the Air Force was making "every effort . . . to derive the maximum military benefit from the NASA Gemini program."
Musgrove, Robert G. Lunar Photographs from Apollos 8, 10, and 11. Washington, DC: NASA SP-246, 1971. As the title suggests, this is a series of captioned photographs from the three missions, followed by indexes.
North, Warren J., and Woodling, Carroll H. "Apollo Crew Procedures, Simulation and Flight Planning." Astronautics and Aeronautics. 8 (March 1970): 56-62. This article by two managers at the Manned Spacecraft Center discusses how "a broad range of activities, centered on simulators, brought crews to a state of readiness and honed flight plans and procedures."
The Times Atlas of the Moon. Edinburgh, Scotland: John Bartholomew & Son, 1970. This reference work is a large-size, full-color effort to document the features of the Moon's surface. Based almost entirely on U.S. sources, it has 110 full-color maps and many more photographs to illustrate the book.
Tindall, H. W., Jr. "Techniques of Controlling the Trajectory." Astronautics and Aeronautics. 8 (March 1970): 76-82. This account by an official at the Manned Spacecraft Center discusses "how the various components of the guidance, navigation, and control systems (GNC) and, to some extent the engines are to be used during all phases of the manned Apollo missions."
(Apollo Accident Report). Aviation Week and Space Technology. 6 February 1967, pp. 29-36; 13 February 1967, pp. 33-36; and 20 February 1967, pp. 22-23. Discusses the ways NASA was attempting to maintain its Apollo landing schedule despite the Apollo 204 accident. Also covers congressional monitoring of the accident investigation and the inquiry itself. Not a conclusive discussion, since the investigation had not yet ended as of 20 February, but it gives something of the flavor and immediacy of the situation in NASA and the country in the wake of the tragedy.
Bergaust, Erik. Murder on Pad 34. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1968. A highly-critical account of the investigation of the Apollo 204 accident in January 1967 that killed astronauts Gus Grissom, Roger Chaffee, and Edward White. Bergaust takes issue with NASA's design approach that allowed for the use of a pure oxygen atmosphere in the Apollo command module. It is largely a journalistic rehash of criticism of NASA coming from Congress and the media, with very little new commentary or analysis and no new factual information. Bergaust concludes that the human and fiscal sacrifices made in Project Apollo have been in vain, since the Soviet Union (seen as the reason for Apollo) may not be going to Moon at all.
Biddle, Wayne. "Two Faces of Catastrophe." Air and Space/Smithsonian. 5 (August/September 1990): 46-49. Discusses the different ways in which NASA handled the Apollo 204 fire in 1967 and the Challenger disaster in 1986. Biddle concludes that the comparison shows NASA had become more fragile and lost direction following the Moon landing.
Boyes, W. Killed Twice Buried Once: A Story about the Catastrophic Apollo Fire. Rockville, MD: Chesapeake Bay Press, 1986. This "novelized" account of the Apollo 204 fire is, the author claims, "based on the actual events which surrounded" the disaster, but as it contains many fictionalized names and events, it must be consulted with extreme care and only in conjunction with "factual" discussions--or at least ones whose sources are attributed.
"The Capsule Fire Flares Up Again." Life. 17 September 1971, pp. 24-29. 8 B&W photos. Story of the lawsuit brought against North American by Betty Grissom and an engineer's story of the Apollo 204 disaster.
Gray, Mike. Angle of Attack: Harrison Storms and the Race to the Moon. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1992. This is a lively journalistic account of the career of Harrison Storms, president of the Aerospace Division of North American Aviation that built the Apollo capsule. Because of the Apollo 204 fire that killed three astronauts in January 1967, Storms and North American Aviation got sucked into a controversy over accountability and responsibility. In the aftermath Storms was removed from responsibility for the project. The most important aspect of this book is its discussion of the Apollo fire and responsibility for it from the perspective of industry. It lays the blame at NASA's feet and argues that Storms and North American were mere scapegoats. It, unfortunately, has no notes and the observations offered cannot be verified.
Kennan, Erlend A., and Harvey, Edmund H., Jr. Mission to the Moon: A Critical Examination of NASA and the Space Program. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1969. This book features a detailed examination of the facts of the Apollo 204 fire in January 1967 that killed three astronauts. It does not provide a balanced account of the lunar landing program or NASA. Instead it is filled with critical asides. For example, the authors conclude: "The real reasons for the [Apollo] tragedy--were a lack of perspective and flexibility within NASA management at all key levels; inept, competing, or nonexistent channels of communication throughout the organization's many facilities; lazy, sloppy, and unduly profit-motivated contractor performance, myopic Congressional indulgence (often referred to as 'moon-doggling'), irresponsi- ble public relations--to the point where NASA actually believe its own inflated propaganda; and finally, a remarkable aloofness from and disdain for the legitimate interests of the taxpaying American public." Unfortunately, the treatment is long on hyperbole and short on reasoned analysis; the New York Times reviewer said that the book "adds little that is new on any of the problems or possible solu- tions....But perhaps the book's sense of outrage is in itself an adequate reason for the book's existence."
"The Ten Desperate Minutes." Life. 21 April 1967, pp. 113-114. Riveting reconstruction of the events in the ten minutes following the outbreak or fire onboard Apollo 204. Based on eyewitness accounts by pad personnel.
United States House, Committee on Science and Aeronautics. Apollo and Apollo Applications: Staff Study for the Subcommittee on NASA Oversight of the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninetieth Congress, Second Session. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1968. A brief analysis of the state of the Apollo program in the wake of the Apollo 204 fire followed by four appendices containing documents and abstracts supporting the conclusions of the staff study, which included the judgement: "It appears that NASA and the key industrial contractors are recovering momentum following the Apollo 204 accident and are utilizing the information derived effectively to improve the safety and efficiency of equipment and operations" but that a "number of difficult engineering problems remain to be solved...."
United States House, Committee on Science and Astronautics. Apollo Program Pace and Progress; Staff Study for the Subcommittee on NASA Oversight, Ninetieth Congress, First Session. Washington, DC: Govt. Print. Off., 1967. This thick committee print provides a "summary of the status, completed in December 1966, of the Apollo lunar landing program prior to the tragic" Apollo 204 fire. The introduc- tion and program evaluation occupy only 13 pages, but they are followed by over 1,000 pages of correspondence and transcripts of staff conferences with industrial contractors and NASA center managers in Houston, at Kennedy and Marshall. A summary at the beginning announces it as "the finding of this study that the NASA- industry team is employing its resources effectively in solution of those technical problems which currently pace the program."
United States House, Committee on Science and Astronautics, Subcommittee on NASA Oversight. Apollo and Apollo Applications: Staff Study, Ninetieth Congress, Second Session. Washington, DC: Govt. Print. Off., 1968. This study includes a summary, conclusions, and a brief program analysis followed by correspondence and abstracts of staff conferences with NASA management and industry representatives. The conclusions outline problems and progress since the Apollo 204 fire.
United States House, Committee on Science and Astronautics, Subcommittee on NASA Oversight. Investigation into Apollo 204 Accident, Hearings, Ninetieth Congress, First Session. Washington, DC: Govt. Print. Off., 1967. This 3-volume committee print contains testimony, a summary of actions taken on the findings and determina- tions of the accident review board, the report of that board itself, and a report on the principal new features of the new (Block II) command and service module as compared with the one involved in the accident (Block I), together with a description of the testing planned to validate the changes made.
United States Senate, Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences. Apollo Accident Hearings, Ninetieth Congress, First Session. Washington, DC: Govt. Print. Off., 1967. This voluminous, 7-part committee print publishes the statements of the individuals who testified before the committee plus 246 illustrations and 25 tables containing additional data. Parts 6 and 7 consist of NASA's report on its implementation of the Apollo 204 review board's recommendations and further information relating to that implementation. Fully indexed.
United States Senate, Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences. Apollo 204 Accident: Report of the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, United States Senate, with Additional Views. Washington, DC: Govt. Print. Off., 1968. This short committee print consists of a discussion of the Apollo 204 review board, conditions leading to the accident, the accident itself, NASA's response to the review board's findings, NASA's relations with spacecraft contractors, and the effects of the accident on the Apollo schedule. In its recommendations, the report agrees with the position of NASA Administrator James Webb that not all details of government- contractor relations should be placed in the public domain, but it insists that serious problems need to be brought to the committee's attention, as was not the case before the Apollo 204 accident.
United States Senate, Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences. Apollo 6 Mission Hearing, Ninetieth Congress, Second Session...April 22, 1968. Washington, DC: Govt. Print. Off., 1968. Subtitled "Summary of the Problems Encountered in the Second Flight of the Saturn V Launch Vehicle," this hearing included testimony by NASA Administrator James E. Webb and three top NASA managers involved in Apollo, George E. Mueller, Maj. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips, and George H. Hage. Includes 22 illustrations.
"Apollo 7." TRW Space Log. 8 (Winter 1968-1969): 35-38. Provides brief descriptions of the Apollo 7 launch vehicle (Saturn IB), spacecraft (command module, service module, and spacecraft lunar module adapter), project objectives for the first human flight of Apollo spacecraft, the payload (including astronauts Walter M. Schirra, Donn F. Eisele, and Walter Cunningham), project results (all mission objectives satisfied), and major participants.
"11 Days Aboard Apollo 7." Life. 6 December 1968, pp. 60-74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 84. 2 B&W, 7 color photos highlight these extensive personal accounts by the Apollo 7 astronauts, Schirra, Cunningham, and Eisele.
"Apollo 8." TRW Space Log. 8 (Winter 1968-1969): 39-42. A discussion of Apollo 8, which featured the Saturn V; a launch escape system, command module, service module, spacecraft lunar module adapter, and lunar module test article. Project results included the first circumnavigation of the Moon by humans (Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and William A. Anders) and their safe return to Earth.
"Apollo 8: Guide to the High Adventure." Newsweek. 23 December 1968, pp. 50-55. Written just before the launch of Apollo 8, this brief article discusses the plans for the mission.
"Discovery." Life. 10 January 1969, pp. cover, 20-28. 9 color, 4 B&W photos show the launch of Apollo 8 and spectacular photos taken on the way to the Moon and back. Also, "Washington Post Front Page," p. 19. Ad by North American Rockwell depicting the newspaper's headlines on the Apollo 8 flight. Page 87 also has a photo of the orbiting astronomical observatory (OAO).
Manned Spacecraft Center. Analysis of Apollo 8: Photography and Visual Observa- tions. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration SP-201, 1969. Consisting largely of photos, tables, contour maps, and diagrams, this volume also contains commentaries by a variety of experts from NASA Headquarters, the Goddard Space Flight Center, the Langley Research Center, the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Arizona, Bellcomm, Inc., and other contractors. Together, they present the findings from the Apollo 8 mission in December 1968. Much of the material is highly technical, but a glossary assists the non-scientist in interpreting the analyses.
"Men and Machine." Life. 20 December 1968, pp. 4, 16-23. 11 color, 2 B&W photos. This pre-launch article provides a description of the Saturn V rocket and the Apollo 8 crew who would ride it--Borman, Lovell, and Anders. Includes a diary tracing the building of Saturn 5 503, the particular one they would ride.
NASA Office of Public Affairs. Apollo 8: Man around the Moon. Washington, DC: Govt. Print. Off., 1968. Largely photos with captions but includes short essays on topics like "The Making of an Astronaut" and "The Voyage Out."
Parker, P. J. "First Men Around the Moon." Spaceflight. 11 (March 1969): 91-94. A competent account of Apollo 8.
Phillips, Samuel C. "Apollo 8: A Most Fantastic Voyage." National Geographic Magazine. 135 (May 1969): 593-631. This lengthy account complete with numerous photographs and other illustrations, some of them quite stunning, presents a useful overview of Apollo 8 from the perspective of the director of Apollo since 1964.
Puttkamer, Jesco von. Apollo 8, Aufbruch ins All. Der Report der ersten Mondumkreisung. Mit 29 Fotos. Mnchen, FRG: Heyne, 1969. This little book by a NASA official explains the Apollo 8 mission day by day for readers of German.
"Satellite Support for Apollo Moonflight." Spaceflight. 1 (May 1969): 156-7. A discussion of the satellites that supported Apollo 8 and their roles.
"Apollo 9." TRW Space Log. 9 (Summer/Fall 1969): 21-30. Like previous articles in this journal, this provides a succinct description of the mission, launch vehicle, spacecraft, and results, which included the first test of the lunar module. In Earth orbit, the module separated from the command and service modules and then returned and docked with them.
"Apollo 9 Album." Life. 28 March 1969, pp. 26-37. 12 color photos show highlights or the Apollo 9 Earth-orbital mission. Good photos of the lunar excursion module.
Code Name Spider: Flight of Apollo 9. Washington, DC: NASA EP-68, 1969. This oddly-titled pamphlet, referring to the code name for the lunar module used on Apollo 9, describes that spacecraft, preparations for the mission, the mission itself, and the return to Earth--all accompanied by numerous photographs.
Parker, P. J. "Apollo 9 Tests Lunar Module." Spaceflight. 11 (July 1969): 230-233. This brief discussion, purportedly of the first operational test of the lunar module, really is a more or less blow-by-blow description of the entire Apollo 9 mission from pre-launch through the lunar module test itself to the return to Earth after 10 days in space.
Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center. Apollo Mission 10 Photogra- phy Indexes Prepared Under the Direction of the Department of Defense by the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, United States Air Force for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Saint Louis: AF Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, 1969. A series of fold-out maps of the Moon showing locations where individual photographs were exposed.
"Apollo 10." TRW Space Log. 9 (Summer/Fall 1969): 30-34. Discusses the similarities with and differences from Apollo 9, the principal difference being that the mission took place in lunar rather than Earth orbit.
"Apollo 10: Next Step the Moon." Interavia. 24 (July 1969): 879-82. A detailed and comprehensible account of the Apollo 10 mission from launch to splashdown, accompanied by photos.
Manned Spacecraft Center. Analysis of Apollo 10: Photography and Visual Observations. Washington, DC: NASA SP-232, 1971. The bulk of this volume consists of individual photographs, tables, graphs, and contour maps depicting the results of photography done during the Apollo 10 mission in May 1969. Interspersed among these are analyses and interpretations by experts from the Manned Spacecraft Center, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the University of Arizona, and Bellcomm, Inc. A glossary helps the lay reader understand the often highly technical material, but some of it will be intelligible only to those initiated in the fields of lunar science.
"Man's Vision of the Lunar Voyage--Suddenly Real." Life. 30 May 1969, pp. 3, 48-52A. 4 color, 7 B&W photos. Covers the launch and flight to the Moon of Apollo 10 including pictures of the Earth and Moon taken from TV monitors.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Mission Report: Apollo 10. Washington, DC: NASA EP-70, 1969. In this 12-page booklet NASA recounts the 8-day mission of Apollo 10 to test the lunar module, code-named Snoopy, in its circuits around the Moon and descent to within 8.4 nautical miles of the Earth's satellite to inspect the preferred landing site for Apollo 11.
Parker, P. J. "Apollo 10--The Last Rehearsal." Spaceflight. 11 (August 1969): 275þ78, 290. Covers the Apollo 10 mission from pre-launch activities through its successful return to Earth following orbit of the Moon and complex maneuvers with the lunar module named "Snoopy." Detailed and somewhat technical, this is nevertheless accessible to the non-expert.
Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center. Apollo Mission 11 Photogra- phy Indexes. St. Louis: AF Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, 1969. A series of fold-out maps of the Moon showing locations where individual photographs were exposed.
Anderson, Arthur T.; Michlovitz, C.K.; and Hug, K. Apollo 11 Lunar Photography: Data Users' Note. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Science Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1970. A guide for aiding investigators in selecting Apollo 12 photos for study and in interpreting the photographs.
"Apollo 11." TRW Space Log. 9 (Winter 1969-1970): 11-22. Provides a description of humankind's first landing on the Moon that is similar to the previous TRW discussions of earlier missions, noting that an estimated 530 million people around the world watched as Neil Armstrong descended from the lunar module to the surface of the Moon.
Apollo 11: On the Moon. A Look Special with text by The New York Times and photographs by the Apollo Astronauts. 1969. Besides numerous photographs, this edition includes articles on the Apollo 11 astronauts, the mission (by Times science writer John Noble Wilford), the decision to go to the Moon (by then-assistant professor at Catholic University, John M. Logsdon), and the future (by science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke).
Apollo 11's Moon Landing. Fresno, CA: California Microfilm Co., 1969. This is a collection of newspaper and magazine clippings on Apollo 11.
"Apollo 11 Tracking Force Readied." Aviation Week and Space Technology. 14 July 1969, pp. 91, 93-94, 99, 103. Describes the 4,500-person tracking force in NASA's Manned Space Flight Network then preparing to monitor the Apollo 11 mission. The network included 11 Earth orbital stations and 4 tracking ships with 30-foot-diameter parabolic antennas, plus 3 stations with 85-foot-diameter dishes. Includes 5 photos and a map.
"Apollo's Great Leap for the Moon." Life. 25 July 1969, pp. cover, 18D-29. 9 color, 7 B&W photos detail the events surrounding the liftoff of Apollo 11 to the Moon. Spectacular photos of the crowds and panorama of the launch. Also, "Ten Years that led to Apollo 11," p. 3; 32 Life covers over the years are shown as documenting steps in the space program.
Armstrong, Neil; Aldrin, Edwin; and Collins, Michael. The First Lunar Landing: 20th Anniversary/as Told by the Astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, Michael Collins. Washington, DC: NASA EP-73, 1989. This is a short, 24 page, recollection of the Apollo 11 mission by the astronauts; it was published under the auspices of the NASA Office of Public Affairs.
Barbour, John. Footprints on the Moon. Washington, DC: The Associated Press, 1969. This illustrated history consists of 12 chapters with numerous photographs to produce a popular history that capitalized on the interest surround- ing the flight of Apollo 11 in 1969.
Bdeler, W. "The Apollo 11 Moon Landing." Interavia. 24 (September 1969): 1497-1503. This account by a German expert on space history recounts the history of the entire Apollo program in brief compass; discusses launch vehicle development; describes the command, service, and lunar modules; succinctly covers Apollos 7-10; and then provides a fairly detailed description of Apollo 11, complete with photos. The article includes tables for the 5 Apollo flights to date, the Apollo 11 timetable of events, and the major contractors in the program. Although it does not avoid the usual Apollo acronyms, it does spell them out on first use and is generally not only informative but comprehensible to the lay reader. This issue of Interavia follows this article with shorter pieces on "NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center," "The Apollo programme in pictures," and "The Apollo astronauts' space suits," all without attribution as to their authors.
CBS News. 10:56:20 PM EDT, 7/20/69: The Historic Conquest of the Moon as Reported to the American People. New York: Columbia Broadcasting System, 1970. As the title suggests, this is an attempt to capture in print and pictures the reporting on humankind's first landing on the Moon during Apollo 11. More useful in capturing the immediacy of the moment than in providing an historical assessment of the event and its significance.
Department of Defense Support: Apollo 11. Patrick AFB, FL: Department of Defense Manned Space Flight Office, n.d. This booklet, a copy of which is available in the NASA History Office's Reference Collection, contains a useful discussion of Defense support for Apollo with sections on DoD tracking stations, aircraft, and ships; medical support; recovery forces; communications; and weather. In the back of the booklet are helpful maps and biographies of military personnel critical to Apollo support.
"Down to the Moon . . . and the Giant Step." Life. 8 August 1969, pp. cover, 18-29. 22 color photos. spectacular photos of the landing of Apollo 11 on the Moon, shots on the surface, and the astronauts back home. Flight Operations Reunion for the 20[th] Anniversary of the First Manned Lunar Landing: 1969-1989. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- tration, 1989. This curious reunion booklet consists of a variety of items mostly of interest only to those who participated in the reunion but including an Apollo 11 mission summary and related photos. A large portion of the paperback volume, however, consists of photos of the participants and brief statements by them about the roles they played in Apollo 11 and their activities at the time of the reunion.
Footprints on the Moon. Clinton, IA: Eduvision Co., 1969. Another illustrated history, this one consists of a cobbling together of Associated Press stories with numerous photographs to produce a history that capitalizes on the interest surrounding the flight of Apollo 11 in 1969.
Manned Spacecraft Center. Apollo 11 Photography, 70-mm, 16-mm, and 35-mm Frame Index. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1970. A list of tables containing supporting information about each photograph taken during the Apollo 11 mission. For use with other Apollo 11 indexes and the photographs themselves.
Manned Spacecraft Center. Apollo 11 Mission Report. Washington, DC: NASA SP-238, 1971. This detailed account of the mission includes a summary, introduction, mission description, pilots' report, and accounts of lunar descent and ascent; communications; trajectory; performance of the command and service modules, lunar module, and extravehicular mobility unit; the lunar surface; the biomedical evaluation; and sundry other matters including mission support performance. Appendices on Apollo spacecraft flight history, vehicle descriptions, and a glossary round out the package.
Moreau, John E. Compiler. First Men on the Moon: Historic Front Pages. Dayton, OH, 1972. As the title suggests, copies of front pages from 139 different newspapers announcing the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon. Sources range from The Pueblo Chieftan (CO) to the Rutland Herald (VT) and The Missoulian (MT), in addition to papers from more major metropolitan areas.
National Space Science Data Center. Apollo 11 70-mm Photographic Catalog. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1970. A compilation of proof prints for virtually all the 70-mm photography exposed during the Apollo 11 mission, sorted by magazine and frame number. Designed for use in conjunction with other indexes.
National Space Science Data Center. Apollo 11 Photographic Data Package. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1970. Another reference volume on Apollo photography, similar to others with like titles (see below under Apollo 12).
North American Rockwell Corporation Space Division. Man on the Moon. Washington, DC: United States Information Agency, 1969. One of the prime Apollo contractors provides a large-format, coffee-table book covering the Apollo 11 mission, the men, the machines, and the team that carried it off. Lavishly illustrated, this volume also has some informative narrative that provides an overview of the program and the mission.
"Off to the Moon." Life. 4 July 1969, entire issue. This issue with many illustrations covers Apollo 11 from many perspectives. Among other things, it includes biographies of astronauts Aldrin, Armstrong, and Collins, a poem by James Dickey, and reflections by Charles Lindbergh about the relationship of his own pioneering flight across the Atlantic to that of the initial trip to the Moon.
Parker, P. J. "Man on the Moon-I." Spaceflight. 11 (September 1969): 313-17. This initial segment of a two-part article gives a lengthy account of the Apollo 11 mission from pre-launch through a portion of the lunar surface activity.
______. "Man on the Moon-II." Spaceflight. 11 (October 1969): 338-41. Concludes the account of Apollo 11, carrying the story from the conclusion of the lunar surface activities to splashdown with a brief description of the preliminary scientific results from the mission.
Shayler, David J. From the Flightdeck 4: Apollo 11 Moon Landing. London: Ian Allen Ltd, 1989. This 80-page, 20th anniversary paperback for a popular audience includes numerous drawings and photographs plus narrative coverage of the Apollo 11 mission.
Sparks, James C. Moon Landing, Project Apollo. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1970. Another popular history, this book traces each step of the Apollo 11 flight, from the development of the "hardware" to splashdown, and analyzes the importance of this mission and future space exploration.
"Special Report: Apollo 11 Lunar Landing." Aviation Week & Space Technology. 91 (28 July 1969): 22-40. A series of articles and a photo essay discussing such issues as the information yielded by the mission, the way the spacesuits worked, the lunar landing, and the items left on the Moon.
Sprung, Jeffrey V. Apollo 11: Man's Greatest Adventure. New York: American Broadcasting Companies, 1969. This illustrated 53-page book, with a phonodisc (10 in., 33 1/3 rpm. microgroove) containing a medley of comments by various people from Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy to the astronauts, presents the story of Apollo 11 and its antecedents in picture, text, and sound, including a the sounds of the Saturn V launching the three astronauts to the Moon.
"To the Moon and Back." Life. Special Edition. 1969. 86 pages. Complete coverage of the Apollo 11 flight from preflight training to splashdown. Many large color photos taken on the mission. Pictorial biographies of the astronauts. Expanded versions of some previous Life articles. A real collector's item.
Weaver, Kenneth F. "The Flight of Apollo 11: 'One Giant Leap for Mankind'." National Geographic Magazine. 136 (December 1969): 752-87. Part of a five- part series of articles entitled "First Explorers on the Moon," this long article by Assistant Editor Weaver follows text and photographs by the Apollo 11 astronauts and Frank Borman in relating the events of the first human landing on the Moon. Complete with the photography for which the magazine is deservedly famous, this well-written account offers a useful, nearly contemporary overview.
______. "A Trip to the Moon." Air and Space/Smithsonian. 4 (June/July 1989): 62-73. This article discusses the history of the Apollo 11 mission, including the policy decisions and technological development leading up to the lunar landing, the preliminary Ranger missions to study the surface of the Moon, the configuration of the mission, and the events from launch of the Saturn V booster through the landing of the Eagle on the Moon and the subsequent rendezvous with the Columbia lunar orbiting vehicle to the flight back to planet Earth.
Wilford, John Noble. We Reach the Moon: The New York Times Story of Man's Greatest Adventure. New York: Bantam Books, 1969. One of the earliest of the journalistic accounts to appear at the time of Apollo 11, a key feature of this general and journeymanlike but not distinguished history is a 64 page color insert with photographs of the mission. It was prepared by the science writer of the New York Times using his past articles.
Wilhelms, Don. "A Smooth Spot in Tranquility." Air and Space/Smithsonian. 4 (June/July 1989): 42-47. Discusses the process for selecting the landing site for Apollo 11; the geological, scientific, and engineering considerations critical for site selection; and the collaboration between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey that preceded the choice of the location for the landing.
Young, Kenneth A., and Alexander, James D. "Apollo Lunar Rendezvous." Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. 7 (September 1970): 1083-86. This piece by two NASA officials at the Manned Spacecraft Center provides a technical description of the lunar rendezvous carried out on Apollo 11.
Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center. Apollo Mission 12 Lunar Photography Indexes. Saint Louis: AF Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, 1970. A series of fold-out maps of the Moon showing locations where individual photographs were exposed.
Anderson, Arthur T.; Michlovitz, C.K.; and Hug, K. Apollo 12 Lunar Photography: Data Users' Note. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Science Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1970. A guide for aiding investigators in selecting Apollo 12 photos for study and in interpreting the photographs.
"Apollo 12." TRW Space Log. 9 (Winter 1969-1970): 22-30. Discusses the second lunar landing in similar fashion to previous TRW accounts of Apollo missions.
"How Apollo 12 was Planned." Space World. February 1970, pp. 4-47. Somewhat mistitled, this lengthy article describes, not the planning process for Apollo 12 but rather the flight plan--not how managers planned the mission but the product of their planning efforts.
NASA Office of Public Affairs. Apollo 12: A New Vista for Lunar Science. Washington, DC: NASA EP-74, 1970. Follows the astronauts in text and photos as they collected lunar samples.
National Space Science Data Center. Apollo 12 70-mm Photographic Catalog. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1970. A compilation of proof prints for virtually all the 70-mm photography exposed during the Apollo 12 mission, sorted by magazine and frame number. Designed for use in conjunction with other indexes.
National Space Science Data Center. Apollo 12 Photographic Data Package. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1970. This catalog consists of proof prints of the 70-mm photography done during Apollo 12. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the Apollo 12 frame index to permit location of the area covered by each frame.
Parker, P. J. "The Triumph of Apollo 12." Spaceflight. 12 (February 1970): 77-81. Still another of Parker's competent accounts of Apollo missions, this one covers the first half of the second voyage to the Moon.
______. "The Triumph of Apollo 12 (Concluded)." Spaceflight. 12 (March 1970): 118-20. This conclusion of the preceding article covers the last portion of the account of lunar science on Apollo 12 and the return to Earth, with a table of Apollo 12 timelines added for good measure.
"Apollo 13." TRW Space Log. 10 (1970-1971): 5-9. In somewhat analogous fashion to previous TRW accounts, this one details the near-tragic mission on which a short circuit ignited electrical insulation in spacecraft oxygen tank number 2 of the service module, causing the mission to be aborted and the crew to use the lunar module for life support through most of the return to Earth.
Cooper, Henry S. F., Jr. Thirteen: The Flight that Failed. New York: Dial Press, 1973. In this highly personalized and readable account, Cooper retells the battle for survival of the Apollo 13 astronauts after the disabling of the service module as a result of the bursting of one of its oxygen tanks from an electrical malfunction.
"Four Days of Peril Between Earth and Moon: Apollo 13, Ill-Fated Odyssey." Time. 27 April 1970, pp. 14-18. Describes how, when the command and service module (CSM) carrying the astronauts around the Moon became crippled as a result of a series of short circuits, the Apollo 13 astronauts boarded the lunar (LM) module for the life support needed until they could propel the combined CSM-LM into a return trajectory to Earth. After jettisoning the service module, which was badly damaged, the crew reentered the command module about an hour before reentry and abandoned the LM lifeboat. Through the teamwork of the crew and mission control the mission could not be salvaged but the astronauts were able to return safely to Earth.
"The Joyous Triumph or Apollo 13." Life. 24 April 1970, pp. cover, 28-36. 11 color, 6 B&W photos highlight this early coverage of the near-disaster in space onboard Apollo 13. Includes a profile of the crew and the anguished families at home.
NASA Office of Public Affairs. Apollo 13: "Houston, We've Got a Problem". Washington, DC: NASA EP-76, 1970. This 25-page brochure explores the electrical problems in the service module on Apollo 13 and the resultant necessity to abandon the mission and devote all attention to returning the three astronauts to Earth safely. The brochure explains how this was done by using the lunar module, Aquarius, as a lifeboat and a source of power to propel the lunar and command modules into a trajectory that would return the latter to the home planet after the astronauts reentered it for the splashdown, jettisoning the damaged service module and then the lunar module. The procedure worked, and President Nixon later stated, "The three astronauts did not reach the Moon, but they reached the hearts of millions of people in America and in the world."
National Space Science Data Center. Apollo 13 Photographic Data Package. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1970. A photographic reference volume similar to the one for Apollo 12 described above.
"13 Was a Good Target for the Law of Averages." Life. 1 May 1970, pp. 24-33. 10 color photos. The personal accounts of the Apollo 13 astronauts and their struggle to survive on their crippled craft.
United States Senate, Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences. Apollo 13 Mission. Hearing, Ninety-first Congress, Second Session. April 24, 1970. Washington, DC: Govt. Print. Off., 1970. Contains statements by NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine, Apollo Program Director Rocco A. Petrone, Apollo 13 Mission Director Glynn S. Lunney, and the three Apollo 13 astronauts, followed by questions from the committee members and the responses of the NASA personnel. Includes 11 illustra- tions and 2 documents regarding the establishment of the Apollo 13 Review Board.
United States Senate, Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences. Apollo 13 Mission Review. Hearing, Ninety-first Congress, Second Session. June 30, 1970. Washington, DC: Govt. Print. Off., 1970. Contains the review boards findings with 31 illustrations plus testimony by NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine, Review Board Chair Edgar M. Cortright, Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight Dale D. Myers, and Apollo Program Director Rocco A. Petrone, followed by their questions from and answers to committee members.
"Apollo 14." TRW Space Log. 10 (1970-1971): 10-13. Discusses the third successful trip to the Moon, this time to the Frau Mauro crater about 100 miles east of the landing site for Apollo 12.
"Apollo 14." Interavia. 26 (April 1971): 383-85. A discussion of "the most science-oriented moon expedition so far," this large-formatted article provides diagrams and photos as well as prose descriptions of the experiments and investigations carried out on the Moon and in orbit around it.
Baker, David. "Apollo 14: A Visit to Fra Mauro." Spaceflight. 13 (May 1971): 164-69. This initial installment on Apollo 14 discusses the mission, including the hardware changes since Apollo 13, flight preparations, flight operations, and operations on the Moon's surface. Technical in places, the writing is generally accessible to the lay reader.
______. "Apollo 14: A Visit to Fra Mauro-2." Spaceflight. 13 (June 1971): 210- 12. This continuation of the preceding article continues its treatment of surface operations and covers the astronauts' return to Earth.
______. "Apollo 14: A Visit to Fra Mauro-3." Spaceflight. 13 (October 1971): 373-76. A postscript to the previous articles, this is a lengthy series of tables showing the sequence of events during the mission.
Froehlich, Walter. Apollo 14: Science at Fra Mauro. Washington, DC: NASA EP- 91, 1971. This account of the lunar portion of Apollo 14 is as much about the astronauts and their equipment as it is about science, but it provides a good description of what went on on the Moon and of the splashdown when the astronauts returned to Earth.
Hall, Alice J. "The Climb up Cone Crater." National Geographic Magazine. 140 (July 1971): 136-48. A discussion of "man's longest lunar walk to date" on Apollo 14, this thoroughly illustrated article follows astronauts Alan B. Shepard, Jr., and Edgar D. Mitchell on their trek, quoting them liberally.
National Space Science Data Center. Apollo 14 Photographic Data Package. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1971. A similar reference work on lunar photography to the one described above on Apollo 12.
"White Tracks on the Moon." Life. 26 February 1971, pp. 2A, 26-29. 2 color, 3 B&W photos taken on the Moon by the Apollo 14 astronauts.
Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center. Apollo Mission 15 Lunar Photography Index Maps. St. Louis: AF Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, 1972. A series of fold-out maps of the Moon showing locations where individual photographs were exposed.
"Apollo 15, P&F Subsatellite." TRW Space Log. 10 (1970-1971): 14-18. Discusses the differences in scientific instrumentation and exploration equipment aboard Apollo 15, including the first lunar roving vehicle.
Baker, David. "Expedition to Hadley-Apennine-1." Spaceflight. 13 (October 1971): 358-62, 383. This beginning account of Apollo 15 follows the general pattern of the previous sequence of articles, providing coverage of hardware and equipment changes since Apollo 14, a flight profile, site description, and discussion of the mission. Replete with more jargon and acronyms than absolutely necessary, these articles are nonetheless generally readable.
______. "Expedition to Hadley-Apennine-2." Spaceflight. 13 (November 1971): 431-35. This continuation of the previous article discusses the prelude to explora- tion, the three days spent on the Moon, and excursions in the lunar roving vehicle.
______. "Expedition to Hadley-Apennine-3." Spaceflight. 13 (December 1971): 468-70. This conclusion to the sequence of articles on Apollo 15 discusses the ascent to lunar orbit from the surface of the Moon, experiments in orbit, and the return to Earth.
Cameron, Winifred Sawtell and Mikesch, Mary Anne. Apollo 15 Lunar Photography; Data Users' Note. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Science Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1972. A photographic reference volume similar to similarly-titled ones for earlier missions.
"From the Good Earth to the Sea of Rains." Time. 9 August 1971, pp. 10-15. A personalized account of the Apollo 15 trip to the Moon as seen through the eyes of astronauts and scientists.
Lockheed Electronics Company, Inc. Apollo 15 Index of 70 mm Photographs. Houston, TX: Manned Spacecraft Center, 1972. A description and cross-indexing of Apollo 15 70 mm photographs.
NASA Office of Public Affairs. Apollo 15 at Hadley Base. Washington, DC: NASA EP-94, 1971. A brief description of the mission with lots of captioned photographs.
Simmons, Gene. On the Moon with Apollo 15: A Guidebook to Hadley Rille and the Apennine Mountains. Washington: National Aeronautics and Space Administra- tion, 1971. This guidebook by the chief scientist at the Manned Spacecraft Center was intended to provide background for interested television viewers of scientific activities on Apollo 15. Necessarily written before the mission, the publication contains an introduction providing background to the mission and explaining how it would unfold. It follows this with a description of the landing site and the lunar roving vehicle, then a discussion of the scientific activities the astronauts would carry out on the Moon. A segment on the crew, bibliography, glossary of terms, list of acronyms, and some tables on various aspects of the mission complete the package, which still provides a useful introduction to the mission.
United States House, Committee on Science and Astronautics. Apollo 15 Mission Report. Hearings, Ninety-second Congress, first session. September 9, 1971. Washington, DC: Govt. Print. Off., 1971. Consists of statements by and questioning of the three Apollo 15 astronauts, David R. Scott, James B. Irwin, and Alfred M. Worden. Contains 24 illustrations.
Weaver, Kenneth F. "To the Mountains of the Moon." National Geographic Maga- zine. 141 (February 1972): 230-65. This lengthy account by an assistant editor of the magazine provides competent and readable coverage of the Apollo 15 mission, complete with large numbers of photographs.
"Apollo 16 Explores Lunar Highlands." Aviation Week and Space Technology. 15 May 1972, pp. 41-49. 14 color photos depict the lunar highlands as viewed by the Apollo 16 astronauts.
Baker, David. "Mission to Descartes-1." Spaceflight. 14 (July 1972): 246-51. This initial account of Apollo 16 follows the general pattern of the previous accounts, carrying the mission through in-flight problems that proved serious but did not cause the mission to be aborted.
______. "Mission to Descartes-2." Spaceflight. 14 (August 1972): 287-91. Continues the preceding account, covering the mission from lunar landing to the safe return to Earth.
Batson, R.M., et al. Preliminary Catalog of Pictures Taken on the Lunar Surface during the Apollo 16 Mission. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey, 1972. Still another photographic catalog.
Cameron, Winifred Sawtell, et al., Apollo 16 Lunar Photography. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Science Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1973. A further volume of lunar photographs, this time from Apollo 16
Cameron, Winifred Sawtell, et al., Apollo 16 Lunar Photography; Data Users' Note. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Science Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1973. A further reference work on lunar photography to accompany the preceding volume.
Lockheed Electronics Company, Inc. Apollo 16 Index of 70mm Photographs and 16mm Film Strips. Houston, TX: Manned Spacecraft Center, 1972. A description and cross-indexing of Apollo 16 70mm photographs and 16mm film strips.
NASA Office of Public Affairs. Apollo 16 at Descartes. Washington, DC: NASA EP-97, 1972. A discussion of the overall mission with copious photos.
United States House, Committee on Science and Aeronautics. Apollo 16 Mission Report. Hearing, Ninety-second Congress, Second Session, May 16, 1972. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1972. Testimony by and questioning of the three Apollo 16 astronauts, John Young, Charles Duke, and Ken Mattingly. Includes 16 illustrations.
Anderton, David A. Apollo 17 at Taurus Littrow. Washington, DC: NASA EP- 102, 1973. A reasonably detailed description of the overall mission together with numerous captioned photographs.
Apollo 17, the Most Productive Lunar Expedition. Washington, DC: NASA Mission Report MR-12, 1977. This 8-page pamphlet summarizes the mission in photos and narrative.
Baker, David. "The Last Apollo-1." Spaceflight. 15 (February 1973): 42-47. Following the precedent of the previous series of articles, this one begins coverage of Apollo 17, carrying the story through the boost into trans-lunar trajectory.
______. "The Last Apollo-2." Spaceflight. 15 (March 1973): 87-91. This follow-on article carries the mission from trans-lunar injection through the third excursion in the lunar roving vehicle.
______. "The Last Apollo-3." Spaceflight. 15 (April 1973): 145-48. The concluding article in the series covers the Apollo 17 astronauts' return to lunar orbit and the trip home to Earth.
Cameron, Winifred Sawtell, et al., Apollo 17 Lunar Photography. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Science Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1974. Still another book of lunar photographs, similar to volumes for previous missions.
Cameron, Winifred Sawtell, et al., Apollo 17 Lunar Photography; Data Users' Note. Greenbelt, MD: National Space Science Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1974. Companion reference notes to the preceding volume.
Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center. Apollo 17 Index: Mapping Camera and Panoramic Camera Photographs. Houston, TX: Johnson Space Center, 1973. An index of supplemental data for all photographs taken from the scientific instrument module on the service module of the Apollo 17 spacecraft.
Larson, K.B., et al. Preliminary Catalog of Pictures Taken on the Lunar Surface during the Apollo 17 Mission. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey, 1973. A catalog for the volume of Apollo 17 lunar photographs.
El-Baz, Farouk. Editor. Catalog of Earth Photographs from the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Washington, DC: Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1979. A guide to usable photographs of the Earth obtained by the Apollo-Soyuz astronauts.
Eyermann, Karl-Heinz. Sojus, Apollo 1975. Leipzig, FRG: Urania-Verlag, 1975. A popular account of Apollo-Soyuz for the general German reader with a section on technology and a number of photos and diagrams.
Ezell, Edward Clinton, and Ezell, Linda Neuman. The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Washington, DC: NASA SP-4209, 1978. This solid and detailed history of the joint space venture of the United States and the Soviet Union in 1975 is based on numerous official sources, oral interviews, and tape recordings by the authors of meetings and conversations with participants in the preparations for the mission. Thus, in many ways this is a first-hand account distilling not only the contents of technical documents but also the contemporary comments and experiences of participants. The book begins with the background to the mission, going back to the Cold War competition between the United States and the Soviet Union. It recounts the early proposals for cooperation between the two world powers, especially those in the early and mid-1960s that reached a temporary dead end. The authors follow this with an account of the discussions in the early 1970s that led to the actual joint mission. More than a diplomatic history, however, the volume describes the design, development, and production of "the hardware and systems whereby two spacecraft from different traditions could be joined together in space" (p. 354 of the book). The authors also relate how NASA deputy administra- tor George Low had foreseen that space exploration was too expensive for both powers to continue duplicative programs forever. At the time the book was written, this was still speculation, but now it is clear that this book provides an important prologue to the current plans for cooperation in space by the United States and Russia.
Froehlich, Walter. Apollo-Soyuz. Washington, DC: NASA EP-109, 1976. This handsome little pictorial history contains a rather extensive text discussing the background to the mission, the spacecraft, the scientific experiments, the men involved, the reentry, and the significance of the American-Soviet cooperation in space. A number of tables complement the text. Written by a journalist, the volume is highly readable though far from definitive.
Lebedev, L.A. [Lev Aleksandrovich] and Romanov, Alexander. Rendezvous in Space: Soyuz Apollo. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1979. Translated from the Russian by Leonard Stoklitsky. This volume provides Soviet perspective on the joint mission.
Lee, Chester M., ed. Apollo Soyuz Mission Report. San Diego, CA: Univelt, 1976. This detailed account of the Apollo Soyuz mission provides a handy mission summary in its beginning pages and then analyzes the spacecraft systems perfor- mance, the crew station, the experiments performed, inflight demonstrations, joint flight activities, biomedical matters, and anomalies experienced during the mission. Although written in the passive voice, making it both less readable and less informative about some matters than it might have been, the report contains a great deal of information, much of it comprehensible to the lay reader. A number of appendices supplement the information in the text.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Apollo Soyuz Test Project: First International Manned Space Flight, July 15-24, 1975. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1975. This 17-page pamphlet contains a brief rundown on the objectives of the mission, the mission itself and recovery of the crew, a listing of experiments performed, followed by much more extensive crew biographies for both the American and Soviet crew members.
Page, Lou Williams and Page, Thornton. Apollo-Soyuz. Washington, DC: NASA EPs-133 through 141, 1977. These nine pamphlets are based on investigators' reports of experimental results, written with the help of advising teachers to serve as "curriculum supplements designed for teachers, supervisors, curriculum specialists, and textbook writers as well as for the general public." Dr. Lou Williams Page, a geologist, and Dr. Thornton Page, an astronomer, brought their special expertise to the writing. They divided the topics of individual pamphlets into "The Flight," "X- Rays, Gamma-Rays," "Sun, Stars, In Between," "Gravitational Field," "The Earth from Orbit," "Cosmic Ray Dosage," "Biology in Zero-G," "Zero-G Technology," and "General Science."
The Soyuz-Apollo Project. Moscow, USSR: Novosti Press Agency Pub. House, 1975. A pre-mission account from the Soviet perspective on the upcoming Apollo- Soyuz mission, as Americans call it. It includes biographies of the crew members and a discussion of joint flight preparations through December 1974.
United States House, Committee on Science and Astronautics. Space Shuttle, Space Tug, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project--1974; Status Report. Ninety-third Congress, Second Session. February 1974. Washington, DC: Govt. Print. Off., 1974. This lengthy report consists of a summary, conclusions, and a series of briefings by representatives of various NASA centers and contractors. One of the conclusions was that the "Apollo-Soyuz Test Project is proceeding on schedule and within the costs projected."