Chapter 11

1 New York Times (cited hereafter as NYT), 1 and 2 Oct 1957; E. Nelson Hayes, "The Smithsonian's Satellite-Tracking Program: Its History and Organization, Part 2," Annual report…Smithsonian Institution …1963, pp. 334-336 (cited hereafter as Smithsonian Tracking Program:2); Hayes, "Tracking Sputnik I," in Arthur C. Clarke, ed., The Coming of the Space Age (New York: Meredith Press, 1967), p. 10; U.S. Senate, Committee on The Armed Services, Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee, Hearings: Inquiry into Satellite and Missile Programs, part 1, 85th Cong., 1st and 2d Sess., p. 156 (cited hereafter as Johnson Subcommittee Hearings, 1957).

2 NYT, 31 Aug, 1 Sept, 1 and 5 Oct 1957; Walter Sullivan, Assault on the Unknown: The International Geophysical Year (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1961), pp. lf; phone interview with Sullivan; 21 Mar 1968; Richard Porter to authors, 21 Mar 1968.

3 NYT, 12 Oct 1957; NASA Chronology, p. 91 and appendix A; Hayes, Smithsonian Tracking Program:2, pp. 336f.

4 Dwight D. Eisenhower, The White House Years; Waging Peace, 1956-1961 (New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1965), p. 206 n.

5 NYT, 5 Oct, 5 and 12 Nov, and 5 Dec 1957; Richard Witkin, ed., The Challenge of the Sputniks, in the Words of President Eisenhower and Others (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1958), pp. 3, 4, 18; see also memo for Sec. Nav…, 9 Oct 1957, sub: Briefing of Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee Staff on the Vanguard Program and the Significance of the Russian Satellite Launching.

6 Witkin, op. cit., pp. 6, 34-50; NYT, 5, 6, and 10 Oct, 8, 12, and 14 Nov 1957; Eisenhower, op. cit., p. 211.

7 Witkin, op. cit., pp. 12, 13, and 16; NYT, 6, 12, 13, 14, and 15 Oct 1957; Hayes, Smithsonian Tracking Program:2, p. 334; Whipple interview; see also Johnson Subcommittee Hearings 1957, pt. 1, pp. 45f and 165. See also Sullivan, op. cit. (see n. 2), pp. 64, 70.

8 NYT, 5 Oct 1957; Witkin, op. cit., p. 6.

9 W. E. Smitherman, "Army Participation in Project Vanguard," IRE Transactions on Military Electronics, vol. MIL-4, Nos. 2-3 (April-July, 1960), p. 326; interview, Siry; min 11th mtg TPESP, 1 May 1957.

10 Hayes, Smithsonian Tracking Program:2, p. 335.

11 Ltr, IAGS Peru Project to Dir/Project Vanguard Attn Code 4130 [Mengel] 14 Oct 1957, sub: Weekly Project Report, Lima Station, Week ending 12 Oct 57.

12 Smitherman, op. cit., p. 326; Progress Report, Project Vanguard, 9 Oct 1957; NYT, 1 Oct 1957; IGY Report 21, p. 558.

13 See, for example, ltrs, E. A. Roberts, Amateur Radio Station W2PEQ, to NRL, 6 Oct 1957, and Paul E. Smay, station W9TZN, to Dir/NRL, 6 Oct 1957; NYT, 6 Oct 1957.

14 Hayes, Smithsonian Tracking Program: 2, pp. 226, 333, 340, 341; min 17th mtg TPESP, 3 Apr 1958, and 20th mtg, 21 July 1959; interview, Whipple.

15 Hayes, op. cit., p. 333.

16 Ibid., p. 343.

17 Ibid., p. 344; phone interview with E. Nelson Hayes, 30 Oct 1967; min 15th mtg TPESP, 7 Jan 1958.

18 NASA Chronology, appendix A; see also ltr 4100-221, Whipple to J. Paul Walsh, 9 Oct 1957 [forwarding world map predictions for the Soviet satellite]; Johnson Subcommittee Hearings 1957, pt. 1, pp. 155f.

19 Johnson Subcommittee Hearings, pt. 1, p. 2; ltr OP-515C Ser: 0278P51, Chief/Naval Operations to Chief/Naval Research, sub: Chronological History of Project Vanguard and Associated Preceding Projects, Request for; memo for the Sec/Navy…, 9 Oct 1957, sub: Briefing of Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee Staff on the Vanguard program…; phone interview, Hagen, 30 Oct 1967; John B. Medaris and Arthur Gordon, Countdown for Decision (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1960), p. 135. For an amusing account of the preparation of the chronological history of Vanguard, see Stehling, Project Vanguard, pp. 95-97; NYT, 6 Jan 1958.

20 Phone interview, Hagen; memo, Hagen to Codes 2000 and 1000, 15 Oct 1957, sub: TID Staff, Commendation of: Hagen, "The Viking and the Vanguard," in History of Rocket Technology, p. 137.

21 House of Representatives, Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Department of Defense Appropriations, Hearings on Department of Defense Appropriations for 1960, part 6, 86th Cong., 1st Sess., 14 Apr 1959, pp. 62f; memo, Chief/Naval Research to Chief/Naval Operations, 29 Oct 1957, sub: Project Vanguard Status Rpt No. 80.

22 Quoted in Medaris and Gordon, op. cit., p. 166.

23 Ernst Stuhlinger, "Army Activities in Space-A History," IRE Transactions in Military Electronics, vol. MIL-4, Nos. 2-3 (Apr-July 1960), pp. 65f; min 14th mtg TPESP, 1 May 1957; ltr, Hagen to authors, 9 Jan 1968.

24 Stuhlinger, op. cit., Medaris and Gordon, op. cit., pp. 119-20, 122, 134-36, 147, 151; NASA Chronology, p. 87; Eisenhower, op. cit. (n. 4), p. 210; see also conf rpt 4110-46, 18 Oct 1957, purpose: to Explore Capability of Jupiter Vehicles.

25 Eisenhower, op. cit., p. 244 n.; Medaris and Gordon, op. cit., p. 155.

26 Interviews with Siry, Rosen, and Berg, 21 Mar 1968; Medaris and Gordon, op. cit., pp. 157-167; Eisenhower, op. cit., p. 211; min 13th mtg TPESP, 22 Oct 1957.

27 Interview, Eisenhower, 1966; Medaris and Gordon, op. cit., p. 157. See also JUNO [a report], Pasadena, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, no date; and Johnson Subcommittee Hearings 1957, pt. 1, pp. 207, 319, 374, 544f, 557, and 569.

28 Ibid., pp. 151, 162, 165f, and 318-320; see also memo, Sec/Navy to Sec/Defense, 31 Oct 1957, sub: Project Vanguard.

29 Klawans and Burghardt, Vanguard Launch Vehicle, p. 58f; encl (1) ltr, Dir/NRL to Chief/ Naval Research, 23 Dec 1957, sub: Preliminary Report on TV-3 (cited hereafter as Preliminary Report on TV-3), forwarding of; interviews, Bridger, 3 Aug and 13 Nov 1967; ltr, Vanguard Project engineer to BAR, Azasa, Cal, 25 July 1957, sub: Second Stage Vanguard, Status of; Burghardt Ms. Diary, 8-23-57; Weekly Progress Report 4104-47, Vanguard Planning Office to Vanguard Project Director, 3 Sept 1957; encl to memo for Mr. James O. Spriggs, Office Asst Sec/Def, 17 Sept 1957, sub: Draft of Proposed Report to the President, Submittal of; conf rpt 4120-498, 16 Sept 1957, purpose: Second-Stage Thrust Chamber Coatings…; memo, Chief/Naval Research to Chief/Naval Operations, 12 Sept 1957, sub: Project Vanguard Weekly Status Rpt No. 82; ltr 4120-558 Ser:01857, Dir/NRL to BAR, Azusa, 27 Nov 1957, sub: Second Stage Improvement Program, Decisions Concerning; encl (1) ltr, Dir/NRL to Chief/Naval Research, 27 Nov 1957, sub: Project Vanguard Weekly Status Rpt No. 92.

30 See chapter 11, pp. 197-198.

31 Klawans and Burghardt, Vanguard Launch Vehicle, p. 66; Preliminary Report on TV-3; NYT, 2 Dec 1957; Martin Monthly Progress Letter 18, p. 16; Vanguard Planning Office to Vanguard Project Dir, Weekly Progress Rpt of 4 Nov 1957; Martin Monthly Progress Letter 19, p. 9; encl (1) ltr, Dir/ NRL to Chief/Naval Research, 19 Nov 1957, sub: Project Vanguard Weekly Status Rpt No. 91; interview, von Kármán, Sept 1961.

32 NYT, 4 Dec 1957; Preliminary Report on TV-3.

33 Ibid.; NYT, 6 Dec 1957.

34 Preliminary Report on TV-3; NYT, 7 Dec 1957; Kurt Stehling, "Vanguard," in Arthur C. Clarke, ed., The Coming of the Space Age (see n. 1), pp. 15-20; Klawans and Burghardt, Vanguard Launch Vehicle, pp. 66f. Verses are from Robert Burns' "To a Mouse," and mileages at AFMTC are given in ltr, Commanding Office [PAFB] to Dir/NRL, 17 Jan 1958, sub: Mileage in Patrick-Cape Area, Forwarding of.

35 Klawans and Burghardt, Vanguard Launch Vehicle, pp. 112f; phone interviews, 17 Nov 1967, with Richard Porter, Bernard Klawans, and N. J. Constantine; NYT, 7 Dec l987; copy of memo in GE files, Klawans to Bridger, Burghardt and [Louis] Michelson, 15 Nov 1960, sub: Revision to Vanguard Flight Test History Summary; memo, Code 4101 to Codes 4100, 4110, 4120, 4160, 2 Jan 1958, sub: TV-3 Failure.

36 NYT, 7 Dec 1967; interview, Markarian, 13 Oct 1967; Medaris and Gordon, op. cit. (see n. 19), p. 197; ltr 4100-340, Hagen to All Members of the Vanguard Staff, 18 Dec 1957, and enclosures. Bronk, speech at tenth anniversary Vanguard dinner, 16 Mar 1968.