Chapter 13

1 Min 14th mtg TPESP, 6 Nov 1957, pp. 7-8.

2 See chapter 11, p. 195.

3 See chapter 6, p. 107.

4 Min 7th mtg WGII, 21 Oct 1957; min 13th mtg TPESP, 22 Oct 1957, pp. 2-6.

5 See chapter 7, p. 124.

6 Min 14th mtg TPESP, 6 Nov 1957.

7 Associated Press releases, 17 Nov 1967.

8 Min 14th mtg TPESP, 6 Nov 1957, pp. 2-6; and min 16th mtg TPESP, 12 Feb 1958, p. 9; interview, John Townsend, 12 Mar 1968.

9 Min 15th mtg TPESP, 8 Jan 1958, pp. 2-4, 9, and min 16th mtg TPESP 12 Feb 1958, p. 4; IGY Report 21, pp. 560-61.

10 See n. 4 and chapter 7, pp. 128-129; min 15th mtg TPESP, 8 Jan 1958, pp. 7, 9-10; attachment E to min 14th mtg USNC, 16 Jun 1958.

11 Min 11th mtg USNC, 8 Jan 1958, pp. 1-2, and attachment A, ltr, John A. Simpson to Odishaw, 6 Jan 1958; min 26 mtg USNC-IGY Executive Committee, 8 Jan 1958, pp. 1-3.

12 See chapter 6, p. 102; IGY Report 21, p. 561.

13 Min 17th mtg TPESP, 3 Apr 1958, pp. 1-2, 7.

14 Min 14th mtg USNC, 16 Jun 1958, p. 2; IGY Report 21, pp. 600-603.

15 Min 14th mtg USNC, 16 June 1958, p. 1.

16 IGY Report 21, pp. 593-597; "Symposium on Scientific Effects of Artificially Introduced Radiation at High Altitudes," Proceedings of the National Academy, vol. 45, no. 8 (15 Aug 1959) .

17 IGY Report 21, p. 566; min 14th mtg USNC, 16 June 1958, appendix B, Summary of Oral Report on the Earth Satellite Program by Richard W. Porter, pp. 1-2, and min 15th mtg USNC, 23 Oct 1958, attachment 6, pp. 6-11, 15-16, 19-21, 28.

18 Memo, Hagen for James E. Webb, NASA Administrator, 2 Mar 1962, sub: Vanguard I, and enclosure, ltr, Hagen to Rear Admiral Coates, Chief Naval Research, 2 Mar 1961, NHF.

19 Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1965, NASA SP-4006 (Washington, D.C.: NASA, 1966) p. 67.

20 IGY Report 21, pp. 574-585, 592.

21 See n. 14.

22 Min 14th mtg USNC, 16 June 1958, pp. 1-2, 7, 10, and min 15 mtg USNC, 23 Oct 1958, pp. 1-3, 5-6, and attachment G; IGY Report 21, pp. 563-564; interview George Derbyshire IGY secretariat, 28 Nov 1967.

23 See Robert L. Rosholt, op. cit. (ch. 12, n. 10) pp. 44ff.; min 20th mtg TPESP, 21 July 1959.

24 See chapter 7.

25 IGY Report 21, pp. 566, 604 605; Stuhlinger op. cit. (see ch. 11, n. 23), p. 69.

26 The Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Defense Department and later NASA both sponsored a number of satellite flights during 1958 and 1959, eight of which were successful, but as none of these came under the aegis of the IGY National Committee and technical panels and all of them were subject to security classification that interfered with the release of information to other nations, they did not count as IGY satellites at all.

27 IGY Report 21, pp. 607-608, 625.

28 Ibid., pp. 611-614.

29 Ibid., p. 629; Stahlinger, op. cit. (see ch. 11, n. 23), p. 69; conf rpt, 3 Apr 1958, NRL master file, 4130-34; min 19th mtg TPESP, 17 Jul 1958, pp. 2-3; Satellite Experiments file folder 32.32, NAS Archives: IGY USNC.

30 IGY Report 21, pp. 594, 616, 625.

31 Ibid., pp. 609, 621-623, 629.

32 lbid., pp. 594-595.

33 Ibid., pp. 616-620.