Appendix D-1

Experiments by Flight



Gemini 3

Experiment Objective Equipment Result
T-1,

Reentry Communications

To see if fluid injected into ionized plasma during reentry would reduce blackout to the point where communications were possible Water expulsion system on the inside surface of spacecraft right landing gear door; self contained except for activating switch in cabin; weighing about 39 kg (85 lb) Increased C-band and UHF telemetry signals
S-2,

Sea Urchin Egg Growth

To explore gravitational field effect on cells exposed to low gravity conditions Metal cylinder containing 8 separate samples of sea urchin eggs, sperm, and a fixative solution; cylinder 8.2 x 17.1 cm (3.25 x 6.75 in), 721 gm (25.4 oz); handle on one end activated either fertilization or fixative Not completed; handle broke near end of mission
S-4,

Zero G and Radiation on Blood

To examine biological effects of radiation by measuring changes in human blood samples exposed to known quantity and quality of radiation Radiation source, Phosphorus 32, housed in hermetically sealed aluminum box, 9.3 x 3.3 x 9.6 cm (3.7 x 1.3 x 3.8 in), weighing 0.45 kg (1 lb), and located inside cabin on right hatch; identical package operated in laboratory at Cape Kennedy during flight agreed with flight findings No apparent effect

Gemini IV

Experiment Objective Equipment Result
M-3,

Inflight Exerciser

To evaluate the general day-to-day physical condition of crew A pair of rubber bungee cords attached to a nylon foot strap at one end and a nylon handle at the other Little difference from preflight reactions to exercise
M-4,

Inflight Phonocardiogram

To measure heart muscle deterioration against a simultaneous electrocardiogram Heart sounds picked up by a microphone attached to each astronaut's chest and recorded on biomedical recorder No significant changes from ground tests
M-6,

Bone Demineralization

To investigate effects of prolonged weightlessness and immobilization associated with confinement for a period of days X-rays taken before and after flight - specially the heel bone and the end bone of the fifth finger of the right hand of each crew member Distinct losses in bone mass compared to bed-rested patients for the same time period
MSC-1,

Electrostatic Charge

To detect and measure any accumulated electrostatic charge on the surface of the spacecraft Electric field sensor, mounted in spacecraft retrograde section, controlled from cabin by a switch and weighing 0.81 kg (1.8 lb) Readings were higher than expected, but this was caused by sensitivity of instrument to other influences; sensor was modified for later flights
MSC-2,

Proton-Electron Measurement

To measure radiation environment immediately outside spacecraft, correlate radiation measurements inside spacecraft, and predict radiation levels on future missions Proton-electron measuring device mounted in equipment adapter section, with sensor face toward rear of spacecraft, operated by the pilot with a switch and weighing 5.6 kg (12.5 lb) Operated completely successfully; all data telemetered to ground
MSC-3,

Tri-Axis Magnetometer

To monitor direction and amplitude of Earth's magnetic field with respect to spacecraft Tri-axis flux-gate magnetometer, consisting of an electronics unit and sensors, located in equipment adapter section, with sensors facing aft; sensors mounted on boom that could be extended beyond end of adapter; operated by the pilot with two switches (one to extend boom and other to activate both MSC-2 and 3) located in the cabin and weighing 1.5 kg (3.5 lb) Successful; all data telemetered to ground
MSC-10,

Two-Color Earth Limb Photography

To determine if the Earth limb can be used in future guidance and navigation sightings 70mm Hasselblad camera with black and white film and a special filter mosaic to allow each picture to be taken partly through a red and partly through a blue filter; the experimental film magazine weighed about 0.45 kg (1 lb) 30 good pictures
S-5,

Synoptic Terrain Photography

To get high-quality pictures of large land areas that have been previously well mapped by aerial photography for comparison and to serve as a standard for interpretation of pictures of unknown areas of Earth, the Moon, and other planets; to obtain high-quality photographs of relatively poorly mapped areas of Earth, to answer such questions as continental drift, structure of Earth's mantle, and overall structure of the continents 70 mm modified Hasselblad camera, model 500C, with 55 frames per roll of film 100 usable terrain study photographs
S-6,

Synoptic Weather Photography

To augment information from meteorological satellites; satellites usually take photos from altitude of 643.7 km (400 n.m.) or more; Gemini photos can be taken from altitudes of about 161 km (100 n.m.) Camera used in MSC-10 and S-5, with color film About 200 pictures, half of which were useful for weather studies
D-8,

Radiation in Spacecraft

To measure radiation level and distribution inside spacecraft 7 sensors inside spacecraft, 5 on wall of pressure vessel, 2 inside cockpit; 1 shielded to simulate amount of radiation crew received beneath skin; shield removed during pass through South Atlantic Anomaly Radiation doses within acceptable levels
D-9,

Simple Navigation

To gather information on phenomena that could be used for autonomous space navigation Handheld sextant containing natural density, blue haze, and green emission filters; weighing 3.6 kg (8 lb) Information good but statistical data lacking to evaluate

Gemini V

Experiment Objective Equipment Result
M-1,

Cardiovascular Conditioning

To determine effectiveness of pneumatic cuffs in preventing heart and blood distribution system deterioration induced by prolonged weightlessness Pneumatic cycling system and a pair of venous cuffs worn on pilot's legs, alternatively deflating and inflating to 80 mm of mercury Cuffs (scheduled to work for full 8 days) stopped operating when oxygen in storage tank dropped below operational levels; limited results showed pilot's overall condition, postflight, better than commander's, with significantly less blood pooling in legs
M-3,

Inflight Exerciser

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV See Gemini IV
M-4,

Inflight Phonocardiogram

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV See Gemini IV
M-6,

Bone Demineralization

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV Command pilot showed greater changes than bedrested patients for same period; pilot showed equivalent changes to same patients
M-9,

Human Otolith

To evaluate capability of astronaut to orient himself during flight; to measure changes in otolith (gravity gradient sensors in inner ear) functions Special goggles, one eye piece containing light source in the form of movable white line; crewman positioned line with a calibrated screw to what he judged to be right pitch axis of spacecraft In general, coordinate space sense existed even in weightlessness if contact cues were adequate
Cardiovascular Effects of Space Flight To evaluate effects of prolonged weightlessness on the cardiovascular system (no number as it became operational procedure rather than experiment on future flights) Comparison of preflight and postflight blood pressures, blood volumes, pulse rates, and electrocardiograms On all flights, data revealed little change from preflight to postflight
MSC-1,

Electrostatic Charge

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV Insufficient time after Gemini IV flight to modify instrument; shield placed on sensor had little effect and readings were high; measurement became operational procedure in rendezvous flights
S-1,

Zodiacal Light Photography

To photograph the zodiacal light (in the west after twilight and in the east before sunrise), to try to determine its origin, minimum angle from Sun at which it could be studied without twilight interference, and whether the gegenschein could be detected and measured above the airglow layer 35mm Widelux camera with high speed color film 14 usable frames
S-5,

Synoptic Terrain Photography

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV 170 usable pictures, a large proportion of excellent quality
S-6,

Synoptic Weather Photography

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV 250 excellent pictures
S-7,

Cloud-Top Spectrometer

To measure altitude of clouds 35 mm camera fitted with defraction (sic) grating and containing infrared film Results good enough to warrant design of second generation weather satellite instrument
S8/D13,

Visual Acuity and Astronaut Visibility

To test crew visual performance during flight and ability to detect and recognize objects on Earth's surface Inflight vision tester - small, self-contained, binocular optical device with transilluminated array of 36 high contrast and low contrast rectangles, half oriented vertically and half horizontally; rectangle size, contrast, and orientation were random; presentation was sequential; and sequences were nonrepetitive; visual acuity equipment consisted of inflight photometer to monitor spacecraft window, test patterns at 2 ground observation sites, and instrumentation for measuring atmosphere, lighting, and patterns Crew showed no degradation of visibility during 8-day flight; land observations were partially obscured by weather conditions and fuel cell troubles; when weather was good, thruster problems prevented crew from orienting spacecraft properly, although smoke markers were sighted in each pass; during revolution 92, Texas site was glimpsed and photographed, and crew reported seeing this test area in revolution 107
D-1,

Basic Object Photography

To determine man's ability to acquire, track, and photograph objects in space 35mm Zeiss contarex camera, mounted on pilot's window Presented no problems
D-2,

Nearby Object Photography

To obtain high resolution pictures of orbiting object, while maneuvering, stationkeeping, and observing in a manual control mode Same as D-1 When rendezvous evaluation pod (REP) was abandoned, experiment could not be carried out
D-4/D-7,

Celestial Radiometry and Space-object Radiometry

To provide information on spectral analysis of regions of interest, supplied by star fields, principal planets, Earth and Moon, and other objects, such as satellites and REP Radiometric measuring devices using common mirror optics that can measure radiant intensity from the ultraviolet through infrared as a function of wavelengths - radiometer, interferometer, and crygenic interferometers 3 hrs and 10 min of data gathered - 21 measurements of 30 objects; demonstrated advantages of using man to obtain basic data, thus permitting identification and selection of target, choice of equipment mode, ability to track effectively, and augmenting, validating, and coordinating of data through on-the-spot voice comments
D-6,

Surface Photography

To study problems associated with acquiring, tracking, and photographing terrestrial objects Same as D-1 Equipment performed successfully, but weather hampered much of the experiment, with some of the planned areas covered by clouds

Gemini VI-A

Experiment Objective Equipment Result
S-5,

Synoptic Terrain Photography

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV 28 fair to excellent pictures
S-6,

Synoptic Weather Photography

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV 100 high quality pictures
D-8,

Radiation in Spacecraft

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV, with addition of removable brass shield on the tissue equivalent ionization chamber of command pilot's hatch On one run, the survey was performed by pilot, but command pilot was stationkeeping and failed to remove shield from sensor; on second run, both crewmen were busy stationkeeping; although additional data were attained, primary objectives were not achieved

Gemini VII

Experiment Objective Equipment Result
M-1,

Cardiovascular Conditioning

See Gemini V See Gemini V Operated for 311 hr, turned off 3 hr before reentry; significantly less blood pooling in pilot's postflight tests than in command pilot's
M-3,

Inflight Exerciser

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV See Gemini IV
M-4,

Inflight Phonocardiogram

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV Confirmed findings of Gemini IV and V
M-5,

Bioassays of Body Fluids

To study astronaut reactions to stress Intake and output of body fluids measured and analyzed preflight, inflight, and postflight No gross changes noted
M-6,

Bone Demineralization

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV Significantly smaller loss in bone masses than in Gemini IV and V, probably because crew ate and exercised more and slept better and longer
M-7,

Calcium Balance Study

To evaluate effects of 14-day flight on bones and muscles of crew Intake and output of both fluid and solid matter (including perspiration) were measured and analyzed preflight, inflight, and postflight Inflight urine collection was unsatisfactory because of leakage, 1 bag broken, and 4 not labeled; however, command pilot showed marked increase in calcium excretion starting on 8th day of flight
M-8,

Inflight Sleep Analysis

To assess crew state of alertness, levels of consciousness, and depth of sleep during flight Electroencephalograph recorded on biomedical recorder by 2 pair of scalp electrodes (command pilot only) Results showed poor sleep on first night (expected since first night in strange surroundings usually disrupts sound sleep); until 54 hr, 20 min after liftoff, when sensors were dislodged, commander's sleep appeared normal after first night
M-9,

Human Otolith Function

See Gemini V See Gemini V See Gemini V
MSC-2,

Proton-Electron Measurement

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV Erratic response in equipment indicated failure in proton mode - data inconclusive
MSC-3,

Tri-Axis

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV Z-axis detector failed before launch; X- and Y-axis performed as expected during flight
MSC-4,

Optical Communications

To evaluate optical communication system (laser), to check crew ability as pointing element, and to probe atmosphere, using an optical coherent radiator from outside atmosphere Flight transmitter and ground-based receiver-transmitter system Unfavorable cloud conditions and operating difficulties with the ground-based equipment yielded little data, but laser beacon visible from orbital altitudes
MSC-12,

Landmark Contrast Measurement

To measure visual contrast of land-sea boundaries and other types of terrain for onboard Apollo guidance and navigation Star occultation photometer - single-unit, dual-mode, handheld, externally powered instrument, 127 x 127 x 76.2 cm (5 x 5 x 3 in), weighing 1.1 kg (2 lb), for measuring contrast of Sun-illuminated ground target and to determine extent to which sight line to selected star penetrates planetary atmosphere No information because instrument malfunctioned
S-5,

Synoptic Terrain Photography

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV 250 useful pictures; cloud cover over many areas and dirty spacecraft windows accounted for poor quality of some
S-6,

Synoptic Weather Photography

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV 240 exposures, some of which were not usable because of coating on windows
S8/D13,

Visual Acuity and Astronaut Visibility

See Gemini V See Gemini V Patterns seen on revolutions 17 and 31; no apparent change in crew visual performance
D-4/D-7,

Celestial Radiometry and Space-Object Radiometry

See Gemini V See Gemini V (with minor variations) 37 separate measurements taken; 3 hr, 6 min, 19 sec of data gathered, all satisfactory
D-5,

Star-occultation Navigation

To investigate feasibility and operational value of star occulting measurements in development of a simple, accurate, and selfcontained navigational capability See MSC-12 No useful information because of instrument malfunction
D-9,

Simple Navigation

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV 37 star-to- horizon, 5 planet-to-Moon (or star-to-Moon) limb, 6 star-to-star, and 8 zero measurements to stars were made; crew performance and equipment excellent

Gemini VIII

Experiment Objective Equipment Result
M-5,

Bioassays of Body Fluids

See Gemini VII See Gemini VII Preflight and postflight samples obtained; one sample from command pilot before early end of flight
S-1,

Zodiacal Light Photography

See Gemini V See Gemini V No results - mission terminated early
S-3,

Frog Egg Growth

To study effects of subgravity on development in a biological system that is gravity oriented Two units, one mounted on each hatch sill structure, each having four two-celled chambers, one for frog eggs and one for fixative; weight of each is 1.8 kg (4 lb); at 40 min after liftoff, pilot would turn handle, letting fixative (formalin) into righthand chambers 1 and 2, killing eggs and preserving them for microscopic study; fixative would be released into righthand chambers 3 and 4 at 2 hr, 10 min; two of the chambers on the lefthand side would be fixed just before reentry and the last two would be left alive for comparison First and second chambers activated correctly (though second was 15 min late); mission ended before time to activate the others
S-7,

Cloud-Top Spectrometer

See Gemini V See Gemini V Mission ended early
S-9,

Nuclear Emission

To study cosmic radiation at orbital altitudes Nuclear emulsion package 21.5 x 15.2 x 7.6 cm (8.5 x 6 x 3 in), weighing 5.9 kg (13 lb) stowed in spacecraft retrograde adapter; a spring loaded fairing would jettison at insertion, exposing package; EVA astronaut would retrieve Not recovered because of early end of mission
S-10,

Agena Micrometeorite Collection

To collect plates that had been exposed to micrometeorite impact and debris and return them to Earth for study Package, 13.9 x 15.8 x 2.5 cm (5.5 x 6.25 x 1 in), weighing 1.8 kg (4 lb), mounted on TDA of Agena; hinged to fold open and expose 8 plates of highly polished surfaces, such as metal, plastic, glass, etc., to be opened by pilot during EVA and left for retrieval on later mission Mission ended early; no EVA
D-3,

Mass Determination

To determine technique and accuracy of direct contact method of measuring the mass of an orbiting object No special equipment needed; after docking with the orbiting object, Gemini would push the docked combination with a known thrust; from the change in velocity of the orbiting object, its mass could be computed Mission ended early; no docked maneuvers
D-14,

UHF/VHF Polarization

To obtain information on communication systems through the ionosphere UHF/VHF transmitter with 2.4 m (8-ft) extendable antenna mounted on top centerline of retrograde adapter section Mission ended early
D-15,

Night Image Intensification

To develop system for night surveillance of Earth features Image-orthicon camera, portable viewing monitor, recording monitor, 16mm camera, TV camera control unit, and equipment control unit; one crewman would look directly at scene, the other through the TV monitor; crew comments would later be compared with the scene as recorded on film Mission ended early
D-16,

Power-Tool Evaluation

To determine man's ability to perform specified work tasks under zero gravity and in pressurized suit Minimum reaction, battery-powered tool, 27.1 cm (10.7 in) long, weighing 3.4 kg (7.6 lb), hand wrench, work plate with 7 nondetachable bolts (4 on face and 3 on reverse side), and knee tether; mounted in retro adapter to be operated by pilot during EVA Mission ended early; no EVA

Gemini IX-A

Experiment Objective Equipment Result
M-5,

Bioassay of Body Fluids

See Gemini VII See Gemini VII See Gemini VII
S-1,

Zodiacal Light Photography

See Gemini V See Gemini V; this time, however, experiment was planned for EVA EVA ended early because of faceplate fogging; instead, 17 pictures were taken from inside spacecraft
S-10,

Agena Micrometeorite Collection

See Gemini VIII See Gemini VIII EVA postponed to 3rd day; not performed in vicinity of ATDA; experiment not retrieved
S-11,

Airglow Horizon Photography

To photograph Earth's airglow in the atomic oxygen and sodium light spectra to study character and dynamics of upper atmosphere 70mm Maurer camera, extended exposure timer, illuminated camera sight, and 2-point variable pitch bracket for mounting camera in pilot's window 44 pictures, 3 of dayglow
S-12,

Spacecraft Micrometeorite Collection

To determine micrometeorite activity in near-Earth environment; to expose microbiological specimens to space to determine survivability in vacuum, extreme temperatures, and radiation; and to search for any organisms capable of living on micrometeorites in space Aluminum collection box, 27.9 x 13.9 x 3.1 cm (11 x 5.5 x 1.25 in), weighing 2.9 kg (6 lb 8 oz), with two collection compartments and an internal electric motor and thermally insulated batteries; one compartment to be sterilized for analysis to see if any non-terrestrial organisms are present; the other will contain bacteria, molds, and spores, to see if they survive space flight Successfully recovered after exposure of over 16 hrs; penetration holes, some fractions of the biological organisms survived; no evidence of non-terrestrial organisms
D-12,

Astronaut Maneuvering Unit

To provide EVA mobility and control in attitude and translation and to provide oxygen supply and communications Rectangular aluminum backpack weighing 75.2 kg (166 lb) fully loaded; 81.2 X 55.8 X 48.2 cm (32 x 22 x 19 in), with form-fitting cradle where pilot sits during flight; 4 forward and 4 aft-firing thrusters, and 2 up- and down-firing; stores 10.8 kg (24 lb) of hydrogen peroxide; thrusters controlled by two sidearm supports; lefthand assembly gives translation control in 4 directions, a switch for selecting manual or automatic stabilization, and volume control of communications; righthand arm contains controls for positioning pilot in pitch, roll, and yaw; also stores 3.4 kg (7.5 lb) oxygen and a battery-powered UHF transceiver to provide communications with spacecraft When pilot got overheated and his faceplate fogged over repeatedly, EVA was called off before AMU exercise could be carried out
D-14,

UHF/VHF Polarization

See Gemini VIII See Gemini VIII Performed 6 times; 3 more scheduled but antenna broken off by pilot during EVA; since limited number of measurements acquired, only partially successful

Gemini X

Experiment Objective Equipment Result
MSC-3,

Tri-Axis Magnetometer

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV Data not conclusive
MSC-5,

Lunar UV Spectral Reflectance

To determine the UV spectral reflectance of the lunar surface between 2,000 and 3,200 angstrom 70mm Maurer camera with UV lens Canceled before flight when launch date slipped
MSC-6,

Beta Spectrometer

To predict as accurately as possible, for Apollo, radiation doses crews will be subjected to so degree of hazard can be assessed and preventive measures taken Similar in function to proton-electron spectrometer used for MSC-4, but different in design; consists of 2 containers, one housing detector and analyzer system, the other, data processing system; total weight, 7.2 kg (16 lb) and located in retrograde section of spacecraft adapter; protected during launch by half-hinged door that is automatically jettisoned during separation from booster Unexpectedly high fuel usage during first 2 days of mission eliminated controlled attitude passes; on 3rd day, spacecraft was flown in tumbling mode through South Atlantic Anomaly, resulting in one good transversal of magnetic field; location of data points within anomaly were good and provided a good picture of the electron distributional direction
MSC-7,

Bremsstrahlung Spectrometer

To measure the bremsstrahlung (braking radiation) flux-energy spectra inside spacecraft while passing through South Atlantic Anomaly X-ray detection system mounted on the inner wall of pressurized cabin behind command pilot's seat about shoulder height and weighing less than 3.4 kg (7.5 lb) Measurement of radiation is possible with this spectrometer
MSC-8,

Color Patch Photography

To determine whether existing color film can take true-color pictures in space Color patch/slate, 20.3 x 20.3 x .015 cm (8 x 8 x 1/16 in), supporting 4 color targets (red, blue, yellow, and gray) in a matte finish ceramic; a 0.91-m (3-ft) extension rod to hold the patch 0.91 m in front of 70 mm Maurer Camera Because of trouble with spacecraft ECS, EVA terminated after only 4 of the planned 9 pictures had been taken; color patch and rod were discarded; but enough data obtained to determine, by comparison of film and backup color patch, that commercial color films were suitable for photography in space
MSC-12,

Landmark Contrast Measurement

See Gemini VII See Gemini VII Not performed, because of fuel-usage and time limitations
S-1,

Zodiacal Light Photography

See Gemini V See Gemini V 20 pictures, difficult to use quantitively - film only half as sensitive as that used on Gemini IX-A; observations of same star field in various exposures shows that dirty windows cause variance in light transmission by a factor of at least 6; Earth horizon not seen in any of the pictures
S-5,

Synoptic Terrain Photography

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV Approximately 75 pictures, most of good quality, though some were affected by dirty spacecraft windows and others by cloud cover over areas photographed
S-6,

Synoptic Weather Photography

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV Over 200 high quality pictures
S-10,

Agena Micrometeorite Collection

See Gemini VIII See Gemini VIII Pilot recovered package from Agena 8; only four outer panels exposed, as package had been in closed position; micrometeorite-flux values agreed generally with known values from other experiments; microorganisms on exposed areas were dead, but those inside had good survival rates; pilot planned to leave similar package on Agena 8 for future retrieval but did not want to risk getting his umbilical tangled on the target vehicle
S-12,

Spacecraft Micrometeorite Collection

See Gemini IX-A See Gemini IX- A Pilot retrieved package during egress for EVA; it apparently floated up out of spacecraft later and was lost
S-13,

Ultraviolet Astronomical Camera

To obtain data on UV radiation of hot stars and to develop and evaluate basic techniques for photography of celestial objects from manned spacecraft 70mm Maurer camera, with UV lens; since spacecraft did not have UV windows, pictures would be taken through opened hatch 22 frames exposed on southern Milky Way; 4 problems: 12 frames marred by vertical streak, probably caused by static electricity from camera operation in vacuum; poor image quality in center of field and good quality away from center, possibly resulted from film being too close to lens (bowing toward lens in vacuum); cable release broken during assembly of camera; and bracket screw backed out, preventing proper insertion into mount; considered successful, however, as it provided useful scientific data and showed need for better equipment on future flights
S-26,

Ion-wake Measurement

To investigate ion and electron wake structure Inboard and outboard ion detectors, electron detector, and data programmer on GATV adapter; inboard collected data when vehicle was parallel to flight path; outboard, when GATV was yawed at right angles to path; programmer sent realtime telemetry to ground during undocking - crucial since GATV delayed-time tape recorder inadvertently cut off during undocking Limited results because of fuel usage; electron and ion temperatures higher than expected; registered shock effects during docking and undocking
D-5,

Star-occultation Navigation

See Gemini VII See Gemini VII Difficulty with attitude control while docked; only 5 stars tracked to total occultation (6 needed); undocked configuration, 7 stars tracked but problems encountered with entering visual occultation data into computer; technique is accurate and flexible, useful for automatic, semiautomatic, or aided manual-navigation applications
D-10,

Ion-sensing Attitude Control

To investigate feasibility of attitude control system using environmental positive ions and an electrostatic detection system to measure spacecraft pitch and yaw Two sensors, mounted on booms 0.91-m (3-ft) long, each 27.9 X 16.5 X 15.2 cm (11 x 6.5 x 6 in) and weighing 3.1 kg (7 lb), with 7 computed data points and operating at an angle of 15 Comparison of system with inertial guidance system showed agreement in measurement of both pitch and yaw angles; response of system to variations in position was rapid, on the order of milliseconds

Gemini XI

See Gemini IX-A
Experiment Objective Equipment Result
S-4,

Zero G and Radiation Effects on Human Blood and Neurospora

See Gemini III See Gemini III, with addition of bread mold Neurospora and thermoelectric cooler Neither orbital space flight nor any stresses connected with it produced significant, unpredicted genetic damage, insofar as chromosomal aberration production is valid measure of this type of effect; no synergistic effect exists between radiation and factors associated with space flight
S-5,

Synoptic Terrain Photography

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV; this time the crew would use the 70 mm general purpose Maurer camera as well 145 pictures of excellent quality; all planned areas photographed plus some additional
S-6,

Synoptic Weather Photography

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV; both cameras used in this experiment as in S-5 180 good quality pictures
S-9,

Nuclear Emulsion

See Gemini VIII See Gemini VIII Retrieved by EVA pilot; measurements and extrapolated results obtained higher in the atmosphere on very high altitude balloon flights are consistent with data from S-9
S-11,

Airglow Horizon Photography

See Gemini IX-A 25 useful pictures; films show variations in altitude and intensity of airglow
S-13,

Ultraviolet Astronomical Camera

See Gemini X See Gemini X, except that carbon dioxide cartridge added to eliminate streaking 39 frames exposed - 5 excellent, 6 good, 8 fair, 13 poor, 2 bad, and 5 useless
S-26,

Ion-wake Measurement

See Gemini X See Gemini X Radar, onboard voice tape recorder (for recording start and stop times), and auxiliary receptacle (to provide time markers) not operating; thruster firings in adapter-south configuration decrease ion flux to outboard sensor and increase it to inboard ion sensor and enhance electron concentration to outboard electron sensor; strip-chart data shows that definitive wake-cone angles can be determined; in many cases, electron distribution follows ion depletion effects, indicating wake is plasma rather than ion
S-29.

Earth-Moon Libration Region Photography

To investigate L4 and L5 libration points of Earth- Moon system to determine possible existence of clouds of particulate matter orbiting Earth in these regions 70mm Maurer Camera Because of 3-day mission delay, could not be carried out as planned; instead crew took pictures of gegenschein and 2 comets.
S-30,

Dim Light Photography Orthicon

To obtain pictures of faint and diffuse astronomical phenomena, such as airglow layer in profile, brightest Milky Way, zodiacal light at 60 elongation, gegenschein, and libration points of Earth-Moon system D-15 low light TV system plus spacecraft optical sight 400 frames recorded; about 30 percent of film for D-15 and S-30 not exposed; camera recording cathode ray shorted out and failed during final sequence
D-3,

Mass Determination

See Gemini VIII See Gemini VIII Successfully completed and method feasible, but additional statistical samples needed before system is adopted for use in future missions
D-15,

Night Image Intensification

See Gemini VIII See Gemini VIII Of 42 sequences recorded, 13 were of medium to heavy cloud formations and 14 over open ocean areas; conclusions: cities easily identifiable by lights; cloud formations prominent, even at night, as were lightning flashes, horizon and stars, and airglow; coastlines gave good to poor contrast; peninsulas were most significant geographic features seen; pilot stated that scenes viewed on the monitor were superior to film sequences of same features
D-16,

Power Tool Evaluation

See Gemini VIII See Gemini VIII Not attempted because EVA ended early

Gemini XII

Experiment Objective Equipment Result
MSC-3,

Tri-Axis Magnetometer

See Gemini IV See Gemini IV Successfully accomplished; magnitude of geomagnetic fields, measured during 10th revolution, compared well with theoretically calculated magnitude, using Mcllwain computer codes
MSC-6,

Beta Spectrometer

See Gemini X See Gemini X Omnidirectional flux apparently consistent with earlier measurements: representative electron spectra established apparent decay of artificially injected electrons from Starfish high altitude nuclear test of July 1962) to such low levels that natural trapped electrons were becoming detectable
MSC-7,

Bremsstrahlung Spectrometer

See Gemini X See Gemini X Crew turned equipment on and off 4 times for total of 32 hr; data indicated that electrons did penetrate spacecraft wall; bremsstrahlung-count-rate energy distribution was within reasonable estimation of such distributions
S-3,

Frog Egg Growth

See Gemini VIII See Gemini VIII, except that there was only 1 unit this time, mounted on pilot's hatch, instead of 2 All phases of experiment performed, with good results; apparently gravitational field not necessary for eggs to divide normally, nor for later stages of development
S-5,

Synoptic Terrain Photography

See Gemini IV See Gemini XI 130 usable pictures, most with Hasselblad
S-6,

Synoptic Weather Photography

See Gemini IV See Gemini XI 200 pictures show cloud patterns and are of excellent quality
S-10,

Agena Micrometeorite Collection

See Gemini VIII See Gemini VIII EVA pilot removed protective fairing and exposed both interior and exterior collection surfaces; package left on GATV 12 for possible retrieval during later orbital flight
S-11,

Airglow Horizon Photography

See Gemini IX-A See Gemini IX-A 23 good pictures of sunlight and night airglow
S-12,

Spacecraft Micrometeorite Collection

See Gemini IX-A See Gemini IX- A Recovered after 6 hr, 20 min exposure; fewer penetration holes than on IX-A; no living organisms from space on sterile collection surfaces; confirmed sounding rocket findings that solar ultraviolet radiation and soft X-rays responsible for death of microorganisms exposed to space
S-13,

Ultraviolet Astronomical Camera

See Gemini X See Gemini XI 30 frames exposed - 3 excellent, 7 good, 9 fair, 8 poor, 1 bad, and 2 lightstruck; troubles with focus, static marks, and light streaks persisted, but center images improved, indicating that increased tension of film-retaining spring eliminated warping (or bowing) of film
S-29,

Earth-Moon Libration Region Photography

See Gemini XI See Gemini XI Of 11 pictures of L4, only 3 were properly exposed; mechanical failure of shutter mechanism in red-lens assembly caused overexposure; unknown amount of double exposures caused by failure of film-advance at end of first roll; no conclusive results possible
S-51,

Sodium Cloud Photography

To measure daytime wind velocity of Earth's high atmosphere as a function of altitude between 55.5 and 148.1 km (30 and 80 n.m.) by use of rocket-made vertical sodium clouds 70mm Maurer camera Crew did not see firings, but took 26 pictures of area during firings; all were overexposed because camera shutter locked in open position
D- 10,

Ion-sensing Attitude Control

See Gemini X See Gemini X Offered proof that it is possible to measure pitch and yaw to within fraction of a degree; could reduce time required for such maneuvers as docking, photography, and reentry (crew reduced time to align inertial platform from 40 min to 5 min by using pitch and yaw sensors as reference); could, with addition of horizon sensor, give complete description of spacecraft position and attitude; and could, with addition of servosystem, be used as complete automatic attitude control system applicable at altitudes of the lowest satellites up to at least 10 Earth radii.
T-2,

Manual Midcourse Space Navigation

To evaluate astronaut ability to make navigational measurements through handheld sextant Line-of-sight optical sextant, 17.7 x 18.4 x 15.3 cm (7 x 7 1/4 x 6 1/6 in), weighing 2.8 kg (6.25 lb) Based on learning-curve data during initial period of familiarization and training, baseline data for comparison with flight results, and data obtained during flight; standard deviation of inflight measurements was 9 arc sec, indicating that handheld sextant may be useful for navigational measurements during midcourse phase of lunar or interplanetary flight; pilot performance was the same in space as on the ground


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