Appendix C

Apollo Flight Program

1. Saturn-Apollo Flights (Saturn I)

2. Pad Abort Tests

3. Little Joe II Tests

4. Unmanned Apollo-Saturn Flights (Saturn IB And Saturn V)

5. Manned Apollo-Saturn Flights (Saturn IB And Saturn V)

1. Saturn-Apollo Flights (Saturn I)

Saturn-Apollo 1 (suborbital)

Launch:
27 October 1961, Complex 34, ETR, 01:00:06 p.m. EST.
Payload:
Dummy second stage and Jupiter nose cone.
Delays:
Two holds totaling 54 minutes for cloud cover over Cape.
Objectives:
Flight-test eight clustered H-1 engines. Achieved.

Flight-test S-1 stage clustered-propellant-tankage structure. Achieved.

Flight-test S-1 control system. Achieved.

Measure performance of bending and flutter, propellant sloshing, base heating, aerodynamic-engine torque, and airframe aerodynamic heating. Achieved.

Saturn-Apollo 2 (suborbital)

Launch:
25 April 1962, Complex 34, ETR, 09:00:34 a.m. EST.
Payload:
Dummy second stage and Jupiter nose cone.
Delays:
Hold for 30 minutes for ship in downrange area.
Objectives:
Prove first-stage propulsion system, structural design, and control system. Achieved.

Prove launch facilities and ground support equipment. Achieved.

Confirm vehicle aerodynamic characteristics in flight. Achieved.

Prove inflight performance of first-stage engines and adequacy to reach design velocity. Achieved.

Verify structural design of booster airframe. Achieved.

Demonstrate performance of guidance and control system. Achieved.

Release 86,685 liters of water in space (Project High Water 1) to upset concentration of water vapor in ionosphere and study conditions as equilibrium was regained. Achieved.

Saturn-Apollo 3 (suborbital)

Launch:
16 November 1962, Complex 34, ETR, 12:45:02 p.m. EST.
Payload:
Dummy second stage and Jupiter nose cone.
Delays:
Hold for 45 minutes for power failure in ground support equipment (GSE).
Objectives:
Same as Saturn-Apollo 2. All achieved.

Saturn-Apollo 4 (suborbital)

Launch:
28 March 1963, Complex 34, ETR, 03:11:55 p.m. EST.
Payload:
Dummy second stage and Jupiter nose cone.
Delays:
Three technical holds, totaling 102 minutes.
Objectives:
Same as Saturn-Apollo 2, with two exceptions:
  1. Programmed premature cutoff of one engine to demonstrate that mission could be performed with one engine out.
  2. No Project High Water. All objectives achieved.

Saturn-Apollo 5 (orbital)

Launch:
29 January 1964, Complex 37B, ETR, 11:25:01 a.m. EST.
Payload:
Live second stage, functional instrument unit, and Jupiter nose cone ballasted to simulate spacecraft mass characteristics.
Delays:
Scrubbed on 27 January because of a test flange left in S-1 stage liquid-oxygen (LOX) replenishment line, preventing flow of LOX to vehicle; 73-minute hold on 29 January because of interference in C-band radar and command-destruct frequencies.
Objectives:
Flight-test launch vehicle propulsion, structure, and flight control systems. Achieved.

Flight-test live S-IV stage. Achieved.

Flight-test instrument unit. Achieved.

Demonstrate S-1/S-IV stage separation. Achieved.

Parameters:
Apogee, 785 kilometers; perigee, 262 kilometers.

Saturn-Apollo 6 (A-101, orbital)

Launch:
28 May 1964, Complex 37B, ETR, 01:07:00 p.m. EDT.
Payload:
Boilerplate 13 command and service module (CSM), production launch escape system (LES), and service module/ launch vehicle adapter.
Delays:
Scrubbed on 25 May because of faulty compressor in environmental control system of instrument unit; compressor replaced. Hold on 28 May for 38 minutes because platform could not be aligned in azimuth, improper performance of GSE; substitute panel used and alignment achieved. Hold for 60 minutes because of icing of the S-1 stage LOX replenishment valve in GSE; valve purged. Hold for 75 minutes because surface winds caused LOX vapors to interrupt line of sight between ground theodolite and platform during azimuth alignment.
Objectives:
Demonstrate launch vehicle propulsion, structure, and control. Achieved, except for engine no. 8 premature shutdown.

Flight-test closed-loop guidance. Achieved.

First flight test of Apollo spacecraft launch vehicle configuration. Achieved.

Determine launch escape tower separation characteristics. Achieved.

Evaluate S-1/S-IV stage separation. Achieved.

Determine spacecraft launch and exit environmental parameters. Achieved.

Demonstrate LES jettison, using tower jettison motor. Achieved.

Parameters:
Apogee, 227 kilometers; perigee, 182 kilometers.

Saturn-Apollo 7 (A-102, orbital)

Launch:
18 September 1964, Complex 37B, ETR, 11:22:43 a.m. EST.
Payload:
Boilerplate 15.
Delays:
Hold for 65 minutes caused by inadvertent activation of structure firex system, which sprayed water on vehicle and into S-IV stage umbilical connectors; connectors removed, dried out, replaced, and rechecked. Planned 21-minute hold extended to 25 minutes after a malfunction was indicated in the S-IV stage LOX-pressurizing-regulator circuits; indication false. Hold for 25 minutes because of apparent malfunction in S-1 stage hydraulic pump temperature that prevented start of pump; malfunction found in GSE and bypassed. Hold for 49 minutes caused by intermittent operation of Grand Turk radar; radar repaired and count resumed.
Objectives:
Flight-test launch vehicle propulsion, structure, and control system. Achieved.

First closed-loop guidance flight for the full mission. Achieved.

Evaluate S-1/S-IV stage separation. Achieved.

Place 17,690 kilograms in-orbit. Achieved.

Parameters:
Apogee, 225 kilometers; perigee, 185 kilometers.

Saturn-Apollo 8 (A-104, orbital)

Launch:
25 May 1965, Complex 37B, ETR, 3:35:01 a.m. EDT.
Payload:
Boilerplate 26 and Pegasus II.
Delays:
None.
Objectives:
Provide data on near-earth micrometeoroid environment by measurement of frequency of sensor penetrations. Achieved.
Parameters:
Pegasus II: apogee, 742.6 kilometers; perigee, 505.3 kilometers; boilerplate jettisoned on insertion.

Saturn-Apollo 9 (A-103, orbital)

Launch:
16 February 1965, Complex 37B, ETR, 09:37:03 a.m. EST.
Payload:
Boilerplate 16 and Pegasus I.
Delays:
Hold for 30 minutes to discharge Pegasus battery, recharge, and certify proper operation (replaced usual, 30-minute hold at T-30) ; 67-minute hold for power failure in range flight safety computer.
Objectives:
Same as for Pegasus II. Achieved.
Parameters:
Pegasus I: apogee, 743.4 kilometers; perigee, 495.4 kilometers.

Saturn-Apollo 10 (A-105, orbital)

Launch:
30 July 1965, Complex 37B, ETR, 09:00:00 a.m. EDT.
Payload:
Boilerplate 9 and Pegasus III.
Delays:
None.
Objectives:
Same as for Pegasus I and II. Achieved.
Parameters:
Pegasus III: apogee, 532 kilometers; perigee, 532 kilometers.

2. Pad Abort Tests

Pad Abort 1

Launch:
7 November 1963, WSMR, 09:00:01 a.m. MST.
Vehicle:
Boilerplate 6, with tower structure, launch-escape motor, pitch-control motor, tower-jettison motor, and tower-release mechanism.
Delays:
None.
Objectives:
Determine aerodynamic stability characteristics of escape configuration during pad abort. Achieved.

Demonstrate capability of escape system to propel command module to safe distance from launch vehicle during pad abort. Achieved.

Demonstrate launch-escape timing sequence. Achieved.

Demonstrate proper operation of tower-release device. Achieved.

Demonstrate proper operation of tower-jettison and pitchcontrol motors. Achieved.

Demonstrate earth-landing timing sequence and operation of parachute subsystem. Achieved.

Parameters:
Maximum altitude, 1,600 meters; landing point, 1,380 meters downrange.

Pad Abort 2

Launch:
29 June 1965, WSMR, 06:00:01 a.m. MST.
Vehicle:
Boilerplate 23A, with launch escape system equipped with canard subsystem and boost protective cover.
Delays:
None.
Objectives:
Demonstrate capability of LES to abort from launch pad and recover. Achieved.
Parameters:
Maximum altitude, 1,578 meters; landing point, 2,316 meters downrange.

3. Little Joe II Tests

A-001

Launch:
13 May 1964, WSMR, 05:59:59 a.m. MST.
Payload:
Boilerplate 12, with escape system.
Delays:
Scrubbed on 12 May for unacceptable wind conditions.
Objectives:
Demonstrate structural integrity of escape tower. Achieved.

Demonstrate capability of escape system to propel command module to predetermined distance from launch vehicle. Achieved.

Determine aerodynamic stability characteristics of escape configuration for abort conditions. Achieved.

Demonstrate proper separation of command module from service module. Achieved.

Demonstrate satisfactory recovery timing sequence in earthlanding subsystem. Achieved.

Parameters:
Maximum altitude, 4,700 meters; landing point, 3,530 meters downrange.

A-002

Launch:
8 December 1964, WSMR, 08:00:00 a.m. MST.
Payload:
Boilerplate 23, with escape system equipped with canards.
Delays:
None.
Objectives:
Demonstrate satisfactory launch-escape power-on stability for abort in ma ximum dynamic pressure region (max q) with conditions approximating emergency detection subsystem limits. Achieved.
Parameters:
Maximum altitude, 4,683 meters; landing point, 2,316 meters downrange.

A-003

Launch:
19 May 1965, WSMR, 06:01:04 a.m. MST.
Payload:
Boilerplate 22 and launch escape system.
Delays:
None.
Objectives:
Demonstrate satisfactory launch escape vehicle (LEV) performance at altitude approximating upper limit for canard subsystem. Not achieved. Little Joe 11 booster experienced very high roll rate and disintegrated at low altitude.

Demonstrate orientation of LEV to main heatshield forward attitude after high-altitude abort. Not achieved.

Parameters:
Maximum altitude, 5,944 meters; landing point, 5,486 meters downrange.

A-004

Launch:
20 January 1966, WSMR, 08:17:01 a.m. MST.
Payload:
Production model CSM-002.
Delays:
Scrubbed on 18 January for low ceiling and poor visibility. Hold for 17 minutes on 20 January for loss of two WSMR telemetry stations; repaired before flight.
Objectives:
Demonstrate satisfactory LEV performance of abort in poweron tumbling boundary region. Achieved.

Demonstrate structural integrity of LEV air-frame structure for such an abort. Achieved.

Parameters:
Maximum altitude, 22,600 meters; landing point, 34,630 meters downrange.

4. Unmanned Apollo-Saturn Flights (Saturn IB And Saturn V)

AS-201 (suborbital)

Launch:
26 February 1966, Complex 34, ETR, 11:12:01 a.m. EST.
Vehicle:
Saturn IB.
Payload:
CSM-009.
Delays:
Hold for 3 days for bad weather conditions and for a break in subcable to downrange station. Hold for 30 minutes on 26 February to catch up on LOX loading. Hold for 30 minutes to complete liquid-hydrogen loading, which had been delayed by work on a GSE helium regulator problem. Hold for 78 minutes to complete closeout of spacecraft. Hold for 66 minutes because of cutoff caused by failure of helium pressure switch in Saturn IB ready circuit. Hold for 30 minutes (during which flight was canceled and then reinstated) for further information on helium pressure problem.
Objectives:
Demonstrate structural integrity and compatibility of launch vehicle and spacecraft and confirm launch loads. Achieved.

Demonstrate separation of first and second stages of Saturn, LES and boost protective cover from CSM, CSM from instrument unit/spacecraft lunar module (LM) adapter, and CM from SM. Achieved.

Verify operations of Saturn propulsion, guidance and control, and electrical subsystems. Achieved.

Verify operation of spacecraft subsystems and adequacy of heatshield for reentry from low earth orbit. Partially achieved.

Evaluate emergency detection system in open-loop configuration. Achieved.

Evaluate heatshield ablator at high reentry rates. Not achieved because of loss of data during maximum heating.

Demonstrate operation of mission support facilities. Achieved.

Parameters:
Maximum altitude, 488 kilometers; landing point, 8,472 kilometers downrange, 8.1°S, 11.15°W; miss distance, 72 kilometers; splashdown time, 11:49 a.m. EST.
Recovery:
On board U.S.S. Boxer by 02:20 p.m. EST.

AS-202 (suborbital)

Launch:
25 August 1966, Complex 34, ETR, 1:15:32 p.m. EDT.
Vehicle:
Saturn IB.
Payload:
Spacecraft 011.
Delays:
Hold for 60 minutes to resolve problem with launch vehicle digital computer during power transfer test; 48-minute hold for recurrence of computer problem; 41-minute hold to attempt to clear up problem with the remote site data processor on the Rose Knot Victor; 5-minute hold to evaluate Saturn IB low fuel mass quantity indicator.
Objectives:
Same as AS-201. Achieved
Parameters:
Maximum altitude, 1143 kilometers; landing point, 16°7'N, 168°54'E; miss distance, 370 kilometers; splashdown time, 01:49 p.m. EDT.
Recovery:
On board U.S.S. Hornet at 11:17 p.m. EDT.

AS-203 (orbital)

Launch:
5 July 1966, Complex 37B, ETR, 10:53:17 a.m. EDT.
Vehicle:
Saturn IB.
Payload:
Nose cone.
Delays:
Hold for 4 minutes to examine quality of signal from liquid-hydrogen television cameras; 98-minute hold because of loss of signal from camera no. 2 (decision made to fly with one camera); 1-minute hold because of loss of Bermuda radar.
Objectives:
Evaluate performance on S-IVB instrument unit stage under orbital conditions and obtain flight information on venting and chill-down systems, fluid dynamics and heat transfer of propellant tanks; attitude and thermal control system, launch vehicle guidance, and checkout in orbit. Achieved.
Parameters:
Apogee, 189 kilometers; perigee, 185 kilometers.
Recovery:
None.

Apollo 4 (AS-501, orbital)

Launch:
9 November 1967, Complex 39A, ETR, 07:00:01 a.m. EST.
Vehicle:
Saturn V.
Payload:
Spacecraft 017.
Delays:
None.
Objectives:
Demonstrate structural and thermal integrity and compatibility of launch vehicle and spacecraft; confirm launch loads and dynamic characteristics. Achieved.

Verify operation of command module heatshield (adequacy of Block II design for reentry at lunar return conditions), service propulsion system (SPS; including no ullage start), and selected subsystems. Achieved.

Evaluate performance of emergency detection system in open-loop configuration. Achieved.

Demonstrate mission support facilities and operations needed for launch, mission conduct, and CM recovery. Achieved.

Parameters:
Apogee, 187 kilometers; perigee, 183 kilometers; during third orbit and after SPS engine burn, spacecraft coasted to simulated translunar trajectory, reaching an altitude of 18,079 kilometers; landing point, 30°06'N, 172°32'W; miss distance, 16 kilometers; splashdown time, 03:37 p.m. EST.
Recovery:
On board U.S.S. Bennington at 06:09 p.m. EST.

Apollo 5 (AS-204, orbital)

Launch:
22 January 1968, Complex 37B, ETR, 05:48:08 p.m. EST.
Vehicle:
Saturn IB.
Payload:
LM-1 and nose cone.
Delays:
Hold for 228 minutes when spacecraft water boiler temperature rose higher than planned, caused by problem in GSE freon supply, and a power supply in an output register in the digital data-acquisition system failed.
Objectives:
Verify operation of LM ascent and descent propulsion systems. Achieved.

Evaluate LM staging. Achieved.

Evaluate S-IVB instrument unit performance. Achieved.

Parameters:
Apogee, 222 kilometers (at insertion, LM/S-IVB separation, and after first descent engine firing) and 961 kilometers (after first ascent engine firing); perigee, 163 kilometers (at insertion), 167 (at separation), 171 (after descent engine firing), and 172 kilometers (after ascent engine firing).
Recovery:
None.

Apollo 6 (AS-502, orbital)

Launch:
4 April 1968, Complex 39A, ETR, 07:00:01 a.m. EST.
Vehicle:
Saturn V.
Payload:
CM-020, SM-014, LTA-2R.
Delays:
None.
Objectives:
Demonstrate structure and thermal integrity and compatibility of launch vehicle and spacecraft; confirm launch loads and dynamic characteristics. Achieved.

Demonstrate separation of launch vehicle stages. Achieved.

Evaluate performance of emergency detection system in closed-loop configuration. Achieved.

Verify operation of Saturn V propulsion, guidance and control, and electrical systems. Not achieved, because of early cutoff of two of the S-II stage J-2 engines and failure of S-IVB J-2 engine to restart.

Demonstrate performance of mission support facilities. Achieved.

Parameters:
Apogee, 367 kilometers; perigee, 178 kilometers (nearly circular orbit intended, but early cutoff of S-II engines and overburn of S-IVB engine caused unplanned orbital parameters); after S-IVB engine failed to reignite, a 442-second burn of the SPS engine sent the spacecraft to an altitude of 22,209 kilometers; exact landing point unknown, first visual sighting at 27°40'N, 157°59'W; splashdown time, 05:23 p.m. EST.
Recovery:
On board U.S.S. Okinawa at 10:55 p.m. EST.

5. Manned Apollo-Saturn Flights (Saturn IB And Saturn V)

Apollo 7 (AS-205, earth-orbital)

Launch:
11 October 1968, Complex 34, ETR, 11:02:45 a.m. EDT.
Vehicle:
Saturn IB.
Payload:
CSM-101.
Crew:
Walter M. Schirra, Jr., Donn F. Eisele, and R. Walter Cunningham.
Delays:
Hold for 2 minutes 45 seconds to complete S-IVB thrust chamber jacket chilldown.
Objectives:
Demonstrate CSM/crew performance. Achieved.

Demonstrate crew/space vehicle mission support facilities during manned CSM mission. Achieved.

Demonstrate CSM rendezvous capability. Achieved.

Parameters:
Apogee, 285 kilometers; perigee, 227 kilometers; landing point, 27°32'N, 64°04'W; miss distance, 14 kilometers*; time, 07:12 a.m. EDT, 22 Oct.; mission elapsed time (MET), 260:08:58.

* Onboard computer target point was 27°37.8'N, 64°10.2'W; onboard computer landing point was 27°37.8'N, 64°10.8'W. Recovery ship landing point was 27°32.5'N, 64°04.0'W; indications are that the recovery ship may have been as much as ±13 kilometers in error and that the spacecraft may actually have landed very close to the target point.

Recovery:
Crew on board U.S.S. Essex at 08:20 a.m. EDT; spacecraft aboard ship at 09:03 a.m.

Apollo 8 (AS-503, lunar-orbital)

Launch:
21 December 1968, Complex 39A, ETR, 07:51:00 a.m. EST.
Vehicle:
Saturn V.
Payload:
CSM-103.
Crew:
Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and William A. Anders.
Delays:
None.
Objectives:
Demonstrate crew/space vehicle mission support facilities during manned Saturn V CSM mission. Achieved.

Demonstrate translunar injection, CSM navigation, communications. and midcourse corrections. Achieved.

Assess CSM consumables and passive thermal control. Achieved.

Demonstrate CSM performance in cislunar and lunar orbit environment. Achieved.

Demonstrate communications and tracking at lunar distances. Achieved.

Return high-resolution photographs of proposed Apollo landing sites and locations of scientific interest. Achieved.

Parameters:
Apogee, 190 kilometers; perigee, 180 kilometers; translunar injection, 02:56:05.5 MET; maximum distance from earth, 376,745 kilometers; lunar orbit insertion, 69:08:20 MET; lunar orbit, 312 by 111 kilometers; transearth injection, 89:19:17 MET; landing point, 8°7.5'N, 165°1.2'W; miss distance, 2.5 kilometers; splashdown time, 27 December at 10:52 a.m. EST; MET, 147:00:42.
Recovery:
Crew on board U.S.S. Yorktown at 12:20 p.m. EST; spacecraft aboard ship at 01:20 p.m.

Apollo 9 (AS-504, earth-orbital)

Launch:
3 March 1969, Complex 39A, ETR, 11:00:00 a.m. EST.
Vehicle:
Saturn V.
Payload:
CSM-104, LM-3.
Crew:
James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell L. Schweickart.
Delays:
None.
Objectives:
Demonstrate crew/space vehicle/mission support facilities during manned Saturn V/CSM LM mission. Achieved.

Demonstrate LM/crew performance. Achieved.

Demonstrate selected lunar orbit rendezvous mission activities including transposition, docking withdrawal, intervehicular crew transfer, EVA, SPS and DPS burns, and LM active rendezvous and docking. All achieved except EVA (because of Schweickart's illness, most EVA activities were canceled).

Assess CSM/LM consumables use. Achieved.

Parameters:
Apogee, 192 kilometers; perigee, 190 kilometers; first manned Apollo docking, 03:01:59 MET; first docked SPS burn, 05:59:01 MET; first Apollo EVA, 72:53:00 MET; first manned Apollo undocking, 92:39:36 MET; first manned LM to CSM docking, 99:02:26 MET; landing point, 23°12.5'N, 67°56'S; miss distance, 4.8 kilometers; time, 13 March at 12:01 p.m. EST; MET, 241:00:54.
Recovery:
Crew on board U.S.S. Guadalcanal at 12:45 p.m. EST ; spacecraft aboard ship at 02:13 p.m.

Apollo 10 (AS-505, lunar-orbital)

Launch:
18 May 1969, Complex 39B, ETR, 12:49:00 a.m. EDT.
Vehicle:
Saturn V.
Payload:
CSM-106, LM-4.
Crew:
Thomas P. Stafford, John W. Young, and Eugene A. Cernan.
Delays:
None.
Objectives:
Demonstrate performance of LM and CSM in lunar gravitational field. Achieved

Evaluate CSM and LM docked and undocked lunar navigation. Achieved

Parameters:
Apogee, 190 kilometers; perigee, 184 kilometers; translunar injection, 02:39:21 MET; maximum distance from earth, 399,194 kilometers; first CSM-LM docking in translunar trajectory, 03:17:37 MET; lunar orbit insertion, 75:55:54 MET; first LM undocking in lunar orbit, 98:11:57 MET; first LM staging in lunar orbit, 102:45:17 MET; first manned LM-CSM docking in lunar orbit, 106:22:02 MET; transearth injection, 137:36:29 MET; landing point, l5°2'S, 164°39'W; miss distance, not available; time, 26 May at 12:52 a.m. EDT; MET, 192:03:23.
Recovery:
Crew on board U.S.S. Princeton at 01:31 p.m. EDT; spacecraft aboard ship at 02:28 p.m.

Apollo 11 (AS-506, lunar landing)

Launch:
16 July 1969, Complex 39A, ETR, 09:32:00 a.m. EDT.
Vehicle:
Saturn V.
Payload:
CSM-107, LM-5.
Crew:
Neil A. Amstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr.
Delays:
None.
Objectives:
Perform manned lunar landing and return mission. Achieved.
Parameters:
Apogee, 186 kilometers; perigee, 183 kilometers; translunar injection, 02:44:26 MET; maximum distance from earth, 389,645 kilometers; lunar orbit insertion, 75:50:00 MET; lunar landing, 102:33:05 MET (20 July at 04:17 p.m. EDT); first step on moon, 10:56:15 p.m. EDT; end of EVA, 111:39:13 MET (01:09 a.m.); liftoff from moon, 124:22:00.8 MET (1:54 p.m.); LM-CSM docking, 128:03:00 MET; transearth injection, 135:23:52.3 MET; earth landing, 13°19'N, 169°9'W; miss distance, not available; splashdown time, 24 July at 12:50 p.m. EDT; MET, 195:18:35.
Recovery:
Crew on board U.S.S. Hornet at 01:53 p.m. EDT; spacecraft aboard ship at 03:50 p.m.


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