Appendix G

Apollo Program Responsibilities of the Manned Space Centers

Abstracted from "Center Responsibilities in the Apollo Program," NASA Apollo Program Directive No. 33, 8 Nov. 1967.

MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER

The Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas, was responsible for design, development, fabrication, qualification, acceptance testing, and delivery of the Apollo spacecraft, associated ground support equipment, and assigned experiments; planning all Apollo missions; controlling the flight phase of the missions, including developing ground equipment necessary for mission control not provided by other centers; selecting, training, and assigning flight crews; developing procedures as needed for spacecraft guidance, checkout, and mission control; establishing prelaunch requirements for test, checkout, and inspection of Apollo spacecraft; and planning the implementation of the lunar science program.

In carrying out these assignments, the center performed the following functions in the listed areas:

I. Hardware

  1. Provided detailed specifications, design, manufacture, checkout, test, reliability and quality control, and acceptance of Manned Spacecraft Center- (Houston-) developed hardware, not including test and checkout functions at the launch site by the Kennedy Space Center.
  2. Developed and delivered to Kennedy flight-qualified spacecraft and listings or discussions of appropriate procedures, pertinent data, and support equipment.
  3. Provided detailed specifications, design, development, fabrication, qualification, acceptance testing, and delivery of experiments flight hardware and associated specialized ground equipment for experiments approved by the Manned Space Flight Experiments Board.
  4. Controlled the receipt and stowage of scheduled and approved flight crew personal equipment at the launch center and provided Kennedy with a list of this equipment.

II. Configuration Control

  1. Established and controlled configuration of spacecraft hardware, procedures, and associated support equipment at each stage of preparation or test in the factory and at the test or launch sites.
  2. Provided and maintained a list of acceptable items and materials entering the spacecraft during checkout and launch.

III. Test and Checkout

  1. Established and maintained test and checkout requirements, specifications, and criteria for factory or test site acceptance and launch site preparation of all Houston-developed hardware and procedures.
  2. Provided written approval of Kennedy test and checkout plans.
  3. Reviewed the adequacy of Kennedy test procedures.
  4. Determined functional performance and flight readiness of flight hardware and provided any technical assistance or data required by Kennedy in preparing hardware for flight.
  5. Provided requirements and criteria to Kennedy for ensuring flight readiness of experiment flight hardware.

IV. Reliability and Quality Assurance

  1. Provided quality control requirements and inspection criteria for Houston-developed hardware for use at the factory, test, and launch sites.
  2. Audited contractor factory and test site performance, in accordance with requirements and criteria, and participated, when appropriate, in audits conducted by Kennedy at the launch site.
  3. Determined corrective action for Houston-developed hardware that had failed, malfunctioned, or performed outside of specifications.

V. Systems Engineering

Provided technical representation on design and operations intercenter panels or working groups established by the Apollo Program Office.

VI. Operations

  1. Developed flight techniques, procedures, and hardware for the Mission Control Center.
  2. Developed objectives, plans, and rules to support Apollo mission assignments.
  3. Conducted flight operations.
  4. Obtained from Kennedy the necessary checkout and launch operational requirements for incorporation into Houston-designed hardware.
  5. Worked with the Department of Defense in planning recovery support.

VII. Flight Crew

  1. Provided trained flight crews and personal equipment for manned missions.
  2. Directed all astronaut activities, except for flight hardware testing at Kennedy.
  3. Developed and operated flight crew training simulators and equipment at Houston or the Cape.

VIII. Science

Planned and implemented a lunar science program for Apollo, including site selection, lunar science operations, Lunar Receiving Laboratory operations, and lunar sample analyses.

IX. Management (General and Specific Responsibilities)

  1. General
    1. Ensured adequate reflection of Apollo's manpower and institutional support needs in Houston's resource requirement plans, schedules, and budgets.
    2. Ensured timely institutional support for Apollo.
    3. Developed and operated center facilities in support of Apollo.
    4. Established detailed schedules for Houston-developed hardware, procedures, associated equipment, and operational activities to ensure meeting Apollo program plans.
  2. Medical
    1. Provided medical surveillance and support for the astronauts during all phases of the Apollo program and at any location.
    2. Evaluated the medical data obtained during manned tests to ensure that the acceptability of equipment performance was properly interpreted and reflected in the postflight mission reports.
    3. Provided for the development and implementation of medical disaster plans associated with tests of Apollo hardware at the Houston location.
  3. Safety
    1. Provided written approval of Kennedy criteria for determming hazardous operations at the launch site.
    2. Reviewed and approved any Kennedy test and checkout procedures in which flight crews participated.

GEORGE C. MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, was responsible for design, development, fabrication, qualification, acceptance testing, and delivery of the Saturn launch vehicles, including engines, associated ground support equipment, and assigned experiments; furnishing mission planning data from the standpoint of overall vehicle performance; providing launch vehicle data and procedures for launch vehicle guidance and checkout; establishing prelaunch requirements for testing, checkout, and inspection of Saturn launch vehicles; and supporting launch and flight operations as requested by Houston and the Cape.

In carrying out these assignments, the center performed the following functions in the listed areas:

I. Hardware

  1. Provided detailed specifications, design, manufacture, checkout, test, reliability and quality assurance, qualification, and acceptance testing of Marshall-developed hardware, not including test and checkout functions at the launch site by Kennedy.
  2. Developed and delivered to Kennedy flight-qualified launch vehicles and associated procedures, data, and support equipment.
  3. Provided detailed specifications, design, development, fabrication, qualification, acceptance testing, and delivery of flight hardware for experiments approved by the Manned Space Flight Experiments Board and assigned to Marshall by the Apollo Program Director.
  4. Provided logistic support planning and implementation at factory, test, and launch sites for Marshall-controlled hardware.

II. Configuration Control

  1. Established and controlled configuration of launch vehicle, hardware, associated procedures, and support equipment at each stage of preparation at the factory, test, and launch sites.
  2. Provided criteria to Kennedy for controlling equipment, tools, and materials entering or leaving the launch vehicle stages or the instrument unit during launch site preparations and operations.

III. Test and Checkout

  1. Established and maintained test and checkout requirements, specifications, and criteria for factory or test site acceptance and launch site preparation of Marshall-developed hardware.
  2. Reviewed factory, test site, and launch site test requirements, checkout plans, and procedures to ensure adequate testing of Marshall-developed hardware.
  3. Reviewed the adequacy of Kennedy test procedures.
  4. Provided requirements and criteria to Kennedy to ensure readiness of experiments flight hardware.
  5. Determined the functional performance and readiness of flight hardware.
  6. Provided technical assistance or data needed by Kennedy in preparing hardware for flight.
  7. Determined the flight readiness of the launch vehicle.

IV. Reliability and Quality Assurance

  1. Provided quality control requirements and inspection criteria for Marshall-developed hardware for use at the factory, test, and launch sites.
  2. Audited contractor factory and test site performance and participated, at its own option, in Kennedy-conducted audits at the launch site.
  3. Determined corrective action and disposition of Marshall-developed hardware that failed, malfunctioned, or operated outside performance limits.

V. Systems Engineering

  1. Provided technical representation on design or operations intercenter panels or working groups established by the Apollo Program Office.
  2. Provided overall integrated space vehicle systems analyses and criteria for operational requirements and limitations for handling, checkout, and flight as required by the manned space flight centers.
  3. Operated the Manned Space Flight Interface Documentation Repository.

VI. Operations

  1. Developed objectives and plans to support Apollo mission assignments.
  2. Provided real-time mission support as requested by the Houston and Cape centers.
  3. Provided input and comment on Kennedy Launch and Manned Spacecraft Center flight rules.
  4. Obtained operational requirements for checkout and launch from Kennedy for incorporation into Marshall-designed hardware.
  5. Identified Marshall operational support requirements.

VII. Flight Crews

Provided instructions and materials for training and familiarizing flight crews with Saturn launch vehicles.

VIII. Science

None.

IX. Management (General and Specific Responsibilities)

  1. General
    1. Ensured adequate reflection of Apollo manpower and institutional support needs in Marshall's resource requirement plans, schedules, and budgets.
    2. Ensured institutional support for Apollo on a timely basis.
    3. Developed and operated center facilities in support of Apollo.
    4. Established detailed schedules for Marshall-developed hardware, procedures, associated equipment, and operational activities to meet Apollo program plans.
    5. Provided liquid-hydrogen-fuel management for Marshall and Kennedy.
  2. Medical

    Developed and implemented medical disaster plans associated with tests of Saturn launch vehicle hardware at Marshall.

  3. Safety

    Provided written approval of Kennedy-developed criteria for determining hazardous operations at the launch site.

JOHN F. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER

The John F. Kennedy Space Center, on the east coast of Florida at Cape Canaveral, was responsible for developing and operating launch and industrial facilities and associated ground support needed for Apollo and for the assembly, test, inspection, checkout, and launch of Apollo-Saturn space vehicles at the launch site.

In carrying out these assignments, the center performed the following functions in the listed areas:

I. Hardware

  1. Provided detailed specifications, design, manufacture, checkout, test, reliability and quality assurance, qualification, and acceptance of Kennedydeveloped hardware.
  2. Developed and delivered qualified ground support equipment associated with launch facilities and not provided by Houston or Huntsville.
  3. Developed and operated ground communications, computation, and instrumentation systems and equipment for conducting launch operations.
  4. Protected flight hardware and associated ground equipment from contamination, corrosion, or damage that might have resulted from environment, housekeeping, procedures, or human error. Reported any incidents of such damage to Houston or Huntsville centers, as appropriate.

II. Configuration Control

  1. Established and controlled configuration of Kennedy-developed launch facilities and ground support equipment at each stage of preparation at the factory, test, or launch site.
  2. Maintained configuration control of Houston- and Huntsville-developed hardware, obtaining approval from those centers before making any configuration changes to spacecraft, launch vehicle, or associated ground support equipment supplied by the centers.
  3. Secured, after testing, approval from Huntsville or Houston, for the replacement of any failed parts.
  4. Controlled everything entering or leaving the spacecraft during checkout at the launch site, in accordance with a list of acceptable items provided by Houston.
  5. Controlled all tools, equipment, and materials entering or leaving the launch vehicle stages and the instrument unit during operation at the launch site, in accordance with criteria provided by Huntsville.

III. Test and Checkout

  1. Conducted assembly, checkout, and launch of flight hardware for Apollo missions, and assembly, checkout, and operation of necessary ground support equipment.
  2. Controlled all personnel participating in test and checkout activities, including representatives from Houston and Huntsville centers.
  3. Provided requirements, specifications, criteria, and procedures for test and checkout of Kennedy-developed equipment.
  4. Provided test and checkout plans to meet Houston and Huntsville requirements and to verify the launch facility, Manned Space Flight Network, and launch crew readiness and range and safety requirements.
  5. Obtained Houston and Huntsville approval before changing and implementing test and checkout plans.
  6. Made final determination on safety and adequacy of test and checkout procedures.
  7. Obtained approval from Houston and Huntsville on waivers and deviations in all aspects of test and checkout functions when unable to meet prior requirements.
  8. Determined readiness of procedures and flight hardware.
  9. Determined readiness of inflight experiments equipment.
  10. Controlled receipt, storage, and readiness of all Government-furnished equipment except crew personal equipment (suits, etc.).
  11. Provided routine troubleshooting and maintenance on Huntsville- and Houston-developed equipment, in accordance with requirements, specifications, and criteria provided by those centers.
  12. Provided an assessment of the readiness of the launch complex, flight hardware, and procedures to the Flight Readiness Review Board.

IV. Reliability and Quality Assurance

  1. Provided quality control requirement and inspection criteria for Kennedy-developed hardware for use at factory, test, and launch sites.
  2. Audited contractor factory and test site performance on Kennedy-developed hardware.
  3. Determined corrective action and disposition of Kennedy-developed hardware that failed, malfunctioned, or operated outside performance limits.
  4. Generated quality control requirements to meet Huntsville, Houston, and Kennedy needs in verifying launch facility and launch vehicle readiness and range and safety requirements. Obtained approval from Huntsville and Houston, if appropriate, before implementing quality control plans.
  5. Conducted quality control inspections and audits of contractor activities at Kennedy, inviting Huntsville and Houston representatives to participate where appropriate.
  6. Obtained approval from Huntsville or Houston to disassemble any flight hardware that had been accepted at either the factory or test site.
  7. Advised the other two centers of any launch preparation problems involving flight readiness of hardware.
  8. Conducted failure analyses when requested by Houston or Huntsville.
  9. Participated in flight hardware acceptance reviews and offered recommendations to either Huntsville or Houston about accepting the hardware for shipment to the launch site.

V. Systems Engineering

Provided representation on design and operations intercenter panels or working groups established by the Apollo Program Office.

VI. Operations

  1. Identified Kennedy operational support requirements.
  2. Provided data to Huntsville or Houston for incorporation in Program Support Requirements Documents.
  3. Conducted launch operations.
  4. Developed launch plans and rules.

VII. Flight Crews

Coordinated and directed astronaut activities during crew participation in Kennedy tests of flight hardware, although the pilots had the final word in matters pertaining to their safety.

VIII. Science

None.

IX. Management (General and Specific Responsibilities)

  1. General
    1. Ensured adequate reflection of Apollo program needs for manpower and institutional support in the center's resource requirements plans, schedules, and budgets.
    2. Ensured timely institutional support for Apollo.
    3. Controlled activities of Apollo contractors at Kennedy, with the exception of those directly associated with astronaut training.
    4. Developed and operated center facilities needed for Apollo.
    5. Established detailed schedules for Kennedy-developed hardware, procedures, and associated equipment to meet Apollo program plans.
  2. Medical

    Developed and implemented medical disaster plans associated with assembly, checkout, and operations at launch site.

  3. Safety

    Served as NASA's single point of responsibility for safety at the launch center and provided range safety inputs to Eastern Test Range authorities.

    Developed criteria for hazardous operations at the launch site and coordinated the criteria with the Houston and Huntsville centers.


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