SP-4209 The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project

Appendix B

Development of Manned Space Flight, American and Soviet

[458-478] Explanation of acronyms and references to notes at bottom of table.


1959

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

LJ-1

21 Aug.

Unmanned

1,007

00:00:20

Maximum dynamic pressure abort test; evaluation of launch escape and recovery systems.

Objectives not met; abort initiated during countdown.

Big Joe

9 Sept.

Unmanned

1,159

00:13:00

Ballistic flight; evaluation of heat-protection concept, aerodynamic shape, and recovery system.

Successful.

LJ-6

4 Oct.

Unmanned

1,1341

00:05:10

Ballistic flight; qualification of launch vehicle structure; evaluation of command system.

Successful.

LJ-1A

4 Nov.

Unmanned

1,007

00:08:11

Maximum dynamic pressure abort test; same as LJ-1.

Primary objective not met: escape motor ignition was late.

LJ-2

4 Dec.

Rhesus monkey "Sam"

1,0071

00:11:06

High-altitude abort test; evaluation of launch, abort, and reentry dynamics; recovery.

Successful.

1960

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

LJ-IB

21 Jan.

Rhesus monkey "Miss Sam"

1,0071

00:08:35

Maximum dynamic pressure abort test; same as LJ-1A; evaluation of launch and abort.

Successful.

Beach abort

9 May

Unmanned

1,154

00:01:16

Off-the-pad abort test; qualification of structure and launch escape system for simulated pad abort.

Successful.

Korabl Sputnik I2

15 May

Simulated man

4,546

-

Place space cabin into orbit; test life support systems; recover cabin from orbit.

Put in near circular orbit; recovery operation malfunction, 19 May; burned up after 844 days.

MA-1

29 July

Unmanned

1,154

00:03:18

Ballistic flight; test of spacecraft/launch vehicle compatibility; thermal loads in critical abort.

Objectives not met; mission failed at about 60 sec after lift-off.

Korabl Sputnik II2

19 Aug.

Animals

4,600

25:00:00

Test of capsule and recovery system; evaluation of effects of space travel on biological payload (2 dogs, Strelka [Little Arrow] and Belka [Squirrel]; 12 mice; 2 rats; 15 flasks of fruit flies; plants).

Successful; 17+-orbit flight and recovery.

LJ-5

8 Nov.

Unmanned

1,1411

00:02:22

Maximum dynamic pressure abort test; qualification of launch escape system and structure.

Objectives not met; spacecraft did not separate from launch vehicle.

MR-1

21 Nov.

Simulated man

1,211

00:00:00

Suborbital flight; qualification of spacecraft/ launch vehicle compatibility; posigrades.

Test objectives not met; launch vehicle shut down at lift-off.

Korabl Sputnik III2

1 Dec.

Animals

4,563

24:00:001

Test of equipment for manned flights; evaluation of effects of space travel on biological payload (2 dogs, Pchelka [Bee] and Mushka [Little Fly]; mice; insects; plants).

Spacecraft burned up on unprogrammed reentry, 2 Dec.

MR-1A

19 Dec.

Unmanned

1,2111

00:15:45

Suborbital flight; same as MR-1.

Successful; cutoff overspeed caused overshoot of recovery area.

1961

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

MR-2

31 Jan.

Chimpanzee "Ham"

1,203

00:16:39

Suborbital flight; acquisition of physiological and performance data on a primate in flight; systems qualification tests.

Successful; early depletion of liquid oxygen triggered escape rocket, which yanked spacecraft 209 km beyond recovery area.

MA-2

21 Feb.

Unmanned

1,1541

00:17:56

Ballistic flight; same as MA-1.

Successful.

Korabl Sputnik IV2

9 Mar.

Simulated man and animals

4,700

01:30:001

Testing of structure and systems for manned flight; observation of effects of biological payload (1 dog, Chernushka [Blackie]; mice; guinea pigs).

Successful 1-orbit flight; upon recovery animal passengers were reported to be alive and well.

LJ-5A

18 Mar.

Unmanned

1,1411

00:23:48

Maximum dynamic pressure abort test; same as LJ-5.

Objectives not met; escape rocket ignited early,

MR-BD

24 Mar.

Unmanned

1,1411

00:08:23

Suborbital flight; evaluation of modifications to correct MR-1A and MR-2 malfunctions.

Successful.

Korabl Sputnik V2

25 Mar.

Simulated man and dog

4,695

01:30:001

Further test of structure and systems, including recovery of biological payload and the simulated cosmonaut "Ivan Ivanovich"(1 dog, Zvezdochka [Little Star]).

Successful.

Vostok 1
Kedr
Cedar

12 Apr.

Gagarin

4,725

01:48:00

Placement of manned spacecraft into orbit; safe recovery of cosmonaut and craft.

Successful 1-orbit flight; first manned orbital flight.

MA-3

25 Apr.

Unmanned

1,1791

00:07:19

1-pass orbital flight; evaluation of all systems, network, and recovery forces.

Objectives not met; launch vehicle failed to follow roll program; escape system operated.

LJ-5B

28 Apr.

Unmanned

1,141

00:05:25

Maximum dynamic pressure abort test; same as LJ-5 and LJ-5A.

Successful.

MR-3
Freedom 7

5 May

Shepard

1,290

00:15:22

Suborbital flight; familiarization of man with space flight; evaluation of response and control of craft.

Successful; first American in space.

MR-4 Liberty
Bell 7

21 July

Grissom

1,286

00:15:37

Suborbital flight; same as MR-3.

Successful; after water landing, premature hatch release caused craft to sink; astronaut recovered.

Vostok 2
Oryel
Eagle

6 Aug.

Titov

4,731

25:18:00

Study effects of prolonged weightlessness on cosmonaut after 17 orbits of flight.

Successful 17½-orbit flight.

MA-4

13 Sept.

Unmanned

1,1791

01:49:20

1-pass orbital flight; same as MA-3.

Successful; circuit anomaly in control system caused landing 120 km uprange.

MA-5

29 Nov.

Chimpanzee "Enos"

1,331

03:20:59

3-pass orbital flight; qualification of all systems and network for orbital flight recovery.

Successful; control system malfunction terminated flight after 2 passes.

1962

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

MA-6
Friendship 7

20 Feb.

Glenn

1,355

04:55:23

3-pass orbital flight; evaluation of effects on and performance of astronaut in space.

Successful; first American to orbit earth; control system malfunction required manual retrofire and reentry.

MA-7
Aurora 7

24 May

Carpenter

1,349

04:56:05

3-pass orbital flight; same as MA-6 ; evaluation of spacecraft modifications and network.

Successful; horizon scanner circuit malfunction required manual retrofire; yaw error caused landing 402 km downrange; recovery in 3 hr.

Vostok 3
Sokol
Falcon

11 Aug.

Nikolayev

4,723

94:09:59

Orbit of manned craft and precision recovery; orbit in close conjunction with Vostok 4.

Successful; transmitted live TV to Soviet ground stations; radio communication with Vostok 4; 64 orbits.

Vostok 4
Berkut
Golden Eagle

12 Aug.

Popovich

4,729

70:43:48

Orbit in close conjunction with Vostok 3; same as Vostok 3.

Successful; first tandem flight; 48 orbits.

MA-8
Sigma 7

3 Oct.

Schirra

1,373

09:13:11

Six-pass orbital flight; same as MA-6 and MA-7 except for extended time.

Successful; partially blocked ECS coolant valve delayed stabilizing suit temperature until 2nd pass; on target recovery.

1963

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

MA-9
Faith 7

15 May

Cooper

1,376

34:19:49

22-pass orbital flight; evaluation of effects of a lengthier stay in space on man; verification of man as primary spacecraft system.

Successful; manual retrofire and reentry; on target landing.

Vostok 5
Yastreb
Hawk

14 June

Bykovsky

4,720

119:06:00

Study of effect of prolonged flight on human organism; tandem flight with Vostok 6; improvement of spacecraft equipment and pilotage.

Successful; completed record 81 orbits; 48 tandem orbits.

Vostok 6
Chaika
Seagull

16 June

Tereshkova

4,713

70:50:00

Study of effects of space flight on a woman; tandem flight with Vostok 5.

Successful; first woman to fly in space; completed 48-orbit flight in tandem with Vostok 5.

PA-1

7 Nov.

Unmanned

7,1773

00:02:45

Evaluation of Apollo escape configuration during pad abort.

Successful.

1964

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

GT-1

8 Apr.

Unmanned

3,187

04:50:00

Test of structural integrity of Gemini spacecraft and compatibility of Gemini and Titan II launch vehicle.

Successful; recovery not planned; reentered after 64th orbital pass and disintegrated.

A-001

13 May

Unmanned

26,2843

00:05:50

Determination of aerodynamic characteristics of launch escape system.

Successful.

AS-101

28 May

Unmanned

SM: 1,892
CM: 4,218

00:10:24

Demonstration of compatibility of spacecraft with launch vehicle in launch and exit trajectory and environment for Apollo earth orbital flights.

Successful; no recovery planned; craft reentered on 54th orbital pass and disintegrated.

AS-102

18 Sept.

Unmanned

SM: 1,882
CM: 4,299

00:10:21

Demonstration of compatibility of spacecraft with launch vehicle in launch and exit trajectory; determination of launch and exit environmental parameters; demonstration of alternate mode of escape-tower jettison.

Successful; no recovery planned; craft reentered on 59th orbital pass and disintegrated.

Cosmos 47

6 Oct.

Unmanned

5,3201

24:00:001

Unmanned precursor to Voskhod I.

Orbital data nearly identical to 12 Oct. Voskhod I flight.

Voskhod I
Rubin
Ruby

12 Oct.

Komarov
Yegorov
Feoktistov

5,320

24:17:03

Test of multiseat spacecraft; check of interaction of 3 cosmonauts; evaluation of medical findings on prolonged flight; test of soft-landing apparatus and shirtsleeve cabin environment.

Successful; 16-orbit flight.

A-002

8 Dec.

Unmanned

42,7883

00:07:23

Demonstration of launch vehicle performance and verification of abort capability in maximum dynamic pressure region.

Successful; CM recovered.

1965

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

GT-2

19 Jan.

Unmanned

3,122

00:18:16

Demonstration of adequacy of reentry heat protection equipment, structural integrity, and capability of craft and systems; evaluation of backup guidance steering signals.

Successful; except for fuel cell results as fuel cell was deactivated before lift-off because of malfunction.

Cosmos 57

22 Feb.

Unmanned

5,683

NA

Unmanned precursor to Voskhod II.

Orbital data somewhat similar to 18 Mar. Voskhod II flight; exploded in orbit.

Voskhod II
Almaz
Diamond

18 Mar.

Belyayev
Leonov

5,683

26:02:17

Performance and evaluation of EVA; use of manual reentry system.

EVA successful; overshot landing area and landed in snow-covered forest area; crew was rescued.

GT-3
Molly Brown

23 Mar.

Grissom
Young

3,225

04:52:31

Evaluation of manned flight in Gemini and its 2-man design; evaluation of worldwide tracking network; maneuvering in orbit; control of reentry flight-path and recovery area; evaluation of systems: prelaunch, launch, and recovery,

Successful; performed 2 out of 3 experiments; Grissom became 1st man to make 2nd space flight.

A-003

19 May

Unmanned

80,3723

00:05:03

Demonstration of performance of launch escape system in high-altitude region; demonstration of orientation of CM to a main-heatshield-forward attitude after abort.

Partially successful; required altitude not achieved; low-altitude conditions observed successfully.

GT-4

3 June

McDivitt
White

3,574

97:40:01

Evaluation of effects of long exposure; demonstration of EVA; stationkeeping; rendezvous with detached 2nd stage.

Successful; rendezvous attempt abandoned because of excessive fuel consumption; 22-min EVA; computer malfunction necessitated ballistic reentry.

PA-2

29 June

Unmanned

CM: 4,940

00:01:52

Demonstration of capability of launch escape system to abort from launch pad and recover.

Successful.

GT-5

21 Aug.

Cooper
Conrad

3,605

190:55:14

Evaluation of performance of rendezvous guidance and navigation systems using a rendezvous evaluation pod; confirmation of physiological endurance for lunar mission.

Successful except for rendezvous failure because of fuel-cell heater problem; longest manned space flight in time and distance (8 days); performed 16 of 17 experiments.

GT-7

4 Dec.

Borman
Lovell

3,663

330:35:01

Demonstration of 14-day mission capability; rendezvous target for GT-6A; stationkeeping; evaluation of lightweight pressure suit.

Successful; accurate controlled reentry; performed 20 experiments.

GT-6A

15 Dec.

Schirra
Stafford

3,546

25:51:24

Rendezvous with GT-7 ; stationkeeping; spacecraft systems tests.

Successful; first rendezvous in space.

1966

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

A-004

20 Jan.

Unmanned

63,4463

00:06:50

Demonstration of satisfactory launch escape system performance for an abort in the power-on tumbling boundary region; demonstration of structural integrity of launch escape system airframe structure during same period,

Successful.

Cosmos 110

22 Feb.

Animals

5,2001

528:00:001
(22 days)
1

Evaluation of prolonged effects of radiation in space travel on the biological payload (2 dogs, Veterok [Breeze] and Ugolek [Blackie]).

Successful; reportedly a Soyuz-type reentry vehicle.

AS-201

26 Feb.

Unmanned

SM: 3,654
CM: 4,990

00:37:20

Demonstration of compatibility and structural integrity of spacecraft and Saturn IB configuration; evaluation of heatshield performance.

Successful; 1st flight separation of launch vehicle and production spacecraft; 1st SM burn and restart at altitude; 1st full flight test of Block I spacecraft.

Cosmos 111

1 Mar.

Unmanned

NA

48:00:00

Orbital data similar to manned flight.

Possible precursor flight to 23 Apr. 1967 Soyuz 1 flight.

GT-8

16 Mar.

Armstrong
Scott

3,788

10:41:26

Rendezvous and docking with target vehicle; EVA; docking practice.

Rendezvous and docking successful; unexpected roll and yaw motion prevented further activity and necessitated early return; EVA not performed; safe recovery.

GT-9A

3 June

Stafford
Cernan

3,750

72:20:50

Rendezvous and docking with target vehicle; EVA; docking practice.

Target vehicle had not been separated from its launch shroud, making docking impossible; 2-hr and 7- min EVA ; rendezvous as planned; controlled reentry; landed 0.7 km from target.

GT-10

18 July

Young
Collins

3,763

70:46:39

Rendezvous and docking with target vehicle; use of target vehicle propulsion system to rendezvous with 2nd target vehicle; EVA.

Successful; 2 EVA periods.

AS-202

25 Aug.

Unmanned

SM: 4,466
CM: 5,471

01:33:00

Flight test of production Apollo Block I type spacecraft using Saturn IB launch vehicle; demonstration of structural integrity and compatibility; evaluation of heatshield performance.

Successful.

GT-11

12 Sept.

Conrad
Gordon

3,798

71:17:08

1st revolution rendezvous and docking; EVA; docking practice; maneuvers in docked configuration to high altitude.

Successful; reached record altitude of about 1,400 km above earth.

GT-12

11 Nov.

Lovell
Aldrin

3,763

94:34:31

Rendezvous and docking with target vehicle; 3 EVAs; tethered stationkeeping exercise; maneuvers.

EVA and rendezvous/ docking exercises successful; trouble with target vehicle prevented maneuvers; last Gemini flight.

Cosmos 133

28 Nov.

Unmanned

6,5751

48:00:001

Orbital data similar to manned flight.

Possible precursor flight to 23 Apr. 1967 Soyuz 1 flight.

1967

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

Apollo 1

27 Jan.

Grissom
White
Chaffee

20,4121

-

Not a flight, but a plugs-out test at Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 34.

The 3 crewmembers were killed in a flash fire that swept through the spacecraft.

Cosmos 140

7 Feb.

Unmanned

6,5751

48:00:001

Orbital data similar to manned flight.

Possible precursor flight to 23 Apr. flight of Soyuz 1.

Cosmos 146

10 Mar.

Unmanned

22,7201

192:00:001

NA.

Alternatively identified as a precursor flight to either Zond or Soyuz.

Cosmos 154

8 Apr.

Unmanned

22,7201

48:00:001

Orbital data similar to manned flight.

Possible precursor to a later Soyuz flight.

Soyuz 1
Rubin
Ruby

23 Apr.

Komarov

6,451

26:40:00

First manned test of the Soyuz spacecraft.

Because the spacecraft was experiencing movement around its axis upon reentry, the craft crash-landed when its parachute lines became tangled, killing the cosmonaut upon impact.

Cosmos 186

27 Oct.

Unmanned

6,5751

84:40:001

Demonstration of automatic docking of 2 Soyuz-type spacecraft (with Cosmos 188).

Successful 3½-hr docking period.

Cosmos 188

30 Oct.

Unmanned

6,5751

72:00:001

Demonstration of automatic docking of 2 Soyuz-type spacecraft (with Cosmos 186).

Successful 3½-hr docking period.

Apollo 4
AS 501

9 Nov.

Unmanned

CSM: 23,401
LTA: 13,381

08:37:09

Demonstration of integrity and compatibility of launch vehicle and Apollo spacecraft, stage separation, heatshield performance, support facilities, and recovery.

Successful; 1st flight of Saturn V launch vehicle.

1968

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

Apollo 5
AS 204

22 Jan.

Unmanned

LM: 14,300

07:52:03

Verification of operation of LM and ascent propulsion systems and structure; evaluation of staging and launch vehicle performance.

Successful; first orbital test of LM; CSM replaced by dummy nose cone.

Zond 4

2 Mar.

Unmanned

22,7201

161:00:001

Flight check of Zond spacecraft.

Reentry vehicle similar to that of Soyuz reentry vehicle; Zond series identified by Soviets as fully capable of carrying a human crew around the moon.

Apollo 6
AS 502

4 Apr.

Unmanned

CSM: 25,138
LTA: 11,794

09:49:45

Demonstration of structural and thermal integrity and compatibility of launch vehicle and spacecraft and stage separation; verification of operation of propulsion, guidance and control, and electrical systems; demonstration of mission support facilities.

Stage separation not achieved as planned; other objectives met.

Cosmos 212

14 Apr.

Unmanned

6,5751

120:00:001

Further demonstration of automatic rendezvous and docking (with Cosmos 213),

Successful.

Cosmos 213

15 Apr.

Unmanned

6,5751

120:00:001

Further demonstration of automatic rendezvous and docking (with Cosmos 212).

Successful.

Cosmos 238

28 Aug.

Unmanned

6,5751

72:00:001

Orbital data similar to manned flight.

Possible precursor flight to later Soyuz flights.

Zond 5

15 Sept.

Biological payload (?)

22,7201

162:24:00

Evaluation of effects of circumlunar flight on biological payload; demonstration of circumlunar flight and recovery of automatic spacecraft.

Successful; first Soviet water landing and recovery.

Apollo 7
AS 205

11 Oct.

Schirra
Eisele
Cunningham

CSM: 14,781

260:09:08

Demonstration of crew performance, rendezvous capability, and crew/vehicle/support facilities performance; qualification of heatshield.

Successful; rendezvous with Saturn IVB stage; 1st manned Apollo flight.

Soyuz 2

25 Oct.

Unmanned

6,3501

72:30:00

Target for Soyuz 3 rendezvous.

Successful.

Soyuz 3
Argon
Argon

26 Oct.

Beregovoy

6,576

94:51:00

Perfection of rendezvous techniques in orbit; experiments with unmanned Soyuz 2.

Successful; performed automatic and manual rendezvous maneuvers.

Zond 6

10 Nov.

Biological payload (?)

22,7201

162:46:30

Cosmic ray experiment; determination of effects of flight on biological payload; circumlunar flight; lunar photography.

Successful.

Apollo 8
AS 503

21 Dec.

Borman
Lovell
Anders

CSM: 28,817
LTA: 9,026

147:00:42

Demonstration of performance in cislunar and lunar orbit environment; evaluation of crew performance in lunar orbit mission; demonstration of communications and tracking; high-resolution photography.

Successful; 1st manned lunar orbit; 1st manned Saturn V launch.

1969

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

Soyuz 4
Amur

14 Jan.

Shatalov

6,626

71:23:00

Demonstration of rendezvous and manual docking of 2 manned spacecraft (with Soyuz 5).

Successful; performed docked maneuvers; overall volume = 18 cu. m.

Soyuz 5
Baykal
Baikal

15 Jan.

Volynov
Khrunov
Yeliseyev

6,586

72:56:00

Demonstration of rendezvous and manual docking of 2 manned spacecraft; crew transfer by EVA to Soyuz 4.

Successful.

Apollo 9
AS 504
Gumdrop and Spider

3 Mar.

McDivitt Scott Schweickart

CSM: 26.801
LM: 14,575

241:00:.53

Demonstration of LM performance (propulsion, rendezvous, and docking capabilities); EVA and intervehicular crew transfer.

Successful.

Apollo 10
AS 505
Charlie Brown and Snoopy

18 May

Stafford
Young
Cernan

CSM: 28,834
LM: 13,941

192:03:23

Qualification of combined spacecraft in lunar environment; LM rendezvous and CM docking in lunar gravitational field; evaluation of lunar navigation.

Successful; first lunar orbital mission with complete Apollo spacecraft.

Apollo 11
AS 506
Columbia and Eagle

16 July

Armstrong
Collins
Aldrin

CSM: 28,807
LM: 15,103

195:18:35

Demonstration of lunar landing with manned Apollo spacecraft; "moon walk"; lunar photography.

Successful; first manned lunar landing; time on the moon = 21:36:20.9.

Zond 7

7 Aug.

Unmanned

22,7201

144:00:001

Further demonstration of circumlunar flight; lunar photography.

Successful.

Soyuz 6
Antey
Antasus

l1 Oct.

Shonin
Kubasov

6,578

118:42:00

Welding experiments in vacuum; biomedical experiments; stellar observations; photography; maneuvers with the Soyuz and 8 spacecraft.

Successful.

Soyuz 7
Buran
Snowstorm

12 Oct.

Filipchenko
Volkov
Gorbatko

6,571

118:41:00

Same as Soyuz 6 (no welding planned); maneuvers with Soyuz 6 and 8 spacecraft.

Successful.

Soyuz 8
Granit
Granite

13 Oct.

Shatalov
Yeliseyev

6,647

118:50:00

Demonstration of service as a command ship for 3-craft maneuvers, illustrating capability for future space station construction; demonstration of ground control capability in multicraft situation.

Successful.

Apollo 12
AS 507
Yankee Clipper and Intrepid

14 Nov.

Conrad
Gordon
Bean

CSM: 28,838
LM: 15,235

244:36:25

Precise lunar landing; lunar exploration; scientific experiments in Ocean of Storms area.

Successful; time on the moon = 31:31:12.

1970

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

Apollo 13
AS 508
Odyssey and Aquarius

11Apr.

Lovell
Swigert
Haise

CSM: 28,945
LM: 15,196

142:54:41

Performance of lunar mission at Fra Mauro; selenological inspection; experiments; development of working capability in lunar environment; lunar photography.

Nominal mission aborted because of an abrupt loss of SM cryogenic oxygen associated with a fire in 1 of the 2 tanks at about 56 hr GET; LM provided power and life support until transfer to CM for reentry.

Soyuz 9
Sokol
Falcon

1 June

Nikolayev
Sevastyanov

6,501

424:59:00

Acquisition of extensive observations on the effects of prolonged flight on both the crew and the spacecraft; performance of numerous course correction exercises.

Successful; longest manned flight in time to date; cosmonauts experienced abnormal blood pressure and color perception and fatigue upon landing but survived the long flight satisfactorily.

Zond 8

20 Oct.

Unmanned

22,7201

161:00:00

Further demonstration of circumlunar flight; lunar and planetary photography.

Successful; Soviets' second water recovery.

Cosmos 379

24 Nov.

Unmanned

6,5751

NA

Initial orbital data similar to Soyuz-type flight data but with a later lunar or interplanetary orbital launch platform.

Possible test of new lunar-type engine system.

Cosmos 382

2 Dec.

Unmanned

22,7201

NA

Orbital data. (Speculation has been made that this flight may have been a precursor to manned lunar flight.)

NA.

1971

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

Apollo 14
AS 509
Kitty Hawk and Antares

31 Jan.

Shepard
Roosa
Mitchell

CSM: 29,240
LM: 15,264

216:01:58

Selenological inspection and sampling; development of capability to work in lunar environment; photographs of candidate exploration sights; experiments.

Basically successful; several minor problems prevented the lunar crew's performance of all objectives; time on the moon = 33:30:31.

Cosmos 398

26 Feb.

Unmanned

6,5751

NA

Initial orbital data similar to Soyuz-type flight data but with a later lunar or interplanetary orbital launch platform.

Possible test of new lunar-type engine system.

Salyut 1

19 Apr.

Unmanned

18,5971

-

Service as a space station for experiments and observation (to be manned by visiting Soyuz flight).

Successful; Soyuz 10 (Apr. 1971) and 11 (June 1971) crews visited Salyut 1; reentered atmosphere 11 Oct. 1971.

Soyuz 10
Granit
Granite

23 Apr.

Shatalov
Yeliseyev
Rukavishnikov

6,5771

47:46:00

Test of new rendezvous and docking techniques (equipped with a docking collar).

Remained in docked position with Salyut 1 5 hr and 30 min; some speculation that crew had intended to enter station but could not because of malfunction.

Soyuz 11
Yantar
Amber

6 June

Dobrovolskiy
Patsayev
Volkov

6,5771

570:22:00 (23+ days)

Occupation of the Salyut station and performance of extensive experiments, biological and astronomical; observation of spacecraft systems.

All flight objectives met successfully during 24-day stay on Salyut; crew was killed during landing procedures when a seal in the spacecraft failed before the ship entered earth's atmosphere; all scientific logs and films were recovered.

Apollo 15
AS 510
Endeavour and Falcon

26 July

Scott
Worden
Irwin

CSM: 30,370
LM: 16,430

295:11:53

Lunar inspection, survey, and sampling of materials in Hadley- Apennine region; experiments; evaluation of capability of lunar equipment during extended lunar surface stay.

Successful; used lunar rover during moon exploration; total lunar stay = 66:54:5 3; conducted 3 lunar EVA periods, plus 1 transearth coast EVA for a total of 19:47:00; 1 parachute failed on landing but the recovery was successful and the landing precise.

Cosmos 434

12 Aug.

Unmanned

6,5751

NA

Initial orbital data similar to Soyuz-type flight data but with later lunar or interplanetary orbital launch platform.

Possible test of new lunar-type engine system.

1972

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

Apollo 16
AS 511
Casper and Orion

16 Apr.

Young
Mattingly
Duke

CSM: 30,395
LM: 16,445

265:51:05

Lunar inspection, survey, and materials sampling in Descartes region; experiments on lunar surface and in flight; photography.

Successful; total lunar stay = 71:02:13;lunar rover driven 26.7 km; lunar EVA periods totaled 20 hr and 14 min.

Cosmos 496

26 June

Unmanned

6,5751

NA

Performance of test flight to verify safety modifications to Soyuz breathing ventilation valve.

Successful; reentered 2 July.

Apollo 17
AS 512
America and Challenger

7 Dec.

Cernan
Evans
Schmitt

CSM: 30,369
LM: 16,456

301:51:59

Lunar survey and sampling of materials in Taurus-Littrow region; surface experiments and photography; in-flight experiments and photography.

Successful; last Apollo flight to the moon; lunar stay = 74:59:38; 3 lunar EVA periods totaled 22:05:04; traveled 35 km in lunar rover.

1973

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

Salyut 2

3 Apr.

Unmanned

18,5971

-

Service as a space station for experiments and observations; perfection of design and onboard systems.

Not successful; suspected thruster problem caused craft to tumble out of control, resulting in a solar panel malfunction; reentered 28 May 1973.

Cosmos 557

11 May

Unmanned

18,5001

96:00:001

Orbital data. (Observers believed craft was Salyut failure; U,S.S.R. denies any relationship to manned program.)

Mission apparently completed in 4 days; craft reentered 22 May 1973.

Skylab 1
AS 513 and 212

14 May

Unmanned

74,783

-

Service as an orbiting space station in which to conduct experiments for lengthy periods of time by visiting crews.

Successful; manned by visiting crews from Skylab Mission 2 (May 1973), 3 (July 1973), and 4 (Nov. 1973); still in orbit.

Skylab 2
CSM 116
AS 206

25 May

Conrad
Kerwin
Weitz

CM: 6,076

672:49:49 (28+ days)

Operation of orbital workshop as a habitable space structure for up to 28 days; acquisition of medical data on crew for use in extending duration of manned flight; in-flight experiments.

Successful; crew made repairs to workshop damaged during launch (Skylab parasol); some difficulty in performing the docking procedure.

Cosmos 573

15 June

Unmanned

6,5751

NA

Performance of test flight to verify safety modifications to Soyuz breathing ventilation valve.

Successful; reentered 17 June.

Skylab 3
CSM 117
AS 207

28 July

Bean
Garriott
Lousma

CM: 6,085

1,427:09:04 (59+ days)

Acquisition of data for evaluating performance of unmanned workshop; reactivation of workshop; acquisition of medical data on the crew; inflight experiments.

Successful; all scientific objectives met; crew met with some motion sickness during first 3 visit days.

Soyuz 12
Uraliy
Urals

27 Sept.

Lazarev
Makarov

6,5771

47:16:00

Test of improved flight conditions; acquisition of spectrographic data of separate sections of the earth; evaluation of new space suit design.

Successful.

Cosmos 605

31 Oct.

Biological payload

5,5001

NA

Study of effects of space on living organisms (white rats, steppe turtles, insects, fungi); test of life-sustaining systems.

Successful; recovered 22 Nov.

Skylab 4
CSM 118
AS 208

16 Nov.

Carr
Gibson
Pogue

CM: 6,104

2,017:15:31 (84+ days)

Evaluation of performance of unmanned workshop and its reactivation; acquisition of extensive medical data from crewmembers; in-flight experiments.

Successful; last visit to Skylab; total mission visit time = 4,117:14:24; total mission flight time = 12,351:43:12; some initial problem with motion sickness; made extensive observations of Comet Kohoutek.

Cosmos 613

30 Nov.

Unmanned

6,5701

NA

Systems test of Soyuz to determine if craft could remain inactive in orbit and then be reactivated.

Successful; soft-landed 30 Jan. 1974.

Soyuz 13
Kavkaz
Caucasus

18 Dec.

Klimuk
Lebedev

6,5771

188:32:00

Observation of stars in the ultraviolet range using a special system of telescopes; survey of separate sections of earth's surface and acquisition of data; continuation of comprehensive verification of onboard systems; test of manual and automatic control and methods of autonomous navigation in various flight conditions.

Successful.

1974

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

Cosmos 638

3 Apr.

Unmanned

6,5701

NA

Test of docking systems and rendezvous for ASTP.

Successful; reentered 13 Apr.

Cosmos 656

27 May

Unmanned

6,5701

NA

ASTP-related tests of Soyuz.

Successful; reentered 29 May.

Salyut 3

25 June

Unmanned

18,1441

-

Service as an unmanned orbital workshop to be visited and manned by Soyuz crews who will perform experiments and observations.

Successful; manned by Soyuz 14 (July 1974) crew; programmed reentry and disintegration on 24 Jan. 1975.

Soyuz 14
Berkut
Golden Eagle

3 July

Popovich
Artyukhin

6,5771

336:00:001

Test of Salyut's engineering system and energy supply; in-flight experiments.

Successful.

Cosmos 672

12 Aug.

Unmanned

6,5701

NA

ASTP-related tests of Soyuz.

Successful; reentered 18 Aug.

Soyuz 15
Dunay
Danube

26 Aug.

Sarafanov
Demin

6,5771

48:12:00

Docking with Salyut 3; onboard tests and inflight experiments.

Unsuccessful; night landing in adverse weather conditions; crew recovered.

Cosmos 690

22 Oct.

Biological payload

NA

NA

Tests of effects of radiation on animals (white rats); cesium 137 gamma ray source on board.

Successful; 21-day flight.

Soyuz 16
Buran
Snowstorm

2 Dec.

Filipchenko
Rukavishnikov

6,5771

142:24:00

Simulation of ASTP-type mission; U.S.- Soviet joint tracking exercise.

Successful.

Salyut 4

26 Dec.

Unmanned

18,1441

-

Unmanned orbiting space workshop to further test design, onboard systems, and equipment; scientific-technical studies conducted by visiting Soyuz crews.

Successful; manned by Soyuz 17 (Jan. 1975) crew.

1975

Name of spacecraft

Launch date

Occupant

Payload weight (kg)

Flight time (hr:min:sec)

Basic flight objectives

Summary of results

Soyuz 17
Zenit
Zenith

11 Jan.

Grechko
Gubarev

6,5771

720:00:001 (30 days)1

Extensive series of scientific and medical experiments onboard Salyut 4; observation of effects of prolonged weightlessness on man.

Successful; set Soviet record for time in space.

Soyuz anomaly
Uraliy
Urals

5 Apr.

Lazarev
Makarov

6,5771

00:04:451

Visit to Salyut 4 space station.

Aborted shortly after launch because of launch vehicle malfunction; crew recovered safely near Gorno Altaisk (in Siberia near the People's Republic of China border); first manned mission abort.

Soyuz 18

24 May

Klimuk
Sevastyanov

6,5771

1,512:00:001 (63 days)

Visit to Salyut 4 space station.

Successful; set Soviet record for time in space; landed 26 July.

Soyuz 19

15 July

Leonov
Kubasov

7,0001

142:30:54
(5+ days)

Rendezvous and docking with U.S. Apollo crew; joint activities including crew transfer.

Successful; landed 21 July.

Apollo

15 July

Stafford
Brand
Slayton

CSM: 12,905
DM: 2,006

217:28:24
(9 days)

Rendezvous and docking with U.S.S.R. Soyuz crew; joint activities including crew transfer.

Successful; landed 24 July.

A - Apollo

AS - Apollo-Saturn

ASTP - Apollo-Soyuz Test Project

BD - Booster development

CM - Command module

CSM - Command and service module

DM - Docking module

ECS - Environmental control system

EVA - Extravehicular activity

GET - Ground-elapsed time

GT - Gemini-Titan

LJ - Little Joe

LM - Lunar module

LTA - Lunar test article

MA - Mercury-Atlas

MR - Mercury-Redstone

NA - Not available

PA - Pad abort

SM - service module


1 Approximate.

2 Sometimes called "spacecraft."

3 Test vehicle at launch.


PreviousIndexNext