SP-4209 The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project

Appendix D

[494-511] Summary of U.S./U.S.S.R. Meetings

 



1970

Date

Place

American delegation leader

Soviet delegation leader

Participating groups

Summary of results

16-28 Oct.

Moscow

R. R. Gilruth

B. N. Petrov

Pre-ASTP

Discussed in chapter IV.

1971

Date

Place

American delegation leader

Soviet delegation leader

Participating groups

Summary of results

16-21 Jan.

Moscow

G. M. Low

M. V. Keldysh

Pre-ASTP

Discussed in chapter V.

21-25 June

Houston

R. R. Gilruth

B. N. Petrov

Working Groups (WGs) 1, 2, 3

Discussed in chapter V.

26 Nov.-6 Dec.

Moscow

G. S. Lunney

K. D. Bushuyev

WGs 1, 2, 3

Discussed in chapter VI.

1972

Date

Place

American delegation leader

Soviet delegation leader

Participating groups

Summary of results

27 Mar.-3 Apr.

Houston

D. C. Wade

V. S. Syrom- yatnikov

WG 3

Discussed in chapter VI.

4-6 Apr.

Moscow

G. M. Low

V. A. Kotelnikov

Executive

Discussed in chapter VI.

10-17 May

Moscow

D. C. Cheatham

V. P. Legostayev

WG2

Discussed in chapter VI.

24 May

Moscow

R. M. Nixon

A. N. Kosygin

Summit

Discussed in chapter VI.

6-18 July

Houston

G. S. Lunney

K. D. Bushuyev

WGs 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Discussed in chapter VII.

9-19 Oct.

Moscow

G. S. Lunney

K. D. Bushuyev

WGs 0, 1, 2, 3, 5

Discussed in chapter VII.

24 Nov.-6 Dec.

Houston

H. E. Smith,

R. H. Dietz

V. P. Legostayev

WGs 2, 4

Discussed in chapter VII.

6-16 Dec.

Moscow

D. C. Wade

V. S. Syrom- yatnikov

WG 3

Discussed in chapter VII.

1973

Date

Place

American delegation leader

Soviet delegation leader

Participating groups

Summary of results

15-30 Mar.

Houston

G. S. Lunney

K. D. Bushuyev

WGs 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Technical directors (TD) reviewed documentation and milestones contained in ASTP 30 000. Special attention was given to crew preparation, and a crew activities plan was discussed. Lunney and Bushuyev agreed to have technical specialists from each side in the other country's control center during flight, and plans were made for visits to each nation's control center. The TDs decided that the flight directors (FD) would have prime responsibility for implementing flight-related decisions during the mission, with the TDs acting as advisers and consultants. They also discussed scientific experiments, training schedules, and flammability safety studies, as well as reviewed the results of a meeting (Feb. 1973) between U.S.S.R. and U.S. medical doctors. The TDs reaffirmed that all medical discussions relating to ASTP would be handled as part of the WG meetings and agreed that the return of a mixed crew should be studied further with a decision on this issue being planned for the next meeting. The increased tempo of activities led to the decision to begin regularly scheduled telephone conversations every 2 weeks, beginning 24 Apr. 1973.1 WG 1 confirmed the following guidelines for flight: rendezvous on 29th orbit; Soyuz maneuvers on 4th and 17th orbits; circular docking orbit at 225 km; orbit inclination = 51.8°; Apollo to launch 7.5 hr after Soyuz. Both sides agreed to ASTP 40 201, "Trajectory Computation Model," which contained coordinate systems, atmospheric, and gravitational models. Onboard documents were discussed further, as was development of the "Control Centers Interaction Plan," ASTP 40 401.2 WG 2 continued discussion of Nov.-Dec. 1972 topics: tracking requirements for Apollo and the orientation requirements fox Soyuz during rendezvous, exchange of spacecraft surface materials, external lights, and control systems. A Preliminary Systems Review (PSR) was conducted for the docking mechanism on Soyuz and for the NASA test fixture that would assure the target's proper alignment. The PSR data were reviewed by the TDs and approved.3 WG 3 worked on the interface seals for the docking system and decided on the types of seal samples that would be exchanged for testing. IED 50 004, the engineering drawing of the docking system, was updated to reflect changes in the design. The U.S.S.R. and U.S. safety assessment reports on the inadvertent release of the structural latches were reviewed, and additional analysis of this topic was scheduled.4 WG 4 also continued discussion of earlier topics: interface signal characteristics for radio communications (intercom), compatibility tests for those systems, inter control center communications, VHF/FM Preliminary Design Review (PDR), etc. Training sessions for U.S.S.R. specialists in the testing of U.S. VHF/AM equipment were scheduled for 30 Apr.-11 May at the Grumman Aerospace Corporation factory at Bethpage, NY.5 WG 5 considered questions of life support system compatibility, transfer procedures, and fire safety. The Soviets presented a description of the changes that were being made in the Soyuz atmosphere regeneration system, presented in a preliminary version of IED 50 723. Because of flammability concerns, all equipment transferred to Apollo would have to be certified. This included 2 cameras (still and TV) and cosmonaut flight dress. The Soviets indicated that practically all their electrical equipment was being tested to determine its safety for use in a 50-percent O2 environment.6

18-29 June

Moscow

D. R. Scott

V. P. Legostayev

WGs 1, 2, 4, 5

WG 1, represented by an Experiments Subgroup, discussed the scientific activities to be conducted during the mission and the form and contents of documents dealing with them. P. S. Jaschke and Yu. S. Denisov acted as co-chairmen.7 WG 2 conducted a Design Acceptance Review (DAR) of the Soyuz docking target, using a high fidelity model. Soyuz control requirements were discussed, and although previous documentation specified the docked attitude, control, maneuver, and translation requirements for Soyuz, the Soviets were "unprepared to and reluctant" to provide the data and level of detail necessary to fulfill the agreed requirements. The necessary information was made available later when Legostayev made a special trip to Houston in July. Safety Assessment Reports (SAR) were also considered, but Bushuyev was "surprised at the level of detail of the US version," especially the fact that Ed Smith had included material on the control system problems encountered in Gemini VIII and Apollo 13.8 WG 4's progress was particularly unsatisfactory. Scott in his report to Lunney commented, "The lack of agreed documentation, the late documentation, and the occasional unscheduled absence of Soviet delegates (Nikit[in], Savitiski, Morgulev) made an already overburdened agenda extremely difficult to complete, which understandably it was not. Professor Bushuyev was made aware of the problems early in the session and stated that positive action would be taken . . . but it was not adequate to completely resolve all of the deficiencies. . . ."9 This experience reinforced Lunney's desire to iron out the documentation problems and subsequently led to the October Mid-Term Review. The WG 5 Thermal Subgroup met and discussed a number of temperature effects on materials relating to the docking system, communications equipment, and life support systems. The Americans agreed to give the Soviets data on the possible impingement of the Apollo reaction control system (RCS) on the Soyuz docking seals.10

27 June-11 July

Moscow

R. D. White

V. S. Syrom- yatnikov

WG 3

SARs dealing with inadvertent opening of structural ring latches were updated, and the U.S. SAR was signed. Drafts of development test procedures were discussed. Syromyatnikov agreed to provide a Soviet seal to permit testing of both seals at Rockwell. Before WG 2 departed, a meeting was held to discuss the effects that Apollo maneuvering during the docked phase might have on the Soyuz solar panels; this issue was resolved. DAR, Phase I, review of U.S. drawings, was completed.11

9-20 July

Houston

G. S. Lunney

K. D. Bushuyev

WGs 0, 1, 2

The purpose of the "meeting was to discuss specific technical problems, continue development of trajectories and flight plans, tentatively coordinate . . . the scientific experiment program, and to familiarize the cosmonauts with the design and operation of the Apollo spacecraft systems." The TDS agreed that prime responsibility for the mission will shift from the TDs to FDs at the beginning of the joint pre-launch phase as defined in ASTP 40 500. Test flights of Soyuz equipped with ASTP systems were planned by the U.S.S.R. The two sides discussed possibilities of joint participation in or observation of test activities and flight preparations of compatible equipment. Six SARs were discussed (control systems, fire and cabin pressure, pyrotechnics, manufacturing test and checkout, structural latches, and ground command capability). As SARS were completed, they were to be turned over to WG 1 so that appropriate procedures could be written into flight plans. The Moscow meeting was reviewed, and TDs agreed that more data were needed for Soyuz control systems. Bushuyev also said that steps would be taken to eliminate WG 4 problems. TDs discussed transferring responsibility for inter control center communications from WG 4 to WG 1 and the draft of Part I of the Public Information Plan, which had been presented by the U.S. in Mar. 1973. The U.S.S.R. wanted to add some specific language and agreed to provide comments by late Aug.12 A general review was held on the status of the joint experiments; Lunney explained that the internal NASA review of proposed experiments was still in progress.13 WG 1 continued work on flight related documentation; e.g., "Flight Plan Guidelines," ASTP 40 300; "Joint Crew Activities Plan," ASTP 40 301; "Control Centers Interaction Plan," ASTP 40 401; "Contingency Plan," ASTP 40 500; and "Onboard Joint Operations Instructions," 40 600. Alternative launch trajectories were discussed at length. Flight controllers training was planned - U.S.S.R. controllers to visit Houston in Oct. 1974; U.S. controllers to visit the U.S.S.R. in Dec. 1974. Two joint control center training sessions were scheduled for Apr. 1975 and for within 10 days of launch. (Crew training activities discussed in chap. VIII.) WG 2 continued its work on a full agenda of control system items that related to the spacecraft in a docked configuration.14

1-20 Oct.

Moscow

G. S. Lunney

K. D. Bushuyev

WGs 0, 1, 4, 5

The results of this meeting are discussed in chapter VIII. In addition to mission related activities, the U.S. team raised the question of "Joint Requirements for Compatibility of Future Space Systems." C. Covington and the Soviet WG chairmen resumed this discussion, during which the Americans made a number of proposals that would alter the ASTP agreements to accommodate the next generation of spacecraft, e.g., the suggestion to increase the transfer tunnel diameter from 0.8 to 0.92 m and to increase the number of structural latches to permit the docking of larger spacecraft. The changes to the size of the docking gear would necessitate its complete redesign. Although these talks on future systems were to have been continued in subsequent plenary sessions, the Soviets did not wish to discuss this during the preparations for the test flight, and it was not discussed again until the post-mission meeting in Nov. 1975.15

15-18 Oct.

Moscow

G. M. Low

B. N. Petrov

Mid-Term Review

Discussed in chapter VIII.

13-23 Nov.

Houston

Downey, Calif.

R. D. White

V. S. Syrom- yatnikov

WG 3

Seal verification tests observed by the Soviets were held at Rockwell on 12-19 Nov. This was a subgroup effort designed to resolve some difficulties that had plagued the development and testing of the docking seals. Tests were a success and solved the problems.16

19-30 Nov.

Star City

T. P. Stafford

V. A. Shatalov

Crews

Discussed in chapter IX.

3-24 Dec.

Houston

R. D. White

V. S. Syrom- yatnikov

WG 3

Actually, the minutes dated 3-24 Dec. relate to a series of discussions that were ancillary to the development tests for the docking system, spanning the period 16 Sept.-24 Dec.17

1974

Date

Place

American delegation leader

Soviet delegation leader

Participating groups

Summary of results

14 Jan.-1 Feb.

Houston

G. S. Lunney

K. D. Bushuyev

WGs 1, 2, 4

35 Soviet specialists engaged in meetings with Johnson Space Center (JSC) counterparts, conducting additional discussions of mission plans and experiments, communications and tracking, and life support and transfer.18

4 Feb.-5 Apr.

Houston

R. H. Dietz

B. V. Nikitin

WG 4

Soviet members of WG 4 stayed in Houston to participate in communications system compatibility tests. These tests were designed to verify that all communications and tracking equipment that interfaced between Apollo and Soyuz would work satisfactorily. During this evaluation, the performance of the American and Soviet VHF/AM equipment was studied separately and as installed in the electrical equivalents of Apollo and Soyuz communications systems. The Soviet and American cable intercommunications system was also tested. The test program identified several compatibility discrepancies in the cable communications, audio circuits, and other areas, which were subsequently corrected.19

11-22 Mar.

Air Force base near Moscow

W. W. Guy

I. V. Lavrov

WG 5

Discussed in chapter IX.

8 Apr.-3 May

Houston

G. S. Lunney

K. D. Bushuyev

WGs 0, l, 2, 3, 4, 5

In addition to the crew training discussed in chapter IX and the WG 5 compatibility tests and environmental control system (ECS) tests previously described, the TDs received reports on a number of other activities. They reviewed the Mar. 1974 meeting of the Public Affairs specialists and the subsequent talks on Part II of the Public Information Plan, which concerned the release of information during the flight. A Soviet proposal was discussed, the U.S. prepared a revised version of Part II, and further talks were scheduled. The TDs also looked at the results of the discussions on joint experiments; the experiment Interacting Equipment Documents (IEDs) were signed, and the experiment schedules were incorporated into ASTP 30 000. They also agreed to further tests of the Soyuz pyrotechnics, using a full scale mockup of the front of that craft. Dates for the visit of specialists and crewmembers to the launch sites were discussed, and a tentative schedule agreed upon. The TDs visited the communication system compatibility test laboratory, the ECS breadboard test facility, and the thermal vacuum test facility.20 WG 1 personnel studied onboard motion pictures, still photography, and television, and tested the mechanical compatibility of U.S.S.R. mockup TV cameras with the structure of the command module (CM) and the docking module (DM). In addition to experiments, trajectory, flight control, and ground control subjects, onboard documentation was a major topic of discussion.21 WG 2 continued its work on spacecraft tracking, safety assessment problems (pyrotechnics), spacecraft external coating reflectivity characteristic measurement results, control system functioning, and docking targets.22 WG 3 worked on further aspects of the design and dynamics of the docking system. They also prepared for the joint qualification tests by agreeing to IED 50 010, "Apollo Soyuz Joint Qualification Test Plan, Docking Systems."23 WGS 4 and 5 conducted additional work relating to their tests. WG 5 evaluated flight uniform material from the U.S.S.R. and found it satisfied the non-flammability requirements for use in the Apollo pure O2 environment.24

3-20 June

Moscow

W. C. Panter

E. I. Gorlin

WG 4

Tests of 3 sets of U.S. VHF/AM hardware [transceiver and range tone transfer assembly (RTTA)] to prove its fitness as flight hardware to be installed in Soyuz were completed successfully.25

17-28 June

Star City

A. D. Dennett

V. N. Bobkov

WG 1 subgroup

The TV and Photo Subgroup evaluated lighting and facilities available for television and photography onboard Soyuz in a high fidelity mockup. Tests were performed with crews in flight clothing to simulate the actual mission.26

24 June-11 July

Star City

T. P. Stafford

A. A. Leonov

Crews

Discussed in chapter IX.

1 July-5 Sept.

Houston

R. D. White

V. S. Syrom- yatnikov

WG 3

Tests were held on the dynamic docking test system to qualify the flight docking systems as prescribed in the "Apollo Soyuz Joint Qualification Test Plan," IED 50 010; they were completed successfully.27

15-29 July

Houston

W. W. Guy

Yu. S. Dolgopolov

WG 5

Soviet specialists witnessed manned and unmanned thermal vacuum tests of flight article docking module 1; tests were successful.28

26 Aug.-20 Sept.

Moscow

G. S. Lunney

K. D. Bushuyev

WGs 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

TDs reviewed post-flight scientific data exchange from experiments, docking system qualification test results, and spacecraft communications during various phases of joint activities; they discussed other aspects of test and checkout activities down to the time of launch. As part of WG 1's effort, the TDs agreed that NASA was to track the upcoming precursor flight of Soyuz.29 (See chap. IX.) WG 1, in addition to continuing work on flight documentation, discussed flight photography and TV, joint experiments, and crew training. Major attention was given to the preparations of the control centers and personnel for the mission.30 WG 2 neared completion of all its topics and discussed the RCS impingement question.31 (See chap. IX.) WG 3 reviewed the Institute of Space Research facilities for performing the matecheck of the flight docking systems to begin on 23 Oct. WG 4 continued discussions of inflight communications, and their agreements were approved by the TDS. The effects of U.S. VHF radiation on Soyuz were discussed, and agreement was reached on testing the Soyuz pyros.32 WG 5 conducted analysis and review of contingency situations that might affect Soyuz and Apollo ECS; they revised "Materials Fire Safety Certification of USSR Equipment Transferred to Apollo," IED 50 721, and "Materials Fire Safety Certification for USA Equipment Transferred to Soyuz," IED 50 720; they also continued completion of other documentation.33

9-27 Sept.

Houston

T. P. Stafford

A. A. Leonov

Crews

Continued preparation of the crews for flight with emphasis on rendezvous and transfer phases. Medical examinations of cosmonauts for medical experiments during the flight were completed.34

16-27 Sept.

Moscow

Kaliningrad

M. P. Frank

A. S. Yeliseyev

WG 1 subgroup

The first training session for flight controllers was held in the U.S.S.R. From 16-20 Sept., the controllers heard lectures at the Space Research Institute relating to the Soyuz and its subsystems; from 23-25 Sept., they were given familiarization sessions at the mission control center in Kaliningrad.35

23 Oct.-11 Dec.

Moscow

R. D. White

V. S. Syrom- yatnikov

WG 3

Conducted matechecks with flight docking equipment, more formally called "Preflight Compatibility Verification Test of Docking Systems," involving a complete examination of the gear to establish its flight readiness. The tests were successful, and the results were recorded in IED 50 015. At this meeting, a subgroup session was conducted on 15-22 Nov. to ascertain the status of modifications made to the guide pins and sockets.36

24 Oct.-11 Dec.

Houston

M. P. Frank

A. S. Yeliseyev

WG 1 subgroup

Training sessions for Soviet flight controllers in the U.S. were begun; from 24-31 Oct., lectures were given on Apollo systems; from 31 Oct.6 Nov., the U.S.S.R. personnel were acquainted with the JSC control center and selected aspects of mission management.37

18-29 Nov.

Moscow

A. W. Joslyn

Ye. I. Klimenko

WG 5 subgroup

The Thermal Subgroup met to discuss effects of space temperatures on docking seals and the requirements for cooling the U.S. VHF transceiver mounted in Soyuz.38

25 Nov.-21 Dec.

Houston

M. P. Frank

V. A. Timchenko

WG 1

Continued work on the following topics and related documents: spacecraft design characteristics, joint scientific experiments, onboard documents, control center joint pre-flight practice simulations, inter control center communications systems, and photo and TV work in Apollo mockups.39

1975

Date

Place

American delegation leader

Soviet delegation leader

Participating groups

Summary of results

20 Jan.-13 Feb.

Houston

G. S. Lunney

K. D. Bushuyev

WGs 0, l, 2, 3, 4, 5

TDs reviewed the various test and documentation activities conducted since the Aug.-Sept. 1974 plenary meeting. Bushuyev reported on Soyuz 16. (See chap. IX.) This was the last plenary session in which all the WGs were represented. The next full scale meeting was to be the Flight Readiness Review (FRR). The WG activities mainly involved completing documentation. WG 1 was the only group that had large scale tasks to complete since it was the group charged with conducting the joint flight.40

26 Jan.-13 Mar.

Houston

E. B. Pippert

V. P. Varshavsky

WG 1 subgroup

The Onboard Documentation Subgroup met to complete work on the "Onboard Joint Operations Instructions," ASTP 40 600, and the "Joint Crew Activities Plan," ASTP 40301. When signed off by the WG chairmen and the TDs, these documents became the basic statement of how the joint phases of the mission would be conducted.41

7-28 Feb.

Kennedy Space Center

Houston

T. P. Stafford

V. A. Shatalov

Crews

U.S. and U.S.S.R. crews visited Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on 8 February for orientation visits to the vehicle assembly building, the launch pads, the firing room, and the crew quarters at the launch site. At JSC, beginning on the 10th, the crews received briefings on the 5 joint experiments and the rules and procedures governing crew actions in various emergency situations; they continued to work on transfer and communications training. The Soviets flew the Apollo command and service module (CSM) simulator to review rendezvous and docking as seen from the U.S. side. They also had 2 run-throughs for each crew with the DM mockup to review transfer and contingency procedures. And the Soviet prime crew tasted samples of the food they would eat aboard Apollo.42

20-21, 24-25, 27-28 Mar.

Houston

Kaliningrad

L. A. Reitan

L. F. Mezenov

WG 1 subgroup

On these three 2-day sessions, the Mission Control Center (MCC) Houston and MCC Moscow personnel participated in training sessions that involved the simulation of selected aspects of the flight.

6-16 Apr.

Moscow

A. P. Alibrando

V. S. Vereschetin

WG 1 subgroup

The Public Information (PI) specialists discussed the symbolic activities of the crews during the flight - the exchange of TV transmission, the inflight press conference, exchange of still and motion pictures, and the participation of the PI representatives in the May joint simulations.43

14-25 Apr.

Moscow

M. P. Frank

V. A. Timchenko

WG 1

Final preparations for flight and the Flight Readiness Review were continued. The delegates discussed the initial meeting of the crews, a TV tour from space of the U.S.S.R. narrated by Kubasov, and a number of other topics related to ground and flight aspects of the mission. The joint Onboard Documentation Subgroup met from 14-30 Apr. to complete revisions and updates to ASTP 40 600 and 40 301.44

14-30 Apr.

Star City

Baykonur Cosmodrome

T. P. Stafford

A. A. Leonov

Crews

The final crew training session was completed. In addition to review of joint activity phases of the flight plan and additional time in the Soyuz mockup, the U.S. crews practiced contingency procedures in Soyuz. On 28 Apr., the crews visited Baykonur Cosmodrome. (See chap. IX.) This work completed all the training as outlined in ASTP 40 700.45

5-22 May

Moscow

G. S. Lunney

K. D. Bushuyev

WGs 0, 2, 3, 4, 5

These sessions concluded the preparations for the flight and the ERR. The TDs received a tour of Baykonur to review the status of spacecraft readiness for the launch. The TDs also agreed to the "Outline for the Initial Mission Report," which would summarize the flight results of ASTP. WG 2 discussed their FRR presentation and the docking target alignment tests. WG 3 also worked on their FRR presentation. WG 4, in addition to FRR preparation, reviewed the pre-flight equipment checks that were conducted at the cosmodrome on 12-17 May. WG 5 completed work on the FRR.46

23 May

Moscow

G. M. Low

V. A. Kotelnikov

Flight Readiness Review

Discussed in chapter X.

13-20 May

Houston

Kaliningrad

L. A. Reitan

L. F. Mezenov

WG 1 subgroup

Second simulation exercise for the control center personnel completed.

9-13 June

Moscow

D. A. Bland

V. P. Varshavsky

WG 1 subgroup

Onboard Documentation Subgroup completed its work.

29 June-1 July

Houston

Kaliningrad

L. A. Reitan

L. F. Mezenov

WG 1 subgroup

Final full scale dress rehearsal of control center operations prior to the mission.

17-19 July

In earth orbit

T. P. Stafford

A. A. Leonov

Crews

Joint activities of ASTP flight. (Discussed in chap. XI.)


1 " Summary of Results of the March 1973 Meeting of Specialists of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the USA National Aeronautics and Space Administration on Compatible Systems for Rendezvous and Docking of Manned Spacecraft and Stations," in "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Joint Meeting, USSR Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 15-30 Mar. 1973.

2 "Minutes of the Joint Meeting of Working Group I," in "Minutes of Joint Meeting," 15-30 Mar. 1975.

3 "Working Group No. 2, Minutes of Meeting on Apollo Soyuz Test Project," in "Minutes of Joint Meeting," 15-30 Mar. 1973.

4 "Working Group #3, Minutes of Meeting on Assuring Compatibility, Docking Systems," in "Minutes of Joint Meeting," 15-30 Mar. 1973.

5 "Working Group No. 4, Minutes of Meeting on Apollo Soyuz/Test Project," in "Minutes of Joint Meeting," 15-30 Mar. 1973.

6 "Minutes, Working Group 5," in "Minutes of Joint Meeting," 15-30 Mar. 1973.

7 D. R. Scott to G. S. Lunney, memo, "ASTP Mission to Moscow, June-July, 1973," 31 July 1973.

8 Ibid.

9 Ibid.; and R. H. Dietz to G. S. Lunney, memo, "Miscellaneous Observations/Recommendations Precipitated by the June 1973 Meeting for Working Group No. 4," 13 July 1973.

10 D. R. Scott to G. S. Lunney, memo, "ASTP Mission to Moscow," 31 July 1973.

11 Ibid.; and "Minutes, Working Group #3," 27 June-11 July 1973.

12 "Summary of Results of the July 1973 Meeting of Specialists of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the USA National Aeronautics and Space Administration on Compatible Systems for Rendezvous and Docking of Manned Spacecraft and Stations," 20 July 1973, in "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Joint Meeting, USSR Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 9-20 July 1973.

13 bid.; and "Proposals of a Program for Scientific Experiments," USSR-WG1-005 [n.d.].

14 "Working Group No. 2," in "Minutes of Joint Meeting," 9-13 July

15 "Minutes of Meeting," 8-12 Oct. 1973, in "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Joint Meeting, USSR Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 1-12 Oct. 1973.

16 R. D. White to G. S. Lunney, memo, "Working Group #3 Joint Meeting on November 13-23, 1973," 28 Nov. 1973; and interview, R. D. White-Ezell, 30 Sept. 1975.

17 "Working Group 3, Minutes of the Meeting Assuring Joint Compatibility of the Docking Systems," 13-23 Nov. 1973; and "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Results of Apollo Soyuz Docking Systems Development Tests," lED 50 013, 25 Dec. 1973.

18 NASA News Release 74-9, "ASTP Working Groups to Meet," 10 Jan. 1974.

19 R. H. Dietz to E. C. Ezell, memo, 1 Oct. 1975 ; and "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Working Group 4, Minutes of Joint Meeting in Houston, USSR Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 8-26 Apr. 1974.

20 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Joint Meeting, USSR 1973. Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 8 Apr.-3 May 1974; and NASA News Release [unnumbered], "ASTP Press Conference," 3 May 1974.

21 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Working Group 1, Minutes of Joint Meeting in Houston, USSR Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 15 Apr.-3 May 1974.

22 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Working Group 2 Minutes of Joint Meeting in Houston, USSR Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 15 Apr.-3 May 1974.

23 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Working Group 3 Minutes of Joint Meeting in Houston, USSR Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 15 Apr.-3 May 1974.

24 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Working Group 5 Minutes of Joint Meeting in Houston, USSR Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 15 Apr.-3 May 1974.

25 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes, Joint Tests Conducted on the USA Supplied VHF/AM Equipment in Moscow," 3-20 June 1974.

26 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Joint Meeting and Testing on the Soyuz Mockup in Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center," 28 June 1974.

27 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Joint Meeting, Working Group 3, USSR Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 1 July-5 Sept. 1974.

28 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Working Group 5," 15-29 July 1974; and "USA Docking Module Thermal/Vacuum Testing Quick Look Report" [n.d.].

29 "Summary of Results of the August-September 1974 Meeting of Specialists of the USA NASA and USSR Academy of Sciences on the Preparations for Conduct of the Joint Test Flight of Apollo and Soyuz," 20 Sept. 1974, in "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Joint Meeting, USSR Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 26 Aug.- 20 Sept. 1974.

30 "Minutes of the WG-1 Joint Meeting", in "Minutes of Joint Meeting," 26 Aug.-13 Sept. 1974.

31 "Working Group 2 Minutes of the Meeting in Moscow," in "Minutes of Joint Meeting," 9-20 Sept. 1974.

32 "Working Group 4 Minutes," in "Minutes of Joint Meeting," 9-20 Sept. 1974.

33 "Minutes, Working Group 5," in "Minutes of Joint Meeting," 9-20 Sept. 1974.

34 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of the Astronaut and Cosmonaut Joint Training Visit at the Johnson Space Center," 9-27 Sept. 1974.

35 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Results of the Joint US/USSR Flight Controller Training," 16-27 Sept. 1974.

36 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Joint WG 3 Meeting, Docking Systems Compatibility Assurance Meeting," 23 Oct.-11 Dec. 1974; and "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Working Group 3, Minutes on the Question of Resolving the Problem of Binding of the Docking System Guide Pin and Socket," 22 Nov. 1974.

37 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Results of the Joint USA/USSR Flight Controller Training," 24 Oct.-6 Nov. 1974.

38 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes, Working Group 5 on Thermal Problems," 18-29 Nov. 1974.

39 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Meeting Minutes, Joint Meeting of Working Group 1," 25 Nov.-20 Dec. 1974.

40 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Joint Meeting, USSR Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 20 Jan.-13 Feb. 1975.

41 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Joint WG 1 Onboard Documentation Subgroup Meeting," 26 Jan.-13 Mar. 1975.

42 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of the Astronaut and Cosmonaut Joint Training Visit at the Johnson Space Center," 7-28 Feb. 1975.

43 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Public Information Working Group Meeting, USSR Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 6-16 Apr. 1975.

44 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Working Group 1 Joint Meeting, USSR Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 14-25 Apr. 1975; and "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Joint WG 1 Onboard Documentation Subgroup Meeting," 14-30 Apr. 1975.

45 "Minutes of the Joint Training of Soviet and American ASTP Crews at Gagarin CTC," 14-30 Apr. 1975.

46 "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Minutes of Joint Meeting, USSR Academy of Sciences and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 5-22 May 1975; and "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Report on the Joint Tests on the Soyuz Spacecraft at 'Baikonur' Launch Site," IED 50 609, 21 May 1975.


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