SP-4209 The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project

Sources and Research Materials

 

This essay is intended to serve as a guide to the sources used in preparing this history. As such, it is not designed to be an inclusive catalogue. For those who are interested in how we researched this book, for those who would like at some future date to follow in our steps, or for those who would attempt a contemporary history of their own, we would offer this road map to the materials from which we have woven the story of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.

From the standpoint of sources, this book can be divided into two parts - chapters I through III; and the prologue and chapters IV through the epilogue. In the former, we used the traditional sources familiar to the researcher - books, periodical and newspaper articles, and occasional primary documents from within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Whenever possible we made an attempt to use both Russian and English language publications in an effort to present a balanced view of the "Years Before," "Dryden and Blagonravov," and "Routes to Space Flight." A number of books were used over and over again in writing these background chapters:

Astashenkov, P. T. Akademik S. P. Korolev. Moscow, 1969. (Available in English as Academician S. P. Korolev, Biography. Air Force Foreign Technology Division-HC-23-542-70.)

Daniloff, Nicholas. The Kremlin and the Cosmos. New York, 1972.

Frutkin, Arnold W. International Cooperation in Space. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1965.

Green, Constance McLaughlin, and Lomask, Milton. Vanguard: A History: NASA SP-4202, Washington, 1970.

Harvey, Dodd L., and Ciccoritti, Linda C. U.S.-Soviet Cooperation in Space. Coral Gables, Fla., 1974.

Krieger, F. J. Behind the Sputniks: A Survey of Soviet Space Sciences. Washington, 1958.

Logsdon, John M. The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest. Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1970.

Narimanov, G. S., ed. The Conquest of Space in the USSR. NASA TTF-15,678, Washington, 1974. (Translation of Osvoyeniye kosmicheskogo prostranstva v SSSR [1972]. Moscow, 1974.)

Petrov, G. I., ed. Osvoenie kosmicheskogo prostva v SSSR: ofitsial'nye soobscheniya TASS i materialy tsentral'noi pechati Oktyabr', 1967-1970 gg. Moscow, 1971. (Available in English as Conquest of Outer Space in the USSR: Official Announcements by TASS and Material Published in the National Press from October 1967 to 1970. NASA TTF-725, New Delhi, 1973.)

Riabchikov, Evgeny. Russians in Space. Translated by Guy V. Daniels. Garden City, N.Y., 1971. (An official view of the Soviet space program prepared under the direction of Novosti Press and published in the United States by Doubleday and Co.)

Rosholt, Robert L. An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1963. NASA SP-4101, Washington, 1966.

Skuridin, G. A., ed. Mastery of Outer Space in the USSR, 1957-1967. NASA TTF-773, 1975. (Translation of Osvoyeniye kosmicheskogo prestranstva v SSSR, 1957-1967 gg. Moscow, 1971.)

Smolders, Peter. Soviets in Space: The Story of the Salyut and the Soviet Approach to Present and Future Space Travel. Translated by Marian Powell. Guildford and London, 1973.

Swenson, Loyd S., Jr., Grimwood, James M., and Alexander, Charles C. This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury NASA SP-4201, Washington, 1966.

Umansky, S. P. Chelovek na komisheskoy orbite. Moscow, 1975. (Available in English as Man in Space Orbit. NASA TTF-15973.)

U.S., Congress, Senate, Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences. Documents on International Aspects of the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, 1954-1962. 88th Cong., 1st sess., 1963.

--. International Cooperation and Organization for Outer Space, 89th Cong., 1st sess., 1965.

--. Soviet Space Programs, 1962-1965: Goals and Purposes, Achievements, Plans, and International Implications. 89th Cong., 2nd sess., 1966.

--. Soviet Space Programs, 1966-70: Goals and Purposes, Organization, Resources, Facilities and Hardware, Manned and Unmanned Flight Programs, Bioastronautics, Civil and Military Applications, Projections of Future Plans, Attitudes toward International Cooperation and Space Law. 92d Cong., 1st sess., 1971.

--. Soviet Space Programs,1971: A Supplement to the Corresponding Report Covering the Period 1966-70. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., 1971.

--. Soviet Space Programs, 1971-75 Overview, Facilities and Hardware, Manned and Unmanned Flight Programs, Bioastronautics, Civil and Military Applications, Projections of Future Plans, Vols. I and 11. 94th Cong., 2nd sess., 1976.

--. Soviet Space Programs: Organization, Plans, Goals, and International Implications. 87th Cong., 2nd Sess., 1962.

Vladimirov, Leonid. The Russian Space Bluff. Translated by David Floyd. London, 1971.

We should also call attention to the two major Soviet publications on the joint mission: Rukopozhatie v kosmose [Handshake in space] (Moscow, 1975), a collection of Soviet news accounts describing the joint mission published by Izvestiya (also available as "Handshake in Space," NASA TTF 17045); and Konstantin D. Bushuyev, ed., Soyuz i Apollon, rasskazivayut sovetskie uchenie, inzheneriy i kosmonavtiy - uchastniki sovmestnikh rabot s amerikanskimi spetsialistami [Soyuz and Apollo, related by Soviet scientists, engineers, and cosmonauts - participants of the joint work with American specialists] (Moscow, 1976), a collection of essays written by the Soviet Working Group chairmen and other leading participants in the mission published on the first anniversary of the 15 July 1975 launch.


The following periodicals and newspapers were used repeatedly:

Aviation Week and Space Technology

Baltimore Sun

Department of State Bulletin

Houston Chronicle

Izvestiya [The (latest) news]

Krasnaya Zvezda [Red star]

Missiles and Rockets

Nauka i Zhin' [Science and life]

New York Times

Pravda [Truth]

Space Business Daily

Trud [Labor]

Wall Street Journal

Washington Post

Washington Star

In the prologue, chapters IV through XI, and the epilogue, we have relied upon two types of primary sources - official NASA documents and oral history materials. An examination of the variety of primary materials will give the reader a better understanding of the documentation we have left behind at the History Office of the Johnson Space Center (JSC).

When we arrived in Houston in the spring of 1974, work was in full swing on ASTP. Since we planned to observe the negotiations and testing activities as time permitted, James M. Grimwood, JSC Historian, recommended that we keep a record of the events we witnessed. We quickly evolved a scheme for log notes numerically filed from 1 to 65, which were, in effect, after-action reports. These notes, which ranged from transcribed transactions of Glynn Lunney's tag-up meetings to reports on meetings to ephemera collected during the joint sessions (e.g., agenda, lists of delegates, and invitations to leisure activities) to transcriptions of interviews, served as an aide mémoire for the time when we began to write about the events we witnessed. Simultaneously, we began to collect documentation that would be necessary to write the history.

Over the years since the establishment of the History Office at JSC, Grimwood and his able assistant, archivist, and editor, Sally D. Gates, have cultivated a sense of history at the center. Houston participants who keep their own "desk archives" relating to a particular project have been encouraged to send these non-official copies of documents to the History Office, which maintains unofficial but valuable working archives relating to the history of manned space flight. Unlike the official record copies that are retired to the Federal Records Center at Forth Worth, Texas, these items, mainly photocopies, are in effect pre-screened for historical value and are readily at hand to the official historians. If we had been trying to write the same history from documents at the Federal Records Center, it would have taken years. When we arrived at JSC, Gates had already sorted out a large number of ASTP documents as part of an ongoing effort to segregate materials according to project as time is available for her to do so. While these materials were not arranged in any fashion, this group of letters, memoranda, telexes, and minutes of meetings formed a basis for our files.

Among the materials Gates had collected were a group of documents covering the period October 1970 to May 1972, which had been sent to the History Office by René A. Berglund prior to his retirement in early 1974. Thus, we had a large body of documents waiting for us, all of which were considered by those who had been working on ASTP to be of primary importance. The first question that faced us was how best to organize these materials. We decided to separate Working Group documents (minutes, reports, test activities, and data) from correspondence. From Hugh M. Scott of NASA and Jerry Siemers and Harry Hall of Boeing,* we learned that Boeing was maintaining a data file of all materials generated for or at meetings - agenda, briefings, technical documents exchanged, photographs and drawings exchanged, joint communiques, ASTP documents, Interacting Equipment Documents, and Interacting Equipment Revision Notices. Using their data file, we established our own files for each meeting including the earlier meetings (before July 1972) for which Boeing had not been responsible. Since the joint meetings were the major feature in the organization and functioning of this project and since all other activities were organized with these meetings in mind, this filing arrangement gave us a systematic method of keeping track of Working Group activities. When the project was completed, we had a compilation of the major documents prepared by the two sides. Whenever possible, we acquired copies of draft documents as well. A complete list of the numbered ASTP project documents is given in attachment 1. Attachment 2 provides an example of a data file.

Our second task was the organization of the correspondence created by ASTP. After considerable trial and error, we reverted to a simple chronological arrangement for these communications. However, we did create three correspondence files that are not included in this general chronological arrangement. First, the correspondence between the Apollo Spacecraft Program Office (ASPO) and the spacecraft contractor, Rockwell International, is highly technical, dealing mainly with design changes, production progress, component availability, and other such information related to preparing the command and service module (CSM) and the docking module (DM). Correspondence relating to public affairs activities is organized separately, as well. This material was collected with the help of Robert J. Shafer and his secretary, Patsy Respess. We selected these data from John P. Donnelly's and Shafer's ASTP files at Headquarters, and Respess and Evelyn L. Taylor assisted by copying nearly 1,500 pages of correspondence and items relating to the negotiation of the Public Affairs Plan. Bennet James and John Riley at JSC provided additional materials to help us complete our collection of pertinent public affairs documents. The third group of materials we segregated from the general ASTP correspondence related to the scientific payload.

The documents that make up the correspondence files were obtained from a variety of sources, such as retired reading files. Throughout NASA there exist unofficial and official copies of most correspondence. At JSC, copies of correspondence are distributed to the appropriate offices at the center concerned with its contents. (A memorandum, for example, addressed to "Distribution" would be circulated among various individuals and/or offices at the discretion of the author.) The Center Director would receive all policy and much top level management correspondence from within the agency, and his staff systematically would gather, copy, and circulate these items to the Director and his staff in the Director's Daily Reading File. Once these files had served their function of keeping management informed, they were routinely retired to the History Office.

For our ASTP archives, more detailed files were obtained from the Apollo Spacecraft Program Office, where Betty Cornett, Mary F. Crocker, and Betty Sue Fedderson of Glynn Lunney's staff kept track of the day-to-day aspects of the project. Lunney's files were the most useful to us since much of their contents was written from the vantage point of the Project Manager. Key materials were brought together in these files, representing the documents that Lunney and his staff thought to be the most important. More routine materials and all official record copies were filed in the ASPO Correspondence and Records Office. We owe a debt of thanks to Virginia Trotter who guided us through that maze of documents, permitting us to borrow armloads of folders at a time.

Another boon to our document collection came when we were placed on the distribution list for all correspondence sent from the Apollo Program Office. In turn, this office also distributed the correspondence it received. Starting early in April 1 974, we had a reading file of our own with which we could keep abreast of current project activities. After the mission, the Working Group chairmen and other participants sent us boxes of their personal reading files and other working materials. We sorted through these, weeding out the duplicates and the materials that were too detailed. Exercising historical judgment, we tried to preserve copies of all items that we used in our source notes and any additional materials that might help future historians who would wish to pursue a particular point in more detail.

These JSC materials were supplemented by documents acquired from NASA Headquarters. George Low and his secretary, Shirley Malloy, were very gracious in sending us copies of such pertinent materials as trip reports from his files. Secretary Donna Skidmore and other members of Chester M. Lee's staff were also very helpful when it came to providing copies of documents from Captain Lee's reading files. After the splashdown, Lee's reading files were retired to the Headquarters History Office. Archivist Lee D. Saegesser promptly sent us these folders so we could check them against our holdings. In addition, throughout our work on ASTP, Saegesser has inundated us weekly with news clippings (Soviet and American), translations of Soviet journal articles, and numerous other items related to the joint project. Saegesser's presence in Washington and his complete enthusiasm for helping researchers saved us many hours of searching for specific documents and several trips to Headquarters.

When pulled together and arranged in chronological order, these letters, memoranda, trip reports, and minutes of telephone conversations formed the backbone of the ASTP history skeleton. The most formal of these items were the letters. The agency usually employs letters to communicate with the outside world and formally within NASA. We found letters to the Soviets, to members of Congress, to Defense Department personnel, and to the scientific community. During ASTP, all project-related letters between the United States and the Soviet Union were channeled through the respective ASTP Technical Directors, Lunney and Bushuyev. Letters from NASA were sent over Lunney's signature. From JSC, the letter went to Chet Lee's office, which in turn sent it to Arnold Frutkin's International Affairs office. It would then be delivered to the State Department for dispatch to the Soviet Union via diplomatic pouch. The American Embassy in Moscow delivered the letter to Bushuyev at the Soviet Academy of Sciences. All letters to the Soviets were sent in English. All letters from the U.S.S.R. were received in Russian. Each side translated the correspondence it received.

Telexes were generally used for high priority communications. These TWXs included messages to other NASA centers, to other government agencies, to contractors, and to the Soviets. Like telephone conversations, the telex gave Lunney and Bushuyev much quicker and more direct communication. It became a very valuable management tool in the course of preparing for the joint mission.

By far the most common form of communication we encountered was the memorandum, which NASA uses for most internal correspondence. We have chosen to cite these by the names of the author and addressee rather than by the mail codes generally used by NASA. Memos cover a variety of subjects. For example, trip reports from NASA engineers, negotiators, and astronauts were distributed in memo form so Lunney and others could get a better idea of what happened on the working trips to the Soviet Union.

Because we live in the era of the telephone, many actions and decisions were not recorded in formal documents. Therefore, we found it particularly helpful to interview the participants frequently, either by telephone or in person. Interviewing is both the strength and the weakness of contemporary history. With interviews, we obtained explanations of cryptic or confusing documents or gathered insights not recorded in the official records. The joint minutes of the Working Group meetings were distilled; interviews often gave us opportunities to discover what lay behind certain diplomatically phrased passages. Or when we encountered briefing charts that gave us only a clue to an important story, the interview supplied the details.

But interviews are also a potential hazard. Individuals can selectively remember some facts and as conveniently forget others, so we always made an effort to confirm any one version of an event with documentation and other interviews. A more common problem was the failure to remember at all. Engineers and technical managers at NASA shared a common tendency to forget about a project or event once it had passed. Always looking at today's technical problems or concerns, they often do not remember earlier crises because they were resolved. Therefore, it was frequently necessary for us to have a document or photograph in hand with which to jog memories. A common response was, "I'd forgotten all about that until now." Clearly, problems ceased to be problems - sometimes ceased to exist - once they were solved. However, one of the values of writing a history so close to the events is to preserve elements of the past that might otherwise not be recorded or might simply disappear from memory. Many readers of our comment edition reacted the same way - "Did all that really happen?"

The interviews we collected vary in length and detail. Some were lengthy conversations that were tape recorded and transcribed. Others were short 5- to 15-minute discussions about specific topics; for example, the reaction control system (RCS) impingement problem discussed in chapter IX. Still others were conducted over the telephone with only notes for a record. At all times, we received only the fullest cooperation. The following persons aided us through interviews:

(# = More than one interview.)

Anderson, Oscar E., Jr.

Biggs, Charles A., Sr.

Brand, Vance D.#

Brzezinski, M. S.

Burke, Roger A.

Cernan, Eugene A.#

Cheatham, Donald C.

Covington, Clarke#

Creasy, William K.#

Culbertson, Philip E.

Cundieff, Lonnie D.

Dietz, R. H.#

Donnelly, John P.#

Epstein, Donalyn#

Frutkin, Arnold W.#

Gilruth, Robert R.

Guy, Walter W.#

Haken, Richard L.

Handler, Philip (By letter only.)

Hardy, George B.

Hawkins, W. Royce

Holmes, Tamara

Jaax, James R.

James, Bennett W.

Johnson, Caldwell C.#

Jones, James C.

King, John W.

Kraft, Christopher C.#

Latter, Natalie

Lee, Chester M.

Lee, Roscoe

Low, George M.

Lunney, Glynn S.#

Nicholson, Leonard S.#

Overmyer, Robert F.#

Paine, Thomas O. (By letter only.)

Pollock, S. T.

Riley, John E.#

Roberts, James Leroy

Ross, Thomas O.

Scott, David R.

Shafer, Robert J.#

Slayton, Donald K.#

Smith, Herbert E.

Smylie, Robert E.#

Stafford, Thomas P.

Syromyatnikov, V. S.

Tatistcheff, Alex

Taub, Willard M.#

Taylor, Ada

Timacheff, Nicholas#

Travis, A. Don

Waite, J. C.

Webb, James E. (Interview by someone other than the authors)

White, Robert D.

Three other individuals that deserve our thanks are Mary Kerber, who helped us with the typing and retyping; Robert V. Gordon from the JSC Public Affairs Office, who always made sure that we knew about ASTP briefings for the press, news releases, and other pertinent activities; and Andrew R. Patnesky, JSC Photographer, who supplied us with so many excellent photographs of ASTP activities.

Another category of source material deserves special mention - the responses we received on the comment edition of this history. Early in December 1975, we distributed 135 copies of our draft. The comments this early version brought varied considerably in scope, format, and value, but a number were very useful in completing the final manuscript and in saving us from embarrassing mistakes. Those who commented were:

Anderson, Oscar E.

Brand, Vance D.

Brieseth, Christopher

Compton, W. David

Covert, Elizabeth R.

Covington, Clarke

Creasy, William K.

Dietz, R. H.

Donnelly, John P.

Emme, Eugene M.

Epstein, Donalyn

Forostenko, Anatole

Frutkin, Arnold W.

Gates, Sally D.

Giuli, R. Thomas

Grimwood, James M.

Guy, Walter W.

Hall, R. Cargill

Hecht, Kenneth F.

Holley, I. B.

Huss, Carl R.

Jaax, James R.

King, John W.

Kraft, Christopher C.

Kranzberg, Melvin

Larson, Ray

Lavroff, Ross

Lee, Chester M.

Lockyer, William

Low, George M.

Lunney, Glynn S.

Maines, Howard G.

Morton, Louis

Nicholson, Leonard S.

Riley, John E.

Roberts, James Leroy

Roland, Alex

Shafer, Robert J.

Slayton, Donald K.

Smith, Herbert E.

Smylie, Robert E.

Stafford, Thomas P.

Taub, Willard M.

Taylor, Ada

Timacheff, Nicholas

Underwood, Richard W.

White, Robert D.

Wright, Monte D.

Young, Kenneth A.

Zavoico, Irene

In addition to the correspondence and project documentation, we used NASA news releases, transcripts of press conferences, mission-related briefings, and the air-to-ground transcripts to add life and human interest to the text. Equally useful at times were technical reports prepared by the contractors. Unlike earlier programs, ASTP did not generate a large number of press kits or handbooks for the mission, but we did find those generated during the lunar flights to be quite useful regarding the Apollo spacecraft and the Saturn launch vehicle. ASTP produced many public affairs firsts. Among these news materials, one unique pair of documents was developed for the joint mission - the bilingual editions of NASA, "Apollo Soyuz Test Project Kit" [July 1975], and Soviet Academy of Sciences, "Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Information for Press" [July 1975].

The reader is invited to peruse the chapter notes for other source materials not mentioned.

Attachment 1 - Complete List Of Identified ASTP Documents

ASTP 10 000
Project Technical Proposal

Planning Documents

ASTP 20 000, Part I
Organization Plan for Apollo Soyuz
ASTP 20 000, Part II
Organization Plan Part II
ASTP 20 010
Transportation of Equipment between the USSR and the USA
ASTP 20 020
ASTP Glossary
ASTP 20 021
ASTP Acronyms and Abbreviations
ASTP 20 022
Representative Crew Communications
ASTP 20 050, Part I
ASTP Public Information Plan - Part I
ASTP 20 050, Part II
ASTP Public Information Plan - Part II

Safety Assessment Reports

ASTP 20 101
Safety Assessment Report for the Apollo Structural Ring Latches
ASTP 20 102
Safety Assessment Report for Apollo Propulsion and Control Systems
ASTP 20 103
Safety Assessment Report for Apollo Fire Safety and Flammability
ASTP 20 104
Safety Assessment Report for Apollo Pyrotechnic Devices
ASTP 20 105
Safety Assessment Report for Apollo Cabin Pressure
ASTP 20 106
Safety Assessment Report for Apollo Manufacturing, Test and Checkout
ASTP 20 107
Safety Assessment Report for Apollo Radio Command Systems
ASTP 20 201
Safety Assessment Report for the Soyuz Structural Ring Latches
ASTP 20 202
Safety Assessment Report for Soyuz Propulsion and Control Systems
ASTP 20 203
Safety Assessment Report for Soyuz Fire Safety and Flammability
ASTP 20 204
Safety Assessment Report for Soyuz Pyrotechnic Devices
ASTP 20 205
Safety Assessment Report for Soyuz Cabin Pressure
ASTP 20 206
Safety Assessment Report for Soyuz Manufacturing, Test and Checkout
ASTP 20 207
Safety Assessment Report for Soyuz Radio Command System

Scheduling Documents

ASTP 30 000
Project Schedule Documents

Mission Documents

ASTP 40 000
Mission Requirements
ASTP 40 001
Design Characteristics for Soyuz and Apollo
ASTP 40 010
Onboard Television and Photography Plan
ASTP 40 012
Activity Plan for Apollo and Soyuz Mockups
ASTP 40 100
Launch Window Plan
ASTP 40 200
Trajectory Plan
ASTP 40 201
Trajectory Computation Model
ASTP 40 300
Flight Plan Guidelines
ASTP 40 301
Joint Crew Activities Plan
ASTP 40 400
Mission Operations Plan
ASTP 40 401
Control Centers Interaction Plan
ASTP 40 402
Prelaunch Preparation Plan
ASTP 40 500
Contingency Plan
ASTP 40 600
Onboard Joint Operations Instructions
ASTP 40 700
Crew and Ground Personnel Training Plan
ASTP 40 701
Summary Training Plan for USA/USSR Flight Controllers
ASTP 40 702
Checkout Program of Ground Personnel Interaction Procedures in December 1974
ASTP 40 703
Control Centers Training Plan with Crew Participation in March 1975
ASTP 40 704
Control Centers Training Plan with Crew Participation for May 1975
ASTP 40 705
Control Centers Training Plan with Crew Participation for June 1975
ASTP 40 706
Plan for Specialists and Flight Crew Activities with Flight Spacecraft at the American and Soviet Launch Complexes
ASTP 40 800
Post Mission Report

Interacting Equipment Documents

IED 50 001
Technical Requirements for Compatible Docking Systems for the Apollo Soyuz Test Project
IED 50 002
Apollo Soyuz Joint Development Plan, Docking Systems
IED 50 003
Test Plan for Scale Models of Apollo Soyuz Docking System
IED 50 004
Apollo Soyuz Physical Interface Requirements
IED 50 005
Apollo Soyuz Docking System Load Requirements
IED 50 006
Apollo Soyuz Docking System Thermal Interface
IED 50 007
USSR Ground Support Equipment USA Docking System Equipment, Mechanical and Electrical Interface Requirements
IED 50 008
USA Ground Support Equipment/USSR Docking System Equipment, Mechanical and Electrical Interface Requirements
IED 50 009
Apollo Soyuz Joint Development Test Plan, Docking Systems
IED 50 010
Apollo Soyuz Joint Qualification Test Plan, Docking Systems
IED 50 011
Apollo Soyuz Preflight Compatibility Verification Test Plan, Docking Systems
IED 50 012
Results of Apollo Soyuz Docking Systems Scale Model Tests
IED 50 013
Results of Apollo Soyuz Docking Systems Development Tests
IED 50 014
Results of Apollo Soyuz Docking Systems Qualification Tests
IED 50 015
Results of Apollo Soyuz Docking Systems Preflight Compatibility Verification Test
IED 50 016
Apollo Soyuz Docking System Sequence of Docking and Undocking
IED 50 101
Technical Requirements for the Radio Communications and Ranging System
IED 50 102
Interface Signal Characteristics for the Radio Communications and Ranging System
IED 50 103
Compatibility Test Plan for the Communications Systems
IED 50 104, Part I
Compatibility Test Procedures for the Radio Communications and Ranging System
IED 50 104, Part II
Compatibility Test Results for the Radio Communications and Ranging System
IED 50 105
Soyuz Test System/Compatibility Test Laboratory Interface Requirements
IED 50 106
Inflight VHF Coverage Analysis
IED 50 107
Circuit Margins for the Radio Communication and Ranging System
IED 50 108
Definition of Terms and Abbreviations for the Radio Communications and Ranging System
IED 50 109
Development Plan for the Radio Communications and Ranging System
IED 50 110
Test Procedure and Results for the Implementation of the Apollo VHF Transceiver and Range Tone Transfer Assembly into the Soyuz Spacecraft
IED 50 112
Report on Investigation of Radio Frequency Effects of Apollo Soyuz and Ground Transmitter on Spacecraft Receivers
IED 50 113
Radio Frequency Interference Compatibility Data
IED 50 114
Apollo VHF Equipment Management Requirements
IED 50 115
Plan for Implementation of the Apollo VHF Equipment into the Soyuz Spacecraft
IED 50 116
Preflight Compatibility Verification Test Plan, Apollo VHF Equipment
IED 50 117
Apollo VHF/AM Equipment Preflight Verification Procedures and Results
IED 50 118
Preflight Compatibility Verification Test Plan, VHF/FM Equipment
IED 50 119
Preflight Test Procedures and Results, VHF/ FM Equipment
IED 50 120
VHF/AM Ground Test Equipment Calibration Procedures
IED 50 121
VHF/AM Flight Equipment and Ground Test Equipment/Test Procedures
IED 50 201
Technical Requirements for the Docking Alinement Targets
IED 50 202
Verification Test Plan for Docking Alinement Targets
IED 50 203
Results of Verification Testing of Docked Alinement Targets
IED 50 205
Development Plan for Implementation of the Docked Alinement Target
IED 50 301
Technical Requirements for External Lights
IED 50 401
Technical Requirements for Stabilization and Control System
IED 50 402
Verification Test Plans of Stabilization and Control Systems
IED 50 403
Verification Test Results of Stabilization and Control Systems
IED 50 404
Docking Initial Contact Condition Criteria
IED 50 405
Nominal and Contingency Control Procedures for Docking, Docked and Undocking Operations
IED 50 406
Axis Convention To Be Used for Spacecraft Maneuver Definitions
IED 50 501
Technical Requirements, Inter-Control Center Communications System
IED 50 502
Development Plan, Inter-Control Center Communications System
IED 50 503
Test Plan, Inter-Control Center Communications System
IED 50 504
Test Procedures and Test Results, InterControl Center Communications System
IED 50 505
Inter-Control Center Communications Maintenance and Operations Procedures
IED 50 506
Message Format Conventions Inter-Control Center Communications System
IED 50 507
Television Line Transmission Schedule
IED 50 601
Cable Communications Requirements
IED 50 602
Development Plan for Cable Communications
IED 50 603
Cable Communications Preflight Compatibility Verification Test Plan
IED 50 604
Cable Communications Preflight Compatibility Verification Test Procedures and Results
IED 50 605
Plan for Preflight Tests for Electromagnetic Compatibility of Cable Communications Terminal Devices
IED 50 606
Procedures for Preflight Tests for Electromagnetic Compatibility of Cable Communications Terminal Devices
IED 50 607
Test Plan and Procedures for TV Lighting and Fit Checks of USA Terminal Devices in the Soyuz Mockup in Moscow
IED 50 608
Report of Joint Test on the Apollo Flight Spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center
IED 50 609
Report on the Joint Tests on the Soyuz Flight Spacecraft at Baikonur Launch Site
IED 50 701
Command Module Environment Definition
IED 50 702
Docking Module Environment Definition
IED 50 703
Soyuz Environment Definition
IED 50 704
Soyuz/DM Environment Interface Definition
IED 50 706
General Operational Description of the Systems for Environmental Control and Crew Transfer in the Docking Module
IED 50 715
Fire Safety Control Requirements for Materials Transferred from Apollo to Soyuz
IED 50 716
Apollo Atmosphere Toxicological Requirements
IED 50 717
Soyuz Atmosphere Toxicological Requirements
IED 50 719
Crew Transfer Operations Definition
IED 50 720
Materials Fire Safety Certification for USA Equipment Transferred to Soyuz
IED 50 721
Materials Fire Safety Certification for USSR Equipment Transferred to Apollo
IED 50 722
USA Radio Equipment/Soyuz Structure Thermal Interaction
IED 50 723
Functional Description of the Provisions for Transfer and Mixed Crew Presence in Soyuz Spacecraft
IED 50 724
Analysis of Non-Nominal Situations Involving the Soyuz Life Support Systems and Apollo Environmental Control Systems
IED 50 725
General Operational Description of Command Module Environmental Control System
IED 50 726
Report on Results of Soyuz Life Support System and Transfer Provision Tests
IED 50 727
Environmental Control System Test and Operational Verification of the Apollo Spacecraft
IED 50 728
Assessment of the Joint Operation of the Soyuz Life Support System and Apollo Environmental Control System Based on Independent Testing and Flight Experience
IED 50 729
Report of Flight Readiness of the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Transfer Provisions for the Soyuz and Apollo Spacecraft for Joint Operations in ASTP
IED 50 803
Solar Eclipse
IED 50 804
Zone-Forming Fungi
IED 50 805
Microbial Exchange
IED 50 806
Furnace System Experiment
IED 50 807
Ultra-Violet Absorption Experiment

Attachment 2 - "Data File of Soviet Meeting July 6-18, 1972"

1.0 Signed Documents and Meeting Minutes

The ASTP/Interacting Equipment Documents (IED) documents and summary minutes signed on 17 July 1972 were placed in the vaults the week of 7 August 1972. The masters are available for reproduction on an as required basis. These documents include:

  1. ASTP 10 000
  2. ASTP 20 000, Part I
  3. ASTP 30 000
  4. MSC 05 887
  5. IED 50 001
  6. IED 50 002
  7. IED 50 004 Reproducibles
  8. IED 50 101
  9. IED 50 201
  10. IED 50 205
  11. IED 50 301
  12. IED 50 401
  13. IED 50 402
  14. IED 50 404
  15. IED 50 601
  16. IED 50 602
  17. IED 50 701
  18. IED 50 702
  19. IED 50 703
  20. Signed Summary Minutes All Working Groups


2.0 Data Provided by USA

2.1 Preliminary Documents

2.1.1

ASTP 40 100

Launch Window

2.1.2

ASTP 40 200

Trajectory Plan

2.1.3

ASTP 40 300

Crew Activities Plan

2.1.4

ASTP 40 400

Mission Operations Plan

2.1.5

ASTP 40 500

Contingency Plan

2.1.6

ASTP 40 600

Detailed Operational Procedures

2.1.7

ASTP 40 700

Training Plan

2.1.8

IED 50 005

Functional Requirement Loads & Bending Moment

2.1.9

IED 50 006

Functional Requirement, Docked Thermal Interface

2.1.10

IED 50 102 (BUILD)

Performance and Interface Signal Characteristics for RF Communications & Ranging System (BUILD)

2.1.11

IED 50 102 (EXCHANGE)

Performance and Interface Signal Characteristics for RF Communications & Ranging System (EXCHANGE)

2.1.12

IED 50 103 (BUILD)

Compatibility Test Plan for RF Communications and Ranging System (BUILD)

2.1.13

IED 50 103 (EXCHANGE)

Compatibility Test Plan for RF Communications and Ranging System (EXCHANGE)

2.1.14

IED 50 109

Development Plan, Apollo VHF Transceiver and Range Tone Transfer to Soyuz Spacecraft

2.1.15

IED 50 110 (EXCHANGE)

Development Plan, Soyuz VHF-FM Transfer to Apollo Spacecraft (EXCHANGE)

2.1.16

IED 50 113
(This number was formerly
IED 50 507.)

RFI Compatibility Data Requirements

2.1.17

IED 50 202

Verification Test Plan, Installation of Docking Alinement Target

2.1.18

IED 50 203

Results, Verification Test Plan, Installation of Docking Alinement Target

2.1.19

IED 50 302

Verification Test Plan, External Light System for Rendezvous and Docking

2.1.20

IED 50 303

Results, Verification Testing, External Light System for Rendezvous and Docking

2.1.21

IED 50 709

Liquid Cooled Garment Definition

2.1.22

IED 50 711

Pressure Garment Assembly Definition

2.1.23

IED 50 712

Extravehicular Visor Assembly Definition

2.2.24

IED 50 713

Emergency Oxygen Purge System Definition

2.1.25

IED 50 715

Flammability Control Requirements for Transferred Materials

2.1.26

IED 50 716

Toxicological Considerations

2.2 Other Data Provided by USA

2.2.1

WG 1

Item 1

Presentation material

Item 2

Mission model

Item 3

Proposed agenda

2.2.2

WG 3

Outline of Apollo/Soyuz Docking System Dynamics Testing

2.2.3

WG 4

2.2.3.1

Preliminary Apollo VHF Transceiver Control Panel Interconnections for Installation in Soyuz

2.2.3.2

Range Tone Transfer Assembly Specification Control Drawing LSC 380-00080

2.2.3.3**

Outline and Mounting-Transceiver Assembly, VHF-RCA Drawing 8359401

2.2.3.4**

Interconnections Diagram-Transceiver Assembly, VHF-RCA Drawing 8359363

2.2.3.5

Operating Description of the Apollo/Skylab Television Camera

2.2.3.6

Color photographs (4) of television camera equipment***

2.2.3.7

System configuration - Westinghouse Drawing 2 RD 2600 - 10 sheets

2.2.3.8

Color television outline - RCA Drawing 2265870

2.2.3.9

Ground Commanded Television Assembly Operation and Checkout Manual

2.2.3.10

Ground Commanded Television Assembly Interim Final Report

2.2.4

WG 5

Data package

Information provided by Working Group 5 for the purpose of preparing material for future meetings

Item 2

Issues

Item 3

First Transfer Sequence

Item 5

Technical Comparison

Item 6

Docking Module Failure Conditions

3.0 Data Provided by USSR

3.1 Preliminary Documents

3.1.1

ASTP 10 000

Draft of Technical Proposals for the Experimental Soyuz/Apollo Flight, dated June, 1972. USA State Department Translation attached.

3.1.2

ASTP 10 000

Technical Proposals for Experimental Flight Soyuz/Apollo (Plan), dated July 5, 1972. NASA translated copy attached.

3.1.3

ASTP 20 000

Organization Plan (Draft). NASA translation attached.

3.1.4

ASTP 20 000

Remarks and Additions to the U.S.A. Document - "Proposed Organization Plan for Apollo/Salyut Mission." NASA translation attached.

3.1.5

ASTP 30 000

Project Schedule Document. NASA translation attached.

3.1.6

IED 50 101

General Requirements for the Soviet Communications System and American Communications and Ranging System for the Experimental Flight "Apollo-Soyuz." NASA translated copy attached.

3.1.7

IED 50 102

Agreement on Signal Characteristics on the Soviet and American Working Frequencies to Ensure the First Apollo-Soyuz Test Flight. NASA translated copy attached.

3.1.8

IED 50 103

Volume and Order of Testing for Compatibility the Radio Equipment for Communications and Range for the First Experimental Flight "Apollo-Soyuz." NASA translated copy attached.

3.1.9

IED 50 104

Determination of Terminology and Abbreviations Used in the Document on Radio Communications and Ranging during Preparation for the First Experimental Flight. NASA translated copy attached.

3.1.10

IED 50 301

General Technical Requirements for External Lights in the USSR Orbital Spacecraft "Soyuz" Performing Rendezvous and Docking with the USA Spacecraft "Apollo." NASA translation attached.

3.1.11

IED 50 305

Test Plans and Procedures for Verification Testing of the USSR Orbital Spacecraft "Soyuz," Performing Rendezvous and Docking with the USA Spacecraft "Apollo." NASA translation attached.

3.1.12

IED 50 306

Verification Test Results for External Lights on the USSR Orbital Spacecraft "Soyuz." Performing Rendezvous and Docking with the USA Spacecraft "Apollo." NASA translation attached.

3.2 Other Data

3.2.1

Russian report

Investigation of Docking Targets. State Department translation only.

3.2.2

Russian report

Systems of Differential Equations of Motion of a Spacecraft with Consideration of the Movement of the Liquid Charge in the Tanks during the Operational Mode of a Correcting Engine. State Department translation only.

3.2.3

Description of the VHF Transceiver for Spacecraft to Spacecraft Communications During the Joint Apollo Soyuz Flight and Rendezvous - "Vetka" Preliminary Project. NASA translation attached.

3.2.4

Voice cable communications diagram

3.2.5

Television diagram

3.2.6

Materials for the agreed upon Parameters of the Docking System Providing a Compatible USSR & USA Design

4.0 Agendas

4.1

Telegram

4.2

Proposed Agenda

4.3

Overall Agenda

4.4

Detail Plan

4.5

Social Agenda

5.0 Photographs

S-72-43527

S-72-43528

S-72-43529

S-72-43530

S-72-43531

S-72-43532

S-72-43533

S-72-43534

S-72-43535

S-72-43536

S-72-43537

S-72-43538

S-72-43539

S-72-43540

S-72-43541

S-72-43542

S-72-43543

S-72-43544

S-72-43545

S-72-43757

S-72-43758

S-72-44143

S-72-44144

S-72-44165

S-72-44166

S-72-44298

S-72-44299

S-72-44300

S-72-44301

S-72-44302

S-72-44303

S-72-44304

S-72-44305

S-72-44306

S-72-44307

S-72-44308

S-72-44309

S-72-43310

S-72-44311

S-72-44312

S-72-44313

S-72-44314

S-72-44315

S-72-44316

S-72-44317

S-72-44318

S-72-44319

S-72-44320

S-72-44321

S-72-44322

S-72-44323

S-72-44324

S-72-44326

S-72-44327

S-72-44328

S-72-44329

S-72-44330

S-72-44331

S-72-44332

S-72-44333

S-72-44334

S-72-44335

S-72-44336

S-72-44337

S-72-44338

S-72-44339

S-72-44340

S-72-44341

S-72-44342

S-72-44343

S-72-44344

S-72-44345

S-72-44346

S-72-44347

S-72-44348

S-72-44349

S-72-44350

S-72-44351

S-72-44352

S-72-44353

S-72-44354

S-72-44355

S-72-44356

S-72-44380

S-72-44381

S-72-44382

S-72-44383

S-72-44398

S-72-44399

S-72-44832

S-72-44833

S-72-44834

S-72-44835

S-72-44836

S-72-44837

S-72-44846

S-72-44847

S-72-44848

S-72-44849

S-72-44850

S-72-44851

S-72-44852

S-72-44871

S-72-44872

S-72-44873

S-72-44874

S-72-44875

S-72-44876

S-72-44877

S-72-44878

S-72-44879

S-72-44880

S-72-44881

S-72-44882

6.0 Debriefing Memos

6.1

Working Group 1

6.2

Working Group 2

6.3

Working Group 3 - none made

6.4

Working Group 4

6.5

Working Group 5

7.0 Results Presentation

7.1

Communique on Results of Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Meetings


* Boeing had a contract to manage ASTP technical documentation.

** 2.2.3-3 and 2.2.3.4 were Xerox copies reproduced from the blueprints and given to the Soviets; 8½- by 11-inch masters have been made of both documents; copies of these form part of the data stored.

*** Two color photographs of Westinghouse camera (color Vugraphs of same in EE files [Room 220, building 440]); RCA photo 72-1-61c of camera (copy in EE files); and fourth photo of different view of RCA camera (copy available in vendor file [RCA Astrionics Division]).


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