1 . Homer E. Newell, Jr., Sounding Rockets (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1959); William R. Corliss, NASA Sounding Rockets, 1958-1968, NASA SP-4401 (Washington. 1971).
2. William H. Pickering, "History of the Juno Cluster System," chap. 12 in Astronautical Engineering and Science, ed. Ernst Stuhlinger et al. (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1963).
3. Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., James M. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander. This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, 1966), pp. 21, 22, 341.
4. Constance McLaughlin Green and Milton Lomask, Vanguard: A History. NASA SP-4202 (Washington, 1970; Smithsonian Institution Press, 1971).
5. Ibid., p. 255.
6. Swenson et al., This New Ocean, chap. 13.
7. Green and Lomask, Vanguard, chap. 9.
8. As an illustration, see rpt. to Launch Vehicle Panel of Aeronautics and Astronautics Coordinating Board, "Intermediate-Class Launch Vehicles for Future DoD/NASA Manned Missions," prepared by Ad Hoc joint DoD/NASA Vehicle Working Group, typescript, Nov. 1968.
9. Robert A. Goddard, "A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes," in Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. vol. 71, no. 2 (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, Dec. 1919).
10. NASA, "A National Space Vehicle Program: A Report to the President" (Washington, 27 Jan. 1959); also Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences. Investigation Of Governmental Organization for Space Activities, hearings before Subcommittee on Governmental Organization for Space Activities, 86th Cong., 1st sm., 24 Mar.-7 May 1959, pp. 12-24.
11. Wernher von Braun and Frederick I. Ordway III, The History of Rocketry and Space Travel (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1966, rev. 1969). See also William R. Corliss, Scientific Satellites, NASA SP-133 (Washington, 1967), pp. 261-67.
12. Courtney G. Brooks, James M. Grimwood, Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft, NASA SP-4205 (Washington, 1979).
13. Roger E. Bilstein, Stages to Saturn: A Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn Launch Vehicles, NASA SP-4206, in press.
14. Robert L. Rosholt. An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1967, NASA SP-4101 (Washington. 1966), pp. 72-76, 110, 213. In February 1962 NASA and the Department of Defense signed an agreement that neither agency would undertake development of a Space launch vehicle without first obtaining the written acknowledgment of the other. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Astronautical and Aeronautical Events of 1962, 88th Cong., 1st sess., committee print, 12 June 1963, p. 21.
15. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Review of the. Soviet Space Program, 90th Cong.. 1st sess., committee print, 1967, pp. 5- 10.
16. Arnold W. Frulkin, International Cooperation in Space (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 134-37.
17. Ibid., p.45; Europe in Space (Paris: European Space Research Organization. 1974), . 180-81.
18. Air Force Systems Command, Air Force Eastern Test Range, a descriptive booklet prepared Office of Information, Hqs., Air Force Eastern Test Range, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Scientific and Technical Programs, hearings, 87th Cong., 1st sess., 28 Feb.-1 Mar. 1961, pp. 455-66; Henry R. Van Goey, "Western Test Range Operations Handbook" (Lompoc, Cal.: Kennedy Space Center, WTR, Jan. 1968); Helen T. Wells, Susan H. Whitely, and Carrie E. Karegeannes, Origins of NASA Names, NASA SP-4402 (Washington, 1976), pp. 149-50.
19. Joseph A. Shortal, A New Dimension: Wallops Island Flight Test Range, the First Fifteen Years, NASA RP- 1028 (Washington, 1978).
20. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Soviet Space Programs, 1966-1970, staff report, 92nd Cong., 1st sess. (9 Dec. 1971), pp. 126-28.
21. R. R.Teeter, "Foreign Space Launch Vehicle Performance Document," rpt. to NASA BMI-NLVP-DD-1(74) (Columbus. Ohio: Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories. 8Apr. 1971). pp. 30-37.
22. Frutkin, International Cooperation, pp. 54-57, 145-46.
23. William R. Corliss, Scientific Satellites; idem, "NASA Spacecraft," in the series America in Space/The First Decade (Washington: NASA, 1 Oct. 1968); idem, "Putting Satellites to Work," ibid.; idem. "Mall in Space", ibid.; John E. Naugle, Unmanned Space Flight (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 1965); Max Faget, Manned Space Flight (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966), William K. Widger, Jr., Meteorological Satellites (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966): Brooks et al., Chariots for Apollo; Wells et al., Origins of NASA Names; James J. Haggerty, Jr., Spacecraft (Washington: National Science Teachers Association, 1961). NASA Facts: B-62, "Orbiting Solar Observatory"; C-62, "Ariel: First International Satellite"; E-10-62, "The Explorer Satellites"; F-12-62, "Alouette-Canada's First Satellite"; G-12-62, "Project Relay"; A-1-63, "Explorer XVI: The Micrometeoroid Satellite"; Vol. 2, no. 1, "Interplanetary Explorer Satellites"; Vol. 2, no. 7, "Nimbus"; vol. 2, no. 8, "Manned Space Flight: Projects Mercury and Gemini"; Vol. 2, no. 9, "Mariner IV"; Vol. 2, no. 10, "Biosatellites"; Vol. 2, no. 12, "TIROS"; Vol. 2, no. 13, "Orbiting Geophysical Observatory"; Vol. 2, no. 14, "Project Syncom"; Vol. 2, no. 15, "Pegasus"; Vol. 3, no. 2, "Project Ranger"; Vol. 3, no. 4, "Explorer XXIX (The Geodetic Explorer)"; Vol. 3, no. 7, "Orbiting Solar Observatory"; Vol. 4, no. 1, "Gemini Pictorial"; NF-31, Vol. 4, no. 3, -The Pioneer Spacecraft"; NF-32, Vol. IV, no. 4, "Lunar Orbiter"; NF-35, Vol. 4, no. 6, "Surveyor"; NF-23, Vol. 4, no. 7, "Manned Space Flight: Apollo"; NF-39/2-68, "Mariner Spacecraft: Planetary Trailblazers". NF-43/1-72, "Skylab" (all Washington); Newell Files, box 40. Geophysics and Astronomy in Space Exploration, NASA SP-13; Lunar and Planetary Sciences in Space Exploration, NASA SP-14; Celestial Mechanics and Space Flight Analysis, NASA SP-15; Data Acquisition from Spacecraft, NASA SP-16; Control, Guidance, and Navigation of Spacecraft, NASA SP-17; Bioastronautics, NASA SP-18; Chemical Rocket Propulsion, NASA SP-19; Nuclear Rocket Propulsion, NASA SP-20; Power for Spacecraft, NASA SP-21; Electric Propulsion for Spacecraft, NASA SP-22; Aerodynamics of Space Vehicles, NASA SP-23; Gas Dynamics for Space Exploration, NASA SP-24; Plasma Physics and Magnelohydrodynamics in Space Exploration, NASA SP-25; Laboratory Techniques in Space Environment Research, NASA SP-26; Materials for Space Operations, NASA SP-27; Structures for Space Operations, NASA SP-28 (all Washington, Dec. 1962).
24. Samuel Glasstone, Sourcebook on the Space Sciences (New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1965). p. 31. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1961, hearings, 86th Cong., 2d sess., pt. 1. 28-30 Mar. 1960, p. 312.
25. Lloyd Berkner to George Kisdakowsky, 13 Nov. 1959. NF7(112); H. E. Newell. memo to file, conference rpt. of meeting of Space Science Panel of President's Science Advisory Committee at Institute of Radio Engineers, New York, 18 Dec. 1959, NF12(173).
26. Charles D. Benson and W. D. Compton. A History of Skylab, in process; Edward C. Ezell and Linda N. Ezell. The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, NASA SP-4209 (Washington, 1978).
27. Joseph F. Saunders, ed., The Experiments of Biosatellite II, NASA SP-204 (Washington, 1971).
28. Newell, conference rpt. on meeting of Space Science Panel, 18 Dec. 1959, NF12(173).
29. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Science, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1976, hearings, 94th Cong., 1st sess., pt. 2, 18, 19 Mar. 1975. pp. 394-401.
30. Senate Committee, Soviet Space Programs, 1966-1970, pp. 198-209.
31. William R. Corliss, Histories of the Space Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (STADAN), the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN), and the NASA Communications Network (NASCOM), NASA CR- 140.390 (Washington, June 197-1).
32. Corliss, A History of the Deep Space Network, NASA CR-151915 (Washington. I May 1976).
33. Corliss, Histories of STADAN, MSFN, and NASCOM.
34. "Areas of Research in the NASA Space Sciences Program," 10 Feb. 1959, typescript; "The United States National Space Sciences Program," 10 Feb. 1959. typescript. typing paper on plans for a biosciences program, 30 Mar. 1959; "NASA Program Planning on Space Sciences." Apr. 1960. typescript; all NF2(33),-Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1961, hearings, 86th Cong., 2d sess., pt. 2, Scientific and Technical Aspects of NASA Program, 30 June 1960, pp. 575-632.
35. Senate Committee, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1961. pt. 2, Scientific and Technical Aspects of NASA Program, 1960, p. 786: idem, NASA Scientific and Technical Programs, 1961, pp. 31-35: Green and Lomask. Vanguard.
36. Eugene M. Emme, Aeronautics and Astronautics: An American Chronology of Science and Technology in the Exploration of Space, 1915-1960 (Washington: NASA, 1961), p. 102.
37. NASA, "Historical Pocket Statistics" (Washington, Jan. 1972). P. A-13.
38. Newell, memo for files, 16 Div. 1960, NF12(176).
39. J. A. Simpson to Newell, 30Aug. l96l, NF13(193).
40. Berkner to Kistiakowsky, 13 Nov. 1959, encl. p. 6, NF7(112), among other matters raised the question of backups for space science flights. NASA's response to Berkner's questions was given in T. Keith Glennan to Kistiakowsky, 3 Dec. 1959, NF7(112).
41. Glennan to Alan Waterman, 29 May 1959, NF11(171). Waterman, director of the National Science Foundation, no doubt prompted by the Space Science Board, had queried NASA as to agency policy on providing backups for its missions. See also Newell, conference rpt. on Space Science Board meeting, 11 Mar. 1960, typescript, NF6(106).
42. Green and Lomask, Vanguard, pp. 208-12.
43. Ibid., pp. 98-106. Author's notebook, 30 Sept.-5 Oct. 1957, NF(28), records Richard Porter, U.S. delegate to CSAGI conference on rockets and satellites at National Academy of Sciences, Washington, as saying, in presenting the U.S. National Report, that America expects from Vanguard at least one success."
44. Roger E. Bilstein, Stages to Saturn: A Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn Launch Vehicle, NASA SP-4206, in press.
45. Charles S. Sheldon II, United States and Soviet Progress in Space: Summary Data through 1972 and a Forward Look, 73-69 SP (Washington: Library of Congress, 29 Jan. 1973). pp. 2-3.
46. Ibid., p. 3.
47. Senate Committee on Appropriations, Independent Offices Appropriations, 1961, hearings before Subcommittee, on H.R. 11776, 86th Cong., 2d sess., 1960, p. 276.
48. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1966 NASA Authorization, hearings before the Subcommittee on Science and Applications, 89th Cong., 1st sess., pt. 3,4-26 Mar. 1965, pp. 803-06.
49. Brooks et al, Chariots for Apollo, Senate Committee, Soviet Space Programs, 1966-1970, pp. 230-32.
50. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Investigation into Apollo 204 Accident, hearings, 90th Cong., 1st sess., vols. 1-3, 10 Apr.- 10 May 1967.
51. NASA Historical Div., Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1968: A Chronology on Science, Technology, and Policy, NASA SP-4010 (Washington, 1969), p. 157.
52. Idem, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1964, NASA SP-4005 (1965), p. 135.
53. Merton J. Peck and Frederic M. Scherer, The Weapons Acquisition Process. An Economic Analysis, (Boston: Harvard, Grad. Sch. of Bus. Admin., Div. of Res., 1962), p. 22.
54. D. D. Wyatt to NASA administrator, "NASA Cost Projections," 10 Apr. 1969, NF40.
55. Hans Mark to Wernher von Braun, 22 Apr. 1971, NF40.
56. House Committee, 1966 NASA Authorization, pp. 529, 1090-91.
57. Newell, conference rpt., Space Science Panel, 18 Dec. 1959, NF12(173).
58. R. Cargill Hall, Lunar Impact: A History of Project Ranger, NASA SP-4210 (Washington, 1977). pp. 252-54.
59. NASA chart on Centaur mission assignments. 27 Apr. 1962, NF72(32).
60. NASA, Office of Space Science and Applications, "Atlas Centaur Development Flight," Mission Operation Rpt. S-891-63-01 (Washington, 22 Nov. 1963), pp. 8-9.
61. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Centaur Program, hearings before Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications. 87th Cong., 2d sess., 15, 18 May 1962, and Centaur Launch Vehicle Development Program, H. rpt. 1959, 2 July 1962.
62. Arnold Levine, Managing NASA in the Apollo Era, in process.
66. Wyatt to NASA admin., "NASA Cost Projections."
67. Arnold Levine, Managing NASA.
68. NASA, OSSA Monthly Status Reports (Washington: Office of Space Science and Applications, NASA, Nov. 1966....); NASA Issuance NHB 2340.2, -OSSA/OART Project Management Information and Control System (MICS)" (Washington, 1 Nov. 1966), formalized publication of reviews of the status of projects which had been conducted monthly for the past three years.
69. Arnold Levine, Managing NASA.
70. NASA. "NASA Record of Performance" in "NASA Pocket Statistics." (Washington, Apr. 1976). p. 5.
71. NASA, "Historical Pocket Statistics" (Washington, Jan. 1972). pp. A-9 to A-11; ibid. (Jan. 1976). pp. C-3, C-5.