Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science

 

[483-484] Chapter 21 Source Notes

 

1. Meeting in Abe Silverstein's office between NASA and Weather Bureau representatives, author's notebooks, 12 Feb. 60, NF28; Hugh Dryden to F. Reicheldoerfer, 6 May 60, NF12(176); Dryden and. Luther Hodges, "Basic Agreement between the United States Department of Commerce and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration concerning Meteorological Satellite Systems," 30 June 1964, NF40.

2. Leonard Jaffe, Communications in Space (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966), pp. 107-13, 122-40, 152-60; House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Communications Satellites hearings, 87th Cong., 1st sess., 1, 8 May-13 July 1961; pt. 2, 14 July-10 Aug. 1961; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Communications Satellites: Technical, Economic, and International Developments, staff rpt., 87th Cong., 2d sess., 25 Feb. 1962. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Communications Satellite Legislation, hearings, 87th Cong., 2d sess.4 27 Feb-7 Mar. 1962; Senate Committee on Commerce, Communications Satellite Incorporators, hearings, 88th Cong., 1st sess., 11 Mar. 1963; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1964, pt. 1, Scientific and Technical Programs, 88th Cong., 1st sess., 24-30 Apr. 1963, pp. 422-24.

3. Robert L. Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1963, NASA SP-4101 (Washington, 1966), p. 130.

4. Working papers of NASA's space science div. summarizing space science program, 17 Jan. 59, NFI l(l 70); space science div., "Areas of Research in the NASA Space Sciences Program," mimeographed, 48 pp., 10 Feb. 1959; idem, "The United States National Space Sciences Program," mimeographed, 10 Feb. 1959; idem, "National Space Sciences Program" mimeographed, 16 Apr. 1959; idem, "NASA Program Planning in Space Sciences," mimeographed, Apr. 1960, all NF2(33); Homer E. Newell, "The NASA Space Sciences Program," mimeographed, 20 Mar. 1961, NF1.

5. Note space science div. paper, "NASA Space Sciences Long Range Program," Oct. 1959, whereas three-quarters of a year later a similar document was entitled "Long Range Thinking in Space Sciences," July 1960; NASA History Office files.

6. "Long Range Thinking in Space Sciences," Oct. 1960; "NASA Program Planning in Space Sciences," Nov. 60; and "NASA Program Planning in Space Sciences," Nov. 61; all in NASA History Office files.

7. H. E. Newell to Space Science Steering Committee et al., 11 Sept. 1962, NASA History Office files.

8. See, for example, "Prospectus," NASA Office of Space Sciences, Nov. 62, NASA History Office files.

9. See, for example, The Budget of the United States Government for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1964 (Washington, 1963), Append. pp. 781-87. See also the 5-vol. "Budget Estimates. Fiscal Year 1964," which NASA prepared and distributed to the Congressional committees, giving extensive detail on the budget request; these were used in the budget defense before Congress.

10. Jane Van Nimmen and Leonard Bruno with Robert L. Rosholt, NASA Historical Data Book, 1958-1968, vol. 1, NASA Resources, NASA SP-4012 (Washington, 1976), p. 118; also NASA, "Chronological History: Fiscal Year 1969 Budget Submission" (final rpt., 14 Oct. 1968); 1970 (final rpt. 5 Dec. 1969); 1971 (final rpt. 11 June 1971); 1972 (final rpt. 30 Aug. 1971); 1973 (final rpt. 5 Sept. 1972); all in NASA History Office files.

11. Van Nimmen, et al., NASA Historical Data Book, pp. 118, 134-49; Aeronautics and Space Report of the President, 1976 Activities (Washington: NASA, 1977), p. 107; Report to the Congress from the President of the United States. United States Aeronautics and Space Activities, 1966 (Washington: National Aeronautics and Space Council, 31 Jan. 1967), p. 166; "NASA Historical Pocket Statistics," Jan. 1974, pp. D-4, D-5.

12. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Scientists Testimony on Space Goals, hearings, 88th Cong., 1st sess., 10-11 June 1963, p. 3.

13. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Review of the Soviet Space Program, 90th Cong. 1st sess., rpt. prepared by Science Policy Research Div., Legislative Reference Service, Library of Congress, 1967, pp. 11-45. The referenced material compares Soviet and U.S. space accomplishments through the summer of 1967, to which time, despite the highly successful Gemini program, the preponderance of U.S. achievements was provided by the unmanned space science and applications programs.

14. For reductions in Ranger , see H. E. Newell to W. H. Pickering, 12 July 1963, JPL Historical Files 2-190; E. M. Cortright, memo for record, "Some Comments on the NASA Reorientation of the Ranger Programs," 15 July 1963, JPL Historical Files 2-719; Newell to Pickering, 13 Dec. 1963, JPL Historical Files 2-196. For retrenchments on Surveyor, see author's notebooks, 12 Dec. 1965: NF28. A year later 3 more Surveyors were eliminated from the program: NASA release 66-318 13 Dec. 1966.

15. NASA release 65-380. Also, see author's notebook, 12 Dec. 1965, NF28.

16. James E. Webb to the President, 30 Nov. 1962, NF40.

17. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1970, hearings, 91st Cong., 1st sess., 19 May 1969, pp. 505, 528, 555-58.

18. By way of illustration, see House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1965 NASA Authorization, hearings before Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, 88th Cong., 2d sess., pt. 3, 17 Feb.-3 Mar. 1964.

19. J. A. Van Allen to Hon. Walter Mondale, 29 June 1970, in Congressional Record-Senate, 6 July 1970, p. S10606; T. Gold to Sen. Walter Mondale, 3 July 1970, ibid., pp. S10608-09. See also Thomas Gold, "Machines, Not Men, in Space," New York Times Magazine, 22 Aug. 1971, pp. 14-30.

20. NASA, "Chronological History: Fiscal Year 1970 Budget Submission," through "Fiscal Year 1973 Budget Submission," (Washington, 1969-1973), in NASA History Office files.

21. House Committee on Science and Technology, Operational Cost Estimates: Space Shuttle, rpt. prepared by Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, 94th Cong., 2d sess., committee print, Dec. 1976; Space Shuttle, NASA SP-407 (Washington, 1976); NASA, "Environmental Impact Statement: Space Shuttle Program," draft, July 1977.

22. John V. Becker, "The X-15 Program in Retrospect," Raumfahriforschung, Mar.-Apr. 1969, pp. 45-53.

23. Jay Miller, "The X-Series," Aerophile 1, no. 2, Mar.-Apr. 1977, pp. 80-2, NF40.

24. For example, physicists Herbert Friedman, Lewis Branscomb, and Charles Townes; astronomer Gerard Kuiper; and engineers Raymond Bisplinghoff and H. Guyford Stever. See telephone conversation between Newell and Dale Grubb, 4 Jan. 1971, and telephone conversation between Newell and Gerard Kuiper, 8 June 197 1, NF29.

25. Space Science Board, Priorities for Space Research 1971-1980 (Washington: National Academy of Sciences, 1971).

26. Author's notebook, July 1970. NF28.

27. Ibid.

28. Ibid., 24 Oct. 1972.

29. Space Science Board, Scientific Uses of the Space Shuttle (Washington: National Academy of Sciences, 1974).


 

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