Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science

[459-461] Chapter 4 Source Notes

1. George K. Megerian, Secretary, minutes of Rocket and Satellite Research Panel (mimeographed; hereafter referred to as minutes of panel), rpt. 1, 27 Feb. 1946. See also app. A, which shows how the panel membership changed with time.

2. Megerian, minutes of panel, rpt. 13, 29 Dec. 1947.

3. Homer E. Newell, Jr., High Altitude Rocket Research (New York: Academic Press, 1953), pp. 7244, pp. 8440.

4. Ibid., pp. 95-105.

5. Ibid., pp. 89-95; H. E. Newell, Jr., "Prediction and Location of Rocket Impacts at White Sands Proving Ground," Upper Atmosphere Research rpt. VIII, NRL rpt. P-34M) (Washington: Naval Research Laboratory, June 1949).

6. Newell, High Altitude Rocket Research, pp. 66-68.

7. Homer E. Newell, Jr., "Exploration of the Upper Atmosphere by Means of Rockets." The Scientific Monthly 64 (June 1947): 453-63; W. A. Baum et al., "Solar Ultraviolet Spectrum to 88 Kilometers," Physical Review 70 (Nov. 1946): 781-82; C. V. Strain, "Solar Spectroscopy at High Altitudes," Sky and Telescope 6 (Feb. 1947): 3-6; E. Durand, J. J. Oberly, and R. Tousey, "Analysis of the First Rocket Ultraviolet Solar Spectra," Astrophysical journal 109 (Jan. 1949): 1-16; J. J. Hopfield and H. E. Clearman, Jr., "The Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Sun from V-2 Rockets," Physical Review 73 (Apr. 1948): 877-84; T. R. Bumight, "Soft Radiation in the Upper Atmosphere," Physical Review 76 (July 1949): 165 (abstract); S. E. Golian, E. H. Krause, and G. J. Perlow, "Cosmic Radiation above 40 Miles," Physical Review 70 (Aug. 1946): 223-24: idem, "Additional Cosmic-Ray Measurements with the V-2 Rocket," Physical Review 70 (Nov. 1946): 776-77; G. J. Pelow and J. D. Shipman, Jr., "Non-Primary Cosmic-Ray Electrons above the Earth's Atmosphere," Physical Review 71 (Mar. 1947): 325-26; S. E. Golian and E. H. Krause, "Further Cosmic-Ray Experiments above the Atmosphere," Physical Review 71 (June 1947):918-19; J. A. Van Allen and H. E. Tatel, "The Cosmic-Ray Counting Rate of a Single Geiger Counter from Ground Level to 161 Kilometers Altitude," Physical Review 73 (Feb. 1948): 245-51; J. A. Van Allen, "Exploratory Cosmic Ray Observations at High Altitudes by Means of Rockets," Sky and Telescope 7 (May 1948): 171-75; A. V. Gangnes, J. F. Jenkins, Jr., and J. A. Van Allen, "The Cosmic-Ray Intensity above the Atmosphere," Physical Review 75 (Jan. 1949): 57-69; J. A. Van Allen and A. V. Gangnes, "Cosmic Ray Intensity above the Atmosphere at the Geomagnetic Equator," in Proceedings of the Echo Lake Cosmic Ray Symposium, 23 to 28 June 1949 (Washington: Office of Naval Research, Nov. 1949). pp. 199-204; J. A. Van Allen, "An Improved Upper Limit to the Primary Cosmic-Ray Intensity at Geomagnetic Latitude 41° N," ibid., pp. 195-98; idem, "Transition Effects of Primary Cosmic Radiation in Lead, Aluminum, and the Atmosphere," ibid., pp. 95-102; S. F. Singer, "The Specific Ionization of the Cosmic Radiation above the Atmosphere," Physical Review 76 (Sept. 1949): 701-02 S. E. Golian et al., "V-2 Cloud-Chamber Observation of a Multiply Charged Primary Cosmic Ray," Physical Review 75 (Feb. 1949): 524-25; H. E. Tatel and J. A. Van Allen, "Cosmic Ray Bursts in the Upper Atmosphere," Physical Review 73 (Jan. 1948): 87-88; T. A. Bergstralh, "Photography from the V-2 Rocket at Altitudes Ranging up to 160 Kilometers," Naval Research Laboratory rpt. R-3083 (Washington, Apr. 1947); Delmar L. Crowson, "Cloud Observations from Rockets," Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 30 (Jan. 1949):17-22. See also the series of Upper Atmosphere Research Reports put out by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington starting in 1946.

8. Newell, High Attitude Rocket Research; Rocket Panel, "Pressures, Densities, and Temperatures in the Upper Atmosphere," Physical Review 88 (Dec. 1952): 1027-32.

9. Homer E. Newell, Jr., Sounding Rockets (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1959).

10. James A. Van Allen, L. W. Fraser, and J. F. R. Lloyd, "Aerobee Sounding Rocket A New Vehicle for Research in the Upper Atmosphere," Science 108 (31 Dec. 1948): 746; James A. Van Allen, John W. Townsend, Jr., and Eleanor C. Pressly, "The Aerobee Rocket." chap. 4 of Newell, Sounding Rockets, William R. Corliss, NASA Sounding Rockets, 1958-1968, NASA SP-4401 (Washington, 1971), pp. 18-21.

11. Milton W. Rosen, The Viking Rocket Story (New York: Harper & Bros., 1955); Newell, "Viking," chap. 13 in Newell, Sounding Rockets.

12. Megerian, minutes of panel, rpt. 14, 28 Jan. 1948.

13. Corliss, NASA Sounding Rockets, pp. 79-84.

14. Constance McLaughlin Green and Milton Lomask, Vanguard: A History (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1971), pp. 35-56.

15. Newell, Sounding Rockets; Corliss, NASA Sounding Rockets.

16. J. A. Van Allen and M. B. Gottlieb, "The Inexpensive Attainment of High Altitude with Balloon-launched Rockets," in Rocket Exploration of the Upper Atmosphere , ed. R. L. F. Boyd and M. V. Seaton (Oxford: Pergamon Press; New York: Interscience Publishers, 1954), pp. 53-64; James A. Van Allen, "Balloon-Launched Rockets for High-Altitude Research," chap. 9 in Newell, Sounding Rockets.

17. Megerian, minutes of panel, rpt. 1, 27 Feb. 1946: rpt. 3, 24 Apr. 1946; rpt. 6, 5.Sept. 1946: rpt. 15. 18 Mar. 1948; and ibid., Executive Session, 29 Apr. 1957.

18. Ibid., Attendance Lists; ibid., rpt. 1, 27 Feb. 1946, and rpt, 44, 31 May 1956.

19. C. N. Warfield, "Tentative Tables for the Properties of the Upper Atmosphere," NACA TN 1200 (Washington, Jan. 1947). Also, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Panel on the Upper Atmosphere of the Committee on Aerodynamics, minutes, 4 Mar. 1946, 24 June 1946, 2 May 1947. 17 Sept. 1948, 5 Oct. 1950, 23 Oct. 1951; all mimeographed.

20. Eugene M. Emme, Aeronautics and Astronautics. An American Chronology of Science and Technology in the Exploration of Space, 1915-1960 (Washington: NASA, 1961). p. 54.

21. C. S. Piggot, Exec. Dir., RDB Committee on Geophysical Sciences, to E. H. Krause, Chairman, V-2 Upper Atmosphere Panel, 20 Nov. 1947, in Megerian, minutes of panel, rpt. 13, 29 Dec. 1947. encl. D.

22. Megerian. minutes of panel, rpt. 24. 20 Apr. 1950.

23. Homer E. Newell, Jr., "The Challenge to United States Leadership in Rocket Sounding of Upper Atmosphere" (Washington: Naval Research Laboratory, 28 Aug. 1957), bound mimeographed typescript. pp-3-4.

24. Col. H. N. Toftoy to Commanding General, White Sands Proving Ground, in Megerian, minutes of panel, rpt. 13, 29 Dec. 1947, encl. E.

25. Boyd and Seaton, Rocket Exploration.

26. Megerian, minutes of panel, rpt. 34, 29, 30 Jan. 1953, and rpt. 35, 29 Apr. 1953.

27. Ibid., rpt. 36, 7 Oct. 1953, and rpt. 37, 4 Feb. 1954; L. V. Berkner, ed., Manual on Rockets and Satellites, in Annals of the International Geophysical Year, 6 (London: Pergamon Press, 1958): 54-55.

28. Megerian, minutes of panel, rpt. 37, 4 Feb. 1954; rpt. 39,9 Sept. 1954; and rpt. 40, 3 Feb. 1955.

29. Berkner, Rockets and Satellites , p. 55.

30. Megerian, minutes of panel, rpt. 39, 9 Sept. 1954.

31. James A. Van Allen, ed., Scientific Uses of Earth Satellites (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1956); Megerian, minutes of panel, rpt. 43, 26, 27 Jan. 1956, Attendance List.

32. Megerian, minutes of panel, early October 1957 through February 1958. See specifically: Committee on the Occupation of Space files for October and November 1957; rpt. 48, 13-14 Nov. 1957; rpt. 49, 6 Dec. 1957; Executive Committee Report, Jan. 1958.

33. Ibid., rpt. 49, 6 Dec. 1957.

34. Space Flight Technical Committee of the American Rocket Society,"A National Space Flight Program," Astronautics 3 (Jan. 1958): 21-28.

35. Congress. Subcommittee of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy of the United States, Outer Space Propulsion by Nuclear Energy, hearings, 85th Cong., 2d sess., 22, 23 Jan. and 6 Feb. 1958, pp. 149-73.

36. Megerian, minutes of panel, rpt. 49, 6 Dec. 1957.

37. Ibid.

38. W. H. Pickering to Homer E. Newell, Jr.. 27 May 1960, in NASA History Office files.

39. Megerian, minutes of panel, rpt. 1960-1, 17 Feb. 1960.