1. Niels H. de V. Heathcote and Angus Armitage, "The First International Polar Year (1882-1883)," Annals of the International Geophysical Year, 1 (London: Pergamon Press, 1959): 6 (hereafter cited as IGY Annals); V. Laursen, "The Second International Polar Year." IGY Annals, 1:211.
2. G. Breit and M. A. Tuve, "A Test of the Existence of the Conducting Layer," Physical Review 28 (Sept. 1926): 554-75.
3. Sir Harold Spencer Jones, "The Inception and Development of the International Geophysical Year," IGY Annals, 1:383. The reader desiring to delve further into the IGY will find in the Annals details of the planning and many of the results of the IGY. Very readable accounts of IGY are given by Sydney Chapman, IGY: Year of Discovery (Ann Arbor- Univ. of Michigan Press, 1959); Walter Sullivan, Assault on the Unknown :The International Geophysical Year (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1961, 1971); Ronald Fraser, Once around the Sun (New York: Macmillan, 1957); and Alexander Marshak, The World in Space (New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1958).
4. Sydney Chapman, President of CSAGI, Brussels, 28 Jan. 1957, IGY Annals, 1:3.
5. L. V. Berkner, ed., Manual on Rockets and Satellites, in IGY Annals, 6:54-55. See also app. 7. 1.
6. R. Cargill Hall, "Early U.S. Satellite Proposals," Technology and Culture 4 (Fall, 1963): 410-34; William H. Pickering, "History of the Juno Cluster System," in Astronautical Engineering and Science. ed. Ernst Stuhlinger et al. (New York: McGraw-Hill Book 0)., 1963). pp. 204-M.
7. S.F. Singer, "Research in the Upper Atmosphere with Sounding Rockets and Earth Satellite Vehicles," Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 11 (1952): 61-73; idem, "A Minimum Orbital Instrumented Satellite Now," ibid. 13 (1954): 74-79; idem, "Astrophysical Measurements from an Earth Satellite," chapter in Rocket Exploration of the Upper Atmosphere, ed. R. L F. Boyd and M. J. Seaton (Oxford: Pergamon Press: New York: Interscience Publishers, 1954), p. 369; idem, "Studies of a Minimum Orbital Unmanned Satellite of the Earth (MOUSE)," pt. 1, "Geophysical and Astrophysical Applications," Astronautical Acta 1 (1955): 171-84.
8. L. V. Berkner, (SAGI Reporter for Rockets and Satellites, in the introduction to IGY Annals, 6:1-2.
11. Constance McLaughlin Green and Milton Lomask, Vanguard A History (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1971), pp. 34-56.
12. Berkner, Rockets and Satellites, pp. 283-84. See also app. 7.1
13. Berkner, Rockets and Satellites, p. 2. Also author's contemporaneous notes, (hereafter referred to as author's notebooks [NF28] in NASA History Office).
14. Author's notebooks (NF28).
15. Ibid. The quotation is approximate.
16. Mary Stone Ambrose, "The National Space Program: Phase 1: Passage of the 'National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958,'" M.A. thesis (Washington: American Univ., July 1960), pp. 39-44,154.
17. Alison Griffith, The Nasa Act: A Study of the Development of Public Policy (Washington: Public Affairs Press, 1962); Enid Curtis Bok Schoettle, "The Establishment of NASA," in Knowledge and Power: Essays on Science and Government, ed. Sanford A. Lakoff (New York: Free Press, 1966); Arthur L. Levine, The Future of the U.S. Space Program (New York: Praeger, 1975); Ambrose, "The National Space Program."