Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science

 

[462-464] Chapter 6 Source Notes

 

1. Homer E. Newell, Jr., High Altitude Rocket Research (New York: Academic Press, 1953), pp. 111-42; the Rocket Panel, "Pressures, Densities, and Temperatures in the Upper Atmosphere," Physical Review 88 (Dec. 1952): 1027-32.

2. B. Haurwitz, "The Physical State of the Upper Atmosphere," reprinted from Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Oct. 1936-Feb. 1937 (Toronto: Press, 1937. with addition, 1941).

3. T. H. Johnson. "Cosmic Ray Intensity and Geomagnetic Effects," Reviews of Modern Physics 10 (Oct. 1938): 193-244.

4. Fred L. Whipple, "Meteors and the Earth's Upper Atmosphere," Reviews of Modern Physics 15 (Oct. 1943): 246-64.

5. S. K. Mitra, The Upper Atmosphere (Calcutta: Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1947). 519.

6. Ibid., pp. 5-8.

7. Ibid., p. 511.

8. B. Stewart, in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed., 16 (1882): 181.

9. A. E. Kennelly," On the Elevation of the Electrically-Conducting Strata of the Earth's Atmosphere", Electric World and Engineering 39 (Mar. 1902):,173; O. Heaviside, "Telegraphy-Theory." Encyclopaedia Britannica, 10th ed., 33 (1902): 213-18.

10. E. V. Appleton and M. A. F. Barnett, "Local Reflection of Wireless Waves from the Upper Atmosphere, Nature 115 (March 1925): 333-34; idem, "On Some Direct Evidence for Downward Atmospheric Reflection of Electric Rays," Proceedings of the Royal Society, A 109 (1925): 621-41.

11. G. Breit and M. A. Tuve, "A Test of the Existence of the Conducting Layer," Physical Review 28 (Sept. 1926): 554-75.

12. Mitra, Upper Atmosphere, chap. 6.

13. Ibid., pp. 257-61.

14. Ibid., p. 512.

15. Ibid., pp. 328-30.

16. See, for example, C. Stormer, "Twenty-five Years' Work on the Polar Aurora," Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity 35 (1930): 193-208.

17. Newell, High Attitude Rocket Research, pp. 237-45.

18. See also I. S. Bowen, R. A. Millikan, and H. V. Neher, "New Light on the Nature and Origin of the Incoming Cosmic Rays," Physical Review 53 (June 1938): 855-61.

19. M. Schein, W. P. Jesse, and E. O. Wollan, "The Nature of the Primary Cosmic Radiation and the Origin of the Mesotron," Physical Review 59 (Apr. 1941): 615.

20. Mitra, Upper Atmosphere, pp. 77-87.

21. Haurwitz, Upper Atmosphere, p. 79: p. 8.

22. Mitra, Upper Atmosphere, p. 87.

23. Whipple, "Meteors and the Earth's Upper Atmosphere."

24. Mitra, Upper Atmosphere, p. 146.

25. Ibid., p. 151.

26. Ibid., p. 518.

27. Ibid., pp. 515-19.

28. Homer E. Newell, Jr., Sounding Rockets (New York: McGraw-Hill fill Book Co., 1959), pp. 37-43.

29. Homer E. Newell Jr., and Leonard N. Cornier, eds., First Results of IGY Rocket and Satellite Research, vol. 12, pts. 1 and 2, in Annals of the International Geophysical Year (London: Pergamon Press. 1960).

30. W.A. Baum, F. S. Johnson, J. J. Oberly, C. C. Rockwood, C. V. Strain. and R. Tousey, "Solar Ultraviolet Spectrum to 88 Kilometers." Physical Review 70 (Nov. 1946): 781-82.

31. Herbert Friedman, "The Sun's Ionizing Radiations," chapter in Physics of the Upper Atmosphere, ed. J. A. Ratcliffe (New York: Academic Press, 1 1960), pp. 133-218.

32. J. J. Hopfield and H. E. Clearman, Jr., "The Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Suit from V-2 Rockets," Physical Review 73 (Apr. 1948): 877-84.

33. E. Durand, J. J. Oberly, and R. Tousey, "Analysis of the First Rocket Ultraviolet Spectra," Astrophysical Journal 109 (Jan. 1949): 1-16.

34. W.A. Rense. "Intensity of Lyman-Alpha Line in the Solar Spectrum," Physical Review 91 (15 July 1953): 299-302; idem, "Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Its Effect on the Earth's Upper Atmosphere," in Advances in Space Research, ed.T. M. Tabanera et al. (London: Pergamon Press, 1964). pp. 275-76.

35. Rense, "Solar Ultraviolet and Its Effect Earth's Upper Atmosphere," pp. 278-79.

36. Newell, High Altitude Rocket Research, p. 161; Friedman, "The Sun's Ionizing Radiations," pp. 168-78.

37. F. S. Johnson, J. D. Purcell, and R. Tousey. "Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Atmospheric Ozone from Rockets," Journal of Geophysical Research 56 (Dec. 1951): 583-94; F. S. Johnson et al., "Direct Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Atmospheric Ozone to 70 Kilometers Altitude," Journal of Geophysical Research 57 (June 1952): 157-76: J. A. Van Allen and J.J. Hopfield, "Preliminary Report on Atmospheric Ozone Measurements from Rockets," in L'etude optique de 1'atmosphere terrestre., communications presentees au colloque international tenu à l'Institut d'Astrophysique de I'Universite de Liege les 3 et 4 septembre 1951 (Louvain: Imprimere Centerick, 1952), pp. 179-83.

38. Newell, High Altitude Rocket Research, pp. 111-42; idem, "The Upper Atmosphere Studied by Rockets and Satellites," chapter in Ratcliffe, Physics of the Upper Atmosphere, pp. 74-101.

39. W. G. Stroud, W. Nordberg, W. R. Bandeen, F. L. Bartman, and P. Titus, "Rocket Grenade Measurements of Temperature and Winds in the Mesosphere over Churchill, Canada," in Space Research Proceedings of the First International Space Science Symposium, Nice, 1960, ed. H. K. Kallmann-Bijl (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co., 1960), pp. 117-43.

40. Friedman, "The Sun's Ionizing Radiations." pp. 208-14.

41. The Rocket Panel, "Pressures, Densities, and Temperatures in the Upper Atmosphere."

42. Newell, The Upper Atmosphere Studied by Rockets and Satellites," pp. 74-97.

43 Ibid., pp. 102-11.

44. Newell. High Altitude Rocket Research, pp. 203-08.

45. J. W. Townsend, Jr., "Radio frequency Mass Spectrometer for Upper Air Research," Reviews of Scientific Instruments 23 (1952): 538-41.

46. Newell, "The Upper Atmosphere Studied by Rockets and Satellites," pp. 112-18. E. B. Meadows and J. W. Townsend, Jr., "IGY Rocket Measurements of Arctic Atmospheric Composition Above 100 Km," in Space Research, ed. Kallmann-Bijl, pp. 175-98. C. Y. Johnson, "Aeronomic Measurements," in Advances in Space Research, ed. Tabanera et al., pp. 295-317.

47. Newell, "The Upper Atmosphere Studied by Rockets and Satellites," pp. 119-20.

48. Ibid., pp. 108-11.

49. A. V. Gangnes, J. F. Jenkins, Jr., and J. A. Van Allen, "The Cosmic Ray Intensity above the Atmosphere," Physical Review 75 (Jan. 1949): 57-69.

50. G. J. Perlow et al, "Rocket Determination of the Ionization Spectrum of Charged Cosmic Rays at [Greek letter alpha] 41° N." Physical Review 88 (Oct. 1952): 321-25.

51. L. H. Meredith, M. B. Gottlieb, and J. A. Van Allen, "Direct Detection of Soft Radiation Above 50 Kilometers in the Auroral Zone," Physical Review 97 (1 Jan. 1955): 201; J. A. Van Allen, "Rocket Measurement of Soft Radiation," in First Results of IGY Rocket and Satellite Research, ed. Newell and Cormier, pp. 616-50.

52. Paper presented by Van Allen at joint meeting of National Academy of Sciences and Physical Society on 1 May 1958. See also, J. A. Van Allen, G. H. Ludwig, E. C. Ray, and C. E. McIlwain, "The Observation of High Intensity Radiation by Satellites 1958 and , in First Results of IGY Rocket and Satellite Research, ed. Newell and Cormier, pp. 671-81.

53. J. E. Kupperian et al. "Far Ultraviolet Radiation in the Night Sky." in First Results of IGY Rocket and Satellite Research , ed. Newell and Cormier, pp. 619-22; J. E. Kupperian et al., "Rocket Astronomy in the Far Ultraviolet." ibid., pp. 622-26; Herbert Friedman et al., Space Astronomy: A New Era in the Making, a series of articles reprinted from Astronautics & Aeronautics 7 (Mar. and May 1969), pp. 34-75.


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