SP-4212
On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978

 
 
 
[453-464] Appendix D
Mars Experiments, Science Teams, and Investigators
 

 
 
 
SPACE SCIENCE BOARD S PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PLANETARY INVESTIGATION. 1968- 1976
 
 
1. We recommend that the planetary exploration program be presented, not in terms of a single goal, but rather in terms of the contribution that exploration can make to a broad range of scientific disciplines (page 3).
 
2. We recommend that a substantially increased fraction of the total NASA budget be devoted to unmanned planetary exploration (page 3).
 
3. (a) We recommend that duplicate missions for a particular opportunity be undertaken only when a clear gain in scientific information will result from such double launches (page 4).
 
(b) We recommend that NASA initiate now a program of Pioneer/IMP-class spinning spacecraft to orbit Venus and Mars at every opportunity and for exploratory missions to other targets (page 5).
 
(c) We recommend the following larger missions to Mars: A Mariner orbiter mission in 1971, and a Mariner-type orbiter and lander mission, based on a Titan-Centaur, in 1973 (page 5).
 
(d) We accord next priorities (in descending order) to a Mariner-class Venus-Mercury fly-by in 1973 or 1975, a multiple drop-sonde mission to Venus in 1975, and a major lander on Mars, perhaps in 1975 (page 6).
 
4. (a, b) Rather than attempt to define in detail payloads to be carried aboard high priority missions, we have selected several sample payloads (page 6).
 
(c) We recommend that with regard to Mars and Venus, NASA continually reassess, in the light of current knowledge of the planets, its program, methods, and mathematical model for meeting the internationally agreed objectives on planetary quarantine (page 11).
 
5. (a) We recommend strongly that NASA support radar astronomy as an integral part of its planetary program. In particular, we recommend that NASA fund the development and operation of a major new radar observatory to be used primarily for planetary investigation (page 12).
 
(b) We recommend that NASA planetary program planning be closely coordinated with Earth-orbital telescopes being designed for the 1970's and with the infrared aircraft telescopes now under construction (page 13).
 
(c) We recommend that the NASA program of ground-based optical planetary astronomy continue to receive strong support and that opportunities for planetary astronomical investigations be increased by:
 
 
(1) Construction of an intermediate sized optical telescope in the Southern Hemisphere
(2) Construction of an infrared telescope employing a very large collecting area and permitting interferometric measurements at a dry site
(3) Development of new infrared devices, including improved detectors and high resolution interferometers (page 14)
 
(d) We recommend that steps be taken to facilitate the analysis by qualified investigators of the data secured by the photographic planetary patrol (page 14).
 
6. (a) We recommend that NASA openly solicit participation in all future planetary missions by the issuance of flight opportunity announcements with adequate time for response from the scientific community (page 15).
 
(b) We recommend that NASA develop a summer institute program expressly designed to introduce interested scientists and engineers to the science, technology, and administration of the planetary program (page 15).
 
7. We recommend that those resources currently intended for support of manned planetary programs be reallocated to programs for instrumented investi gation of the planets (page 16).
 
8. We recommend a coordinated effort involving representatives of NASA, the Department of State, and the National Academy of Sciences, for the purpose of contacting knowledgeable Soviet scientists in an informal way with regard to the possibility of joint planetary exploration (page 16).
________________
Space Science Board, Planetary Exploration, 1968-1975, recommendations Of June 1968 study, published August 1968.


EXCERPT FROM VIKING "BIOLOGY SCIENCE INSTRUMENT TEAMS REPORT"
 
Introduction
 
This document is an attempt to synthesize several types of biological investigations in a manner to permit their performance in an integrated package. It is subject to modification which may result either from engineering evaluations or from scientific considerations as a result of Mariner VI and VII results.
 
The examination of the Martian surface for living organisms is based upon the following approaches: visual imagery, atmospheric analysis, chemical composition of the surface, biochemical activity, and enumeration of active particles. In this context visual images represent a high risk-high gain observation, in the sense that the detection of what is unmistakenly a living organism would be highly conclusive, while the absence of such an observation provides the biologist with no direct information on the presence or absence of living organisms, though it contributes to his understanding of the environment....
 
After describing several types of measurements that can be conducted, an integrated instrument is proposed which combines several of the measurements described, and the directions in which the capability of such an instrument could be expanded should weight and power considerations make such an expansion possible is [sic] indicated.
 
General Scientific Objectives
 
1. At the time of the first examination of the surface of Mars the structure of the experiments must be based on an unavoidable minimum of geocentric assumptions. It is assumed that, should living organisms exist on Mars, their biochemistry is based on carbon and water. While alternative assumptions are experimentally approachable, they are inappropriate for a first mission.
 
2. Measurements must be carried out more than twice....
 
3. It is more important to repeat experiments in time rather than in space. That is, if experimental capability is severely restricted, it is preferable to study a single sample site repeatedly, hopefully in the course of seasonal variation, rather than examining many sample sites a single time within a short period.
 
4. It is more important to examine a single sample by different principles, rather than carry out a sample examination with refined variations of a single principle....
 
5. The sensitivity of an observation should be directed primarily at the detection of any life. The characterization of such life is at present of secondary importance.
 
6. In general experimental conditions should be close to the conditions of the Martian environment, except that a variation in water content is contemplated, on the assumption that water may be one of the most important limiting factors for life on Mars.
 
7. The observations chosen should complement each other in such a manner as to confirm results and minimize ambiguities.
 
8. Stress has been laid on the formation or fixation of carbon dioxide. This stress results partially from the present view of the composition of the Martian atmosphere, and partly from the geocentric assumptions made. Each experiment which describes the fixation or evolution of carbon dioxide is intended to include at the same time carbon monoxide in the same proportion in which it exists in the Martian atmosphere....
 
9. The integrated package must withstand terminal sterilization....
 
Sampling
 
The biological interest is centered on samples taken from approximately the top three centimeters. The instrument is designed to examine a mixture of the top three centimeters. Intheeventthatthesamplingdeviceiscapableofreachingdownseveraltensorcentimeters, it is required that the top three centimeters be examined separately....
 
The type of sample most useful for biological examination is loosely divided soil.... Particles up to two millimeters in size are ideal for the investigations....
 
___________
From Langley Research Center, Viking Proj. Off., "Viking Lander Science Instrument Teams Report," M73-112-0, draft, July 1969.
 


 
VIKING SCIENCE TEAMS

.

Team

As announced 25 Feb. 1969

Selected 15 Dec. 1969

As of Summer 1976

.

Active Biology

Norman H. Horowitz
California Institute of technology

Horowitz

Horowitz

Joshua Lederberg,
Stanford University

Lederberg

Lederberg

Gilbert V. Levin
Biospherics Research, Inc.

Levin

Levin

Vance I. Omaya
Ames Research Center

Omaya

Omaya

Alexander Rich
MIT

Rich

Rich

Wolf V. Vishniac,
University of Rochester

Vishniac

Harold P. Klein, Ames Research Center
(team leader)

.

Lander imagery

Alan B. Binder, Illinois inst. of Technology Research Institute

Binder

Binder
Science Applications Institute
Elliot C. Morris,
U.S. Geological
Survey

Morris

Morris
Thomas A. Mutch,
Brown University

Mutch

Mutch
(team leader)
Carl Sagan,
Cornell University

Sagan

Sagan

-

Friedrich Huck,
Langley Research Center

Huck

-

Elliott C. Levinthal, Stanford University

Levinthal

-

Andrew T. Young, JPL

James A. Pollack,
Ames Research Center

.

Surface sampler - pyrolyzer - gas analysis (team name changed to molecular analysis, Dec. 1969)
Duwayne M. Anderson,
U.S. Army Terrestrial Science Center

Anderson

Anderson

Klaus Biemann, MIT

Biemann

Biemann (team leader)

Melvin Calvin,
University of
California, Berkeley

-

-

Leslie E. Orgel,
Salk institute

Orgel

Orgel

John Oro,
University of Houston

Oro

Oro,
Ames Research Center
Tobias Owen,
Illinois institute of Technology Research Institute

Owen

Owen
State University of New York, Stony Brook
Garson P. Shulman,
JPL

Shulman

-

Priestley Toulmin,
U.S. Geological
Survey. Reston

Toulmin

Toulmin

Harold C. Urey,
University of
California, San Diego

Urey

Urey

.

Entry science

Alfred 0. C. Nier,
University of Minnesota

Nier

Nier (team leader)

Alvin Seiff,
Ames Research Center

Seiff

Seiff

Nelson W. Spencer,
Goddard Space Flight Center

Spencer

Spencer

-

William B. Hanson, University of Texas, Dallas

Hanson

-

Michael B. McElroy,
Harvard University

McElroy

.

Meteorology

Seymour L. Hess,
Florida State University

Hess

Hess (team leader)

Conway B. Leovy
University of Washington

Leovy

Leovy

Jack A. Ryan,
McDonnell Douglas Astronautics, Western Division

Ryan

Ryan

-

Robert M. Henry,
Langley Research Center

Henry

-

-

James E. Tillman,
University of Washington

.

Radio science

Dan L. Cain, JPL

Cain

Cain

Von R. Eshelman,
Stanford University

G. Levy, JPL

C. T. Stelzried, JPL

Mario D. Grossi,
Raytheon Company

Grossi

Grossi

William H. Michael,
Langley Research Center

Michael

Michael (team leader)

-

Leonard G. Tyler,
Stanford University

Tyler

-

-

Joseph Brenkle, JPL

-

-

John G. Davies,
University of Manchester

-

Gunnar Fjeldbo, JPL

Fjeldbo

-

Irwin I. Shapiro, MIT

Shapiro

-

-

Robert H. Tolson,
Langley Research Center

.

Ultraviolet photometer (experiment not flown)

Charles A. Barth,
University of Colorado
 
Charles W. Hord,
University of Colorado
Jeffrey B. Pearce, University of Colorado

-

-

.

Seismology

Don L. Anderson,
California institute of Technology

Anderson

Anderson (team leader)

Robert L. Kovach,
Stanford University

Kovach

Kovach

Gary V. Latham,
Columbia University

Latham

Latham
University of Texas
Medical Branch
Galveston

Frank Press, MIT

.

.

George H. Sutton, University of Hawaii

Sutton

Sutton

N. Nafi Toksoz, MIT

Toksoz

Toksoz

.

Physical properties

-

Richard W. Shorthill, University of Utah
Research Institute

Shorthill (team leader)

-

Robert E. Hutton,
TRW Systems Group

Hutton

-

Henry J. Moore II,
U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park

Moore

-

Ronald Scott,
California institute of Technology

Scott

.

Magnetic properties

-

-

Robert B. Hargraves, Princeton University (team leader)

.

Inorganic-chemistry

-

-

Priestley Toulmin III, IU S. Geological Survey, Reston (team leader)

-

-

Alex K. Baird, Pomona College

-

-

Benton C. Clark, Martin Marietta

-

-

Klaus Keil, University of New Mexico

-

-

Harry J. Rose, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston
 

EXPERIMENT INVESTIGATORS

.

.

.

Mission

Scientist

Experiment

Mariner

1964

Mariner

1969

Mariner

1971

Viking

1975

Alexander, W. M.*

Cosmic-dust detector

X

.

.

.

Allen, R. D.

Television

X

.

.

.

Anderson, D. L.*

Seismology

.

.

.

X

Anderson, D. M

Molecular analysis

.

.

.

X

Anderson. H. R

Ionization-chamber / particle-flux detector

X

.

.

.

Anderson, J. D.*

Celestial mechanics

.

X

X

.

Arthur, D.

Television

.

.

X

.

Baird, A. K

Inorganic chemistry

.

.

.

X

Barth, C. A.*

Ultraviolet spectrometer

.

X

X

.

Batson, R.

Television

.

.

X

.

Baum,W.A.

Orbiter imaging

.

.

.

X

Berg, O. E.

Cosmic-dust detector

X

.

.

.

Biemann, K.*

Molecular analysis

.

.

.

X

Binder A. B.

Lander imaging

.

.

.

X

Blasius, K. R.

Orbiter imaging

.

.

.

X

Borgeson, W.

Television

.

.

X

.

Born, G.

Radio science

.

.

.

X

Brenkle, J. P.

Radio science

.

.

.

X

Bridge, H. S.*

Solar-plasma probe

X

.

.

.

Briggs, G.

Television; orbiter imaging

.

.

X

X

Burke, T.

Infrared interferometer spectrometer

.

.

X

.

Cain, D.L.

Occultation; S-band occultation; radio science

X

.

X

X

Carr, M. H.*

Television; orbiter imaging

.

.

X

X

Chase, S. C.

Infrared radiometer; thermal mapping

.

X

X

X

Clark, B. C.

Inorganic chemistry

.

.

.

X

Coleman, P. J., Jr.

Helium magnetometer

X

.

.

.

Conrath, B.

Infrared interferometer spectrometer

.

.

X

.

Cutts, J.

Television; orbiter imaging

.

.

X

X

Davies D. W.

Water-vapor mapping

.

.

.

X

Davies J. G.

Radio science

.

.

.

X

Davies, M. E.

Television

.

X

X

.

Davis, L., Jr.

Helium magnetometer

X

.

.

.

Drake, F.

Occultation

X

.

.

.

Daennebier, F.

Seismology

.

.

.

X

Duxbury, T. C.

Orbiter imaging

.

.

.

X

Eshelman, V. R.

Occultation

X

.

.

.

Farmer, C. B.*

Water-vapor mapping

.

.

.

X

Fastie, W. G.

Ultraviolet spectrometer

.

X

.

.

Fjeldbo, G.

Occultation; S-band occultation; radio science

X

X

X

X

Frank, L.A.

Radiation detector

X

.

.

.

Gause, K.

Ultraviolet spectrometer

.

X

.

.

Greeley, R.

Orbiter imaging

.

.

.

X

Grossi, M. D.

Radio science

.

.

.

X

Guest, J. E

Orbiter imaging

.

.

.

X

Hanel, R.*

Infrared interferometer spectrometer

.

.

X

.

Hanson, W. B.

Entry science

.

.

.

X

Hargraves, R. B.*

Magnetic properties

.

.

.

X

Hartman, W.

Television

.

.

X

.

Henry, R. M.

Meteorology

.

.

.

X

Herr, K. C.

Infrared spectrometer

.

X

.

.

Herriman, A. G

Television

.

X

.

.

Hess, S. L.*

Meteorology

.

.

.

X

Hord, C. B.

Ultraviolet spectrometer

.

X

X

.

Horowitz, N. H.

Television; biology

.

X

.

X

Hovis, W.

Infrared interferometer spectrometer

.

.

X

.

Howard, K. A.

Orbiter imaging

.

.

.

X

Huck, F. O.

Lander imaging

.

.

.

X

Hutton, R. E.

Physical properties

.

.

.

X

Jones, D. E.

Helium magnetometer

X

.

.

.

Keil, K.

Inorganic chemistry

.

.

.

X

Keiffer, H. H.*

Infrared radiometer; thermal mapping

.

.

X

X

Kelley, K. K

Ultraviolet spectrometer

.

.

.

.

Klein, H. P.*

Biology

.

X

.

X

Kliore, A. J.*

Occultation; S-band occultation

X

X

X

.

Kovach, R. L.

Seismology

.

.

.

X

Lane, A.

Radiation detector

X

.

.

.

Laporte, D.

Infrared interferometer spectrometer

.

.

X

.

Latham, G. V.

Ultraviolet spectrometer

.

.

X

.

Krimijis, S. M.

Water-vapor mapping

.

.

.

X

Kunde, V.

Seismology

.

.

.

X

Lazarus A.

Solar-plasma probe

X

.

.

.

Lederberg, J.

Television; biology

.

.

X

X

Leighton, R. B.*

Television

X

X

.

.

Leovy, C. B.

Television; meteorology

.

X

X

X

Levin, G. V.

Infrared interferometer spectrometer; biology

.

.

X

X

Levinthal, E.

Television; lander imaging

.

.

X

X

Levy, G. S.

Occultation

X

.

.

.

Liebes, S., Jr

Lander imaging

.

.

.

X

Lorell, J.*

Celestial mechanics

.

.

X

.

Lowman, P.

Infrared interferometer spectrometer

.

.

X

.

McCauley, J.

Television

.

.

X

.

EXPERIMENT INVESTIGATORS (continued)

.

.

.

Mission

Scientist

Experiment

Mariner

1964

Mariner

1969

Mariner

1971

Viking

1975

.

McCracken, C. W.

Cosmic-dust detector

X

.

.

.

McElroy, M. B.

Entry science

.

.

.

X

Mackey, E. F.

Ultraviolet spectrometer

.

X

.

.

Martin, W. L.

Celestial mechanics

.

X

X

.

Masursky, H.*

Television orbiter imaging

.

.

X

X

Michael, W. H.*

Radio science

.

.

.

X

Milton, D.

Television

.

.

X

.

Miner, E. D.

Infrared radiometer; thermal mapping

.

.

X

X

Moore, H. J., II

Physical properties

.

.

.

X

Morris, E. C.

Lander imaging

.

.

.

X

Munch, G.

Infrared radiometer; thermal mapping

.

X

X

X

Murray, B. C.

Television

X

X

X

.

Mutch, T. A.*

Lander imaging

.

.

.

X

Neher, H. V.*

Ionization -chamber/particle flux detector

X

.

.

.

Neugebauer, G.*

Infrared radiometer; thermal mapping

.

X

X

X

Nier, A. O. C.*

Molecular analysis; entry science

.

.

.

X

O'Gallagher, J.

Cosmic-ray telescope

X

.

.

.

Orgel, L. E.

Molecular analysis

.

.

.

X

Oro, J.

Molecular analysis

.

.

.

X

Owen, T.

Molecular analysis

.

.

.

X

Oyama, V. I.

Biology

.

.

.

X

Pearce, J. B.

Ultraviolet spectrometer

.

X

.

.

Pearl, J.

Infrared interferometer spectrometer

.

.

X

.

Pimentel, G. C.*

Infrared spectrometer

.

X

.

.

Pollack, J.

Television; lander imaging

.

.

X

X

Prabhakara, C.

Infrared interferometer spectrometer

.

.

X

.

Rasool, S. I.

S-band occultation

.

X

X

.

Reasenberg, R.

Celestial mechanics

.

.

.

X

Rich, A.

Biology

.

.

.

X

Rose, H. J.

Inorganic chemistry

.

.

.

X

Ruehle, R.

Ultraviolet spectrometer

.

X

.

.

Ryan, J. A.

Meteorology

.

.

.

X

Sagan, C.

Television; lander imaging

.

.

X

.

Schlachman, B.

Infrared interferometer spectrometer

.

.

X

.

Scott, R. F.

Physical properties

.

.

.

X

Secretan, L.

Cosmic-dust detector

X

.

.

.

Seidel, B.

S-band occultation

.

.

X

.

Seiff, A.

Entry science

.

.

.

X

Shapiro, I.I.

Celestial mechanics; radio science

.

.

X

X

Sharp, R. P.

Television

X

X

X

.

Shipley, E.

Television

.

.

X

.

Shorthill, R.*

Physical properties

.

.

.

X

Simpson, J. A.*

Cosmic-ray telescope

X

.

.

.

Sjoren, W.

Celestial mechanics

.

.

X

.

Sloan, R. K.

Television

X

X

.

.

Smith, B. A.

Television; orbiter imaging

.

X

X

X

Smith, E. J.

Helium magnetometer

X

.

.

.

Snyder, C. W.

Solar-plasma probe

X

.

.

.

Soderblom, L. A.

Television; orbiter imaging

.

.

X

X

Spencer, N. W.

Entry science

.

.

.

X

Stelzried, C. T.

Radio science

.

.

.

X

Stewart, I.

Ultraviolet spectrometer

.

.

X

.

Sutton, G.

Seismology

.

.

.

X

Tillman, J. E.

Meteorology

.

.

.

X

Tokoz, N.

Seismology

.

.

.

X

Tolson, R. H.

Radio science

.

.

.

X

Toulmin, P., III *

Molecular analysis; inorganic chemistry

.

.

.

X

Tyler, G. L.

Radio science

.

.

.

X

Urey, H. C.

Molecular analysis

.

.

.

X

Van Allen, J. A.*

Radiation detector

X

.

.

.

Vaucouleurs, G. de

Television

.

.

X

.

Veverka, J.

Television; orbiter imaging

.

.

X

X

Wellman, J. B.

Orbiter imaging

.

.

.

X

Wildey, R.

Television

.

.

X

.

Wilhelms, D.

Television

.

.

X

.

Wilshusen, F. C.

Ultraviolet spectrometer

.

X

.

.

Young, A.

Television

.

X

X

.

.

.

Total experimenters per project

29

29

55

80

Grand total for all projects
193

 

1 scientist worked on all 4 projects
9 scientists worked on 3 projects
24 scientists worked on 2 projects
 
2 scientists worked on Mariner 1964 and Mariner 1969 exclusively
3 scientists worked on Mariner 1964, Mariner 1969 and Mariner 1971 exclusively
7 scientists worked on Mariner 1969 and Mariner ;971 exclusively
5 scientists worked on Mariner 1969, Mariner 1971, and Viking 1975 exclusively
14 scientists worked on Mariner 1971 and Viking 1975 exclusively
 
* Principal investigator.

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