SP-4212
On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978

 

[525-535] INDEX

 

Abelson, Philip H., 80-81, 413
Able M (launch vehicle stage). 15, 38-39
Acord, James D, 194n
Adams, Mac C, 127n
Advanced Mariner (see also Mariner-Mars 1959), 96, 99-108, 439
Advanced Rescarch Projects Agency (ARPA), 14, 25-27, 29, 32, 56
Aeroneutronics Div., Ford Motor Co., 90
AeroshelI stagnation-pressure instrument (Mars atmosphere study), 374-75, 378
Agnew, Spiro T., 186n
Ahearn, David B., 217
Air Force. U.S, 10, 15, 25-28, 33, 37, 38
Air Force Research and Development Command, 32
Alba (Mars: albedo feature), 314
Alba Patera (Martian volcano), 350, 364
Allen, J. Denton, 79
American Institute of Biological Sciences, 56
Ames Research Center, 66, 68, 69, 71-73, 100, 103, 107, 110, 122, 124, 128, 230, 232, 233
Amino acids, 52-53
Anderson, Clinton P., 107, 114
Anderson, Don L., 226-27, 228, 288n, 323 ill.,392
Anderson, John W., 254, 255
Anderson, Roger A., 122, 123
Antarctica, 235-36, 408
Apollinares (Mars), 305
Apollo Applications Program (AAP), 114, 117, 119, 135, 142, 143, 189-90
Apollo fire (Apollo 204), 109, 113
Apollo missions
Apollo 11, 185
Apollo 14, 281
Apollo 15, 353
Apollo 16, 299, 353
Apollo 17, 353
Apollo program, 1, 34, 42, 80, 83, 105-08, 119, 128n, 142, 144, 189, 300
Apollo Telescope Mount, 142
Appold, N. C., 9n
Arandas (Mars). 349 ill., 369 ill.
Arecibo radio astronomy antenna, 320 ill., 321, 322, 334, 335, 339-41, 344
Argon, 260, 319, 323, 372, 376-78
Argyre Planioa (Mars), 367 ill.
Armed Forces Committee on Bioastronautics, 63
Army, U.S, 17, 19, 25-26, 27
Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), 10, 14, 17, 18, 26, 28, 38
Arnold, James R., 17n, 145n, 147n
Arsia Silva (Manian volcano), 294 ill
Arsia Mons (Martian volcano), 364, 366 ill., 369
Astor, John Jacob, 3
Astrogeology Center, 332
Astronautics Division (General Dynamics Corp.), 15n
Astronomy (see also Radar, Radio science), 10-12
Atlantis (Manian region), 78 ill
Atlas (ICBM), 15-16, 27, 31-32
Atlas-Agena (launch vehicle), 27, 32, 39-40, 45, 48-49, 74, 75, 437, 439, 465
Atlas-A,gena B, 27-28, 30, 435, 465-66
Atlas-Agena D, 75, 465, 467
Atlas-Centaur (launch vehicle), 27, 30-32, 33ill., 34, 39, 106, 122, 123, 136, 434, 435, 439, 441, 443, 445, 465, 468
Mariner program, 37-39, 41, 43-45, 47-50, 74, 83, 94, 107-08, 134,156, 159, 160 ill.,465, 468
Viking program, 196
Atlas-Vega (launch vehicle), 26-28
Atomic Energy Commission, U.S., 102
Attitude comrol system, 156-57. 246, 248, 300
Aurora Sinus (Mars), 177, 291
Automated biology laboratory (see also Viking, biology instrument), 66
Automation (see also Computer: Viking, lander), 244-49
AVCO Corp.. 88-98, 124-26
 
"Badger, Mr.," 419
Ball Brothers Research Corp.. 68, 230
Baum, William A., 278n, 279, 288n, 304, 310 ill, 332
Bendix Aerospace Systems Div.. 221, 228, 229, 252, 470
Berkner, Lloyd V., 12-13, 15, 80n
Biemann, Klaus, 223n. 228, 229, 263. 264. 278, 308, 319, 353, 377, 407-09
Billings, Bruce H., 63n
Binder, Alan B., 224, 278n, 286, 288n. 293, 299, 304
Biochemistry (see also Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, Gulliver, Minivator, Mutivator, Wolf Trap), 51-54
Biolo,gical comamination. 55-56, 87, 104, 123, 244
Bioscience Advisory Comminec (NASA). 56, 57
Blanchard, Robert C., 317-18
Blasius, Karl R., 369, 372
Blum, Harold F., 58
Boeing Co., 90, 101, 124, 148, 204, 216-17
Booster. See Launch vehicle.
Bowen, Frederick W., Jr., 173n
Bowman, Gary, 266
Boyce, Peter, 289
Boyer, William J., 152, 173n
Briggs, Geoffrey. A., 278n. 287-88, 322n
Bronk Detlev, 13
Broome, C;. Calvin, 204, 222, 223n, 229. 232, 239, 240, 264-65, 420-21
Brown, Clarence T.. Jr, 122n
Brown, Harrison 17n, 29
Brummer, Edmund A., 153, 173
Budget, Bureau of, 100, 107, 135, 141-42, 168,188-89
Budget and program costs, NASA (see also Gas chromatograph-massspectrometer), 10, 102, 134-35, 117-19, 141, 188
Apollo, 80, 113, 119, 250-51
cutbacks, 34, 83, 85, 97, 99, 100, 118, 141-43, 185-89
launch vehicle, 27, 28, 106-07, 119
Mariner, 80, 93, 94, 108, 131, 136, 141, 158, 159-60, 188
Viking. 169, 172, 186-92, 212-15. 219-20, 225, 251, 254, 267-70, 279, 283-81, 297, 307-08, 341 ill,, 358 ill.. 422, 452
Voyager, xv, 83, 85, 86, 89, 93, 96, 100-02, 105, 107, 113-19, 124, 128, 136,141
Burcham, Donald P., 85, 108
 
California Institure of Technology, 17, 18
Calvin Melvin, 52, 63, 91
Camera (see also Television: Vidicon)
Mariner 1971, 163, 181-82, 280-81, 283, 290, 297
Viking, 207, 220-21, 251, 253, 279-83, 291, 293, 297, 380-81, 383-84
Cameron, Roy E, 235
Canal (Mars), 2-3. 179
Cape Canaveral, 26, 75
Capen, Charles F., Jr., 103n, 289n
Capri (Mars), 345
Capsule bus (Voyager). 127-28
Carbon dioxide (Mars), 372-73, 376, 378, 391
Carey,F. X., 257 ill.
Carley, William J., 194n
Carr. Michael H,. 282 ill,
Viking imaging system. 280-81, 293-94, 371
Viking I data, 331-32, 335, 338, 364-65
Viking site certification, 284. 306, 311 ill, 323 ill., 346, 348, 353, 359-60, 422
Carter, Arlen f ., 311 ill.
Cartography (Mars), 129, 287n 288. 290. 292-93. 298, 299, 318, 352, 358
Case, Richard K, 182
Cavanagh, Jerome P., 117
Centaur (launch vehicle upper stage). See Atlas Centaur, Saturn IB, Saturn V, Titan IIIC Centaur, Titan IllE-Centaur.
Centaur Project Technical Team, 33, 38
Cherniack, A. Earl, 194n
"Chicken soup" experiment (gas-exchange life-detection experiment), 231, 400-03
Chryse (Mars), 305, 314, 330, 332-33 ill, 334, 337, 354, 357, 359, 371, 404, 411
Chryse Planitia (Mars), 314, 334, 340 ill., 341, 12, 344, 347, 371, 390
Civilian-Military Liaison Committee. 28
Clark, Bemon C., 418
Clark, John F., 19
Cole, Charles W, 140, 170, 172
Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), 56
Commoner, Barry, 80-81
Computer, Viking, 156, 244-45, 248, 253-56, 257 ill., 288, 337, 382 ill., 395-96, 398
Congress, U.S., (see also House of Representatives; Senate), 22, 42, 83-84, 100, 113, 128, 134-35, 141, 143, 146, 151, 186-88, 270
Consolidated Vultee Aircralt Corp, (Convair), 15n
Contamination, biological. See Biological contamination.
Contract, 18, 27, 29, 68, 69, 88-91, 95-98,123-25, 172, 216-20, 228-29, 255, 470-72
Coprates (Mars), 290
Cortright, Edgar M., 38, 43, 45, 131, 139n, 141
Titan Mars, 148-51, 204-05
Viking, 84 ill, 132,183, 186, 212, 237-39, 252. 256, 321
Voyager, 102. 103, 109, 127
Cowie, Dean, 63n
Crabill, Norman L., 153, 305n, 310 ill, 317, 322n, 323, 327, 345, 347, 349-53
Crater (see also individual crater names)
Lunar, 77, 176-78, 314, 353
Martian, 76-77, 78 ill., 176-77, 178 ill., 281. 290-91 300 ill. 331, 332-33 ill. 337-39, 340 ill., 347 ill., 349 ill, 350, 352, 355 ill., 365, 366 ill., 367 ill., 368, 369 ill.
Crocker, Joseph A., 30
Cromie, Robert, 3
Cunningham, N. William, 43, 158
Cutts, James A., 305n, 331, 332, 339, 372
Cydonia (Mars), 314, 315, 347 ill, 348, 371
 
Darwin, Charles R., 51, 54
Davies, Richard, 63n
Deep Space Network, 113, 157, 193, 271-72, 274. 320 ill., 355-56, 395, 396, 415, 422
Defense, Dept. of, 14, 15n, 28, 38, 43, 102, 189
Deimos (Martian moon), 28 ill., 290, 416
De Lauer, Richard D., 239
Dembling, Paul G., 217
Derbyshire, George A., 63n
Discoverer 13, 37
Dollfus, Audouin, 7n
Donlan, Charles J., 124-25, 139
Donovan, Allen F., 145n
Doty, Paul M., 63n
Douglas Aircratt Co., 15n
Downing, Thomas N., 187
Draley, Eugene C., 128. 139
Dryden, Hugh L., 15, 17, 106, 111
DuBridge, Lee A., 55n, 80n, 186n
Duckett, Roy J., 240
 
Earth, 3 ill, 7n, 32, 51-53, 60, 79, 175-76, 363, 371, 377-78, 391, 414, 418
Earth science, 12-13
EASTEX (Panel on Extraterrestrial Life, East Coast), 63
Eberhart, Jonathan, 412, 419
Eckman, Philip K., 86, 194n
Edwards, Andrew, Jr, 86, 89n
Edwards, Howard B., 223n, 232
Edwards Test Station, Calif., 196
Ehricke, Krafft A., 9n, 15, 31-32
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 15, 18, 19, 27
Elysium Planitia, 416
Eos (Mars), 289, 291
Eshleman, Von R, 145n, 321, 340, 357
Evolution theories. See Life, origin of.
Exobiology. (See also Biological contamination, Extraterrestrial life, Viking biology instrument), 55-82, 95, 99, 147-48, 161, 207-09, 231-32, 234-36, 301-02, 374, 408
Explorer satellite, 14
Explorer 1, 17, 18
Extraterrestrial life ( see aIso Biochemistry, Biological contamination, Exobiology). 1-4, 16, 51-82, 107, 180, 235-36, 281, 283, 293, 307, 390, 404-14
 
Farrell, Win, 332
Farmer, C. Barney, 278n, 284, 288n, 304, 305, 308, 310 ill, 345, 374
Fellows, Robert F., 103n
Fenn, Wallace O., 56n
Findlay, John W, 145n, 146
Flammarion, Nicolas Camille, 2
Fletcher, James C., 252, 255, 268, 304-05, 308, 311-13, 329, 336, 340, 38O
Fontana, Francesco, 4 ill
Forsythe, Dixon L., 43
Frank, Ron, 264
Freeman, Herbert, 63n
Froehlich, John E, 18-19
 
Gagarin, Yuri, 42
Galilei, Galileo, 2
Galleher,V. Roben, 194n
Gamber,Terry 310 ill
Gas chromatogaph-mass spectrometer (GCMS), 51, 71 ill, 72-73, 221, 224 ill, 245, 307, 319, 394
costs, 212, 215, 227, 230 ill, 241, 251, 269-70, 283
Mars data, 377, 407-O8, 409
technical problems, 222, 225-29, 252, 253, 261, 264, 398, 399-400
testing 223, 224 ill 237, 261, 263-64
Gas-exchange life-detection experiment. See "Chicken Soup" experiment.
Gates, Clarence R., 14, 36-38
Gaugler, Edward A, 89n
GCMS See Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer.
GCSC (guidance, comrol, and sequencing computer), See Computer.
Geer, E, Barton, 257 ill
General Dynamics Corp., 27, 32, 90, 159, 271n
General Electric Co., 27, 88-96, 101, 105, 124, 138, 148, 196, 204, 216-217
Geodesy. See Earth science.
Geological Survey, U.S., 298, 309, 359
Girouard, Robert L., 153
Glahn, Earl W, 160
Glennan, T. Keith, 14, 15, 19, 22, 28, 34, 56, 69
Gliozzi, James, 299
Goddard, David R., 56n
Goddard Space Flight Center, 28, 29, 45-47, 56, 100, 122, 213
Goett, Harry J., 24, 49
Goff, Loyal G., 230
Gold, Thomas, 29, 63n, 146
Goldfine Milton T. 194n
Goldstein, Richard, 304
Goldstone deep-space tracking radio antenna, 45-46, 157, 161, 274, 299, 320 ill., 321, 335
Goodlette, John D, 243, 329
Goodman, Clark. 103n, 145n
Goudy, Joseph R., 192,196
Grahame, Kenneth, 419
Gray, Roben H, 173n
Greeley, Ronald, 332, 348, 371
Green, Nathaniel E, 5 ill
Greg, Percy, 3
Ground stations (see also individual names of ground stations), 157
Guastaferro, Angelo, 153
Guest, John E, 345, 348
Gulliver (life detection device), 69, 70 ill, 71, 72-73, 104, 231, 400, 402-03, 405
 
Haldane, J. B. S., 52, 55
Hall, John S., 103n, 145n, 147n
Hamilton Standard Div (United Aircraft Corp ), 252
Handler, Philip, 191
Hargraves, Roben B, 308, 311 ill, 323 ill., 341, 353, 417
Hartline, H. Keffer, 63n
Haurlan, Peter N, 86, 89n
Haystack radio astronomy antenna, 320, 321, 335, 344
Hearth, Donald P, 139, 142, 148, 149
Mariner program, 99, 136
Viking program, 151, 187, 213-15, 270
Voyager program, 85, 86, 88-89, 94, 96, 97, 99-101, 103, 107,109,127n, 130
Heaton, Donald H., 43
Heatshield technology, 122-23, 124, 126
Hellas (Mars), 177, 287, 289. 301, 315
Hellas Planitia (Mars), 345
Hellespontus (Mars), 177
Hench, Stanley B, 194n
Hess, Harry H., 59, 80n, 143, 145n
Hess, Seymour L., 278, 307, 390-92
Hibbs, Albert R., xii-xiii, 19
Hinners, Noel, 267, 268, 269, 270. 303, 310 ill.
Hipparchus, 2
Hitz, Frank, 264
Hoffman, David. 77
Hoffman, S. K., 9n
Honeywell Inc.. Aerospace Div., 252, 254-56, 257 ill., 269, 470
Horner, Richard E, 24, 28-29
Hornig, Donald F., 15, 78 ill., 101
Horowitz, Norman H., 53, 180, 235-36, 401, 403-07 409-10, 412
House of Representatives, U.S., 118
Commitee on Appropriations, 185
Commitee on Science and Astronamics, 24, 45, 142, 187
Select Commitee on Astronautics and Space Exploration, 8
Subcommittee on NASA Oversight, 100
Hubhard, Jerry S., 235
Hueter, Hans, 38
Hughes Aircraft Co., 148, 204, 216-17
Hunter, M. W, 9n
Hutton, Robert E., 288n
Huyghens, Christiaan, 2, 4 ill.
Hyatt, A., 9n
Hydrogen, 376
 
Infrared thermal mapping (IRTM), 324, 352, 353, 360, 371-73, 394
Instrument Research Laboratory (Stanford Univ.), 67, 68
International Council of Scientific Unions, 56
International Geophysical Year (IGY, 1957-1958), 12, 13, 17
International Polar Years, 12
International Scientific Radio Union 13
International Telephone & Telegraph, 90
Imernational lUnion of C.eodesy and Geophysics, 13
Itek Corp., 221, 252, 470
 
Jakobowski,Waher, 140, 173n, 185, 231, 232, 310 ill.
Jastrow, Robert 14, 17, 29
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (set also Deep Space Network), xi, 17-24, 55n, 56-57, 67, 122, 128, 131-34
GCMS, 222-23, 228-29
launch vehicles, 14, 27, 47-49
lunar exploration, 17, 20-24, 26, 28-31, 126
Mariner program, 25, 35-40, 42, 45-47, 49, 75, 131-35, 157-62, 167 ill., 288
Titan Mars program, 138-40, 148,167-68, 205
Viking program, xv, 182, 193-94, 213, 214, 219, 269-70, 422, 451-52, 470
Viking spacecraft, 155-57 169-72 195-201, 203, 221, 261, 274, 286, 302, 323, 332, 344, 395
Voyager program, xv, 85-88, 92-94, 96, 97, 100-01, 103, 108-09, 116, 127
Johannesburg ground station, 157
Johnson, Francis S., 103n, 145n
Johnson, Lyndon B., 78 ill., 101, 118, 135, 141, 146, 151, 159
Johnson, Roy W., 16
Johnson, U. Alexis 186n
Jonash Edmund R. 173n
Juno II (launch vehicle), 26
Jupiter (IRBM), 18
Juventae Fons (Mars), 179
 
Kamen, Manin, 63n
Kaplan, Lewis D.. 93
Karth Joseph 100, 109, 113, 117, 187
Kasei Valley (Mars), 361 ill.
Kautz, Gordon P., 182
Kennedy, John F., 1, 42, 83
Kennedy Space Center (KSC), 159, 160 illus., 271, 272-73, 274, 325
Kepler, Johannes, 2
Kety, Seymour S., 56-57
Kieffer, Hugh H. 278n, 288, 352, 353, 372-73
Kilgore, Edwin C., 122 127n, 128, 268
Killian, James R., 17-18
Kindt, Donald H, 172
Kingsland, Louis, Jr., 322n
Klein, Harold P., 225-26, 227, 232, 233, 266, 307, 310 ill., 348, 353, 400-02, 412
Kochendorfer, Fred D., 43, 89n
Kolden, John R., 194n
Kramer John L. 140
Kramer Robert S., 149
Kullas, Albert J., 169, 173, 252
Kusch, Polycarp, 80n
 
Lam, B. C.,89n
Lander, Viking. See Viking lander.
Lander accelerometer (Mars lower atmosphere study), 373-75, 378
Landing site certification ( Mars: see also Viking I and Viking 2, site selection), 305, 317-18, 331-37, 346, 353, 356
criteria, 281, 285-87, 299, 301-302, 318, 352, 356-61
Mariner data, 277, 284-88, 297, 299-301, 304-05, 313-14, 337, 348, 350, 358
polar sites, 302-05, 306-09, 311-13
radar data, 319-24, 340-45
Viking orbiter data, 181-82, 277-78, 293, 297, 300, 306, 315, 322, 324, 330-31, 340, 342-45, 348, 356-61
Landing vehicle ( Mars: see also Viking entries), 121-24, 126-27
Langley Research Center (LaRC), 128, 131-33
and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, xv, 100, 122-26, 136, 139-40, 155, 172, 194, 205, 229
landing vehicle study, 121-24, 126-27
Titan Mars 73 project, 135,136,138-41,147-51, 167-68
Viking program, 151-53, 169, 206, 213, 216-18. 243 252 256 266
Voyager program, xv, 103-109, 107, 109-10, 125-27
Laser, 357, 361
Lasswitz, Kurd, 4
Iaunch vehicle (see also names of individual launch vehicles and appendixes C and E), 7-10, 19, 25, 27, 31, 35 ill.,83, 119, 123, 129, 160 ill., 326 ill.
Launch window, 18, 30, 32, 34, 49, 74, 94-95, 101, 105
Lava (Mars). See Volcano
Lederberg, Joshua, 54, 145n
biological contamination, 55-56, 104
exobiology, 58, 59, 65, 66-69, 80-81, 91
Viking program 215, 232, 233-34, 278n, 288n, 302-05, 313, 348, 359, 409
Lee, B. Gentry, 323 ill., 325, 327, 330-32, 334, 338, 341, 350-51, 353, 359-60
Lees, Lester. 103n, 145n, 146, 147n
Leighton, Robert B., 76, 77,158,175-77,180,181
Leovy, Conway B., 288, 363
Levin, Gilbert V., 69, 104, 105, 402-03, 410, 412
Levinthal, Cyrus, 63n
Levimhal, Elliot C., 68, 103n, 104
Lewis Research Cemer (LeRC), 48-49, 75, 128, 153
Ley, Willy, 4-5
Liddle, Urner, 103n
Life, origin of (see also Exobiology, Extraterresoial life), 51-54, 58, 62, 82,180, 235-36, 408, 414
Lightner, Burton E, 311 ill
Litton industries, 228, 229, 252, 471
Lockheed Aircraft Corp, Missiles & Space Co., 27, 75, 90-91
Love, Eugene S, 128-29
Lovell, J B., 229
Low, George M, 191, 252, 255, 256, 268, 305
Lowell, Percival, 3, 5, 175
Lowrie, Walter O., 239, 252, 256
Luna 1, 26
Luna 2, 26
Luna 3, 26
Lunae Planum (Mars), 367 ill.
Lunarand Planetary Missions Board, 142, 144-48, 184-85
Lunar and Planetary Program Office (NASA Hq),103
Lunar exploration (see also Apollo program, Crater, Ranger project, Surveyor), 1, 14-15,17, 18, 25, 30-31, 83, 188, 309
Lunar orbiter, 1, 30, 109, 128, 135, 141, 153
Lunar Orbiter 1, 126
Luria, A, 63n
Lyman, Peter T., 182, 338
 
McCann, Alonzo, 262
McConnell, J C., 376
MacDonald, Gordon J. F., 145n, 146
McDonnell Aircraft Co, 90
McDonnell Douglas Corp, 138, 148, 169, 204, 216, 217
Mace, William D., 122, 123
McElroy, Michael B, 147n, 225, 376-77
MacNichol, Edward F., Jr, 63n
McNulty, James F, 122, 123, 125, 127
Mainzer, Stanley E., 235
Manned Spacecraft Center, 84, 117-18
Manned spaceflight .See Apollo entries, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Space race
Mapping, Mars. See Cartography
Mare Cimmerium (Mars), 78 ill
Mare Erythraeum (Mars), 319
Mare Imbrium (moon), 314
Mare Sirenum (Mars), 78 ill
Margaritifer Sinus (Mars), 177
Mariner A (see also Mariner 2), 31, 34, 36-40, 45, 75, 434-35
Mariner B (see also Mariner-Mars 1966),1, 25, 30, 34-38, 40, 44 ill, 49-50, 434-35
experiments, 41-43, 50, 63
schedule delay, 44-45, 47-50
Mariner C See Mariner 3.
Mariner D. See Mariner 4.
Mariner E. See Mariner 5.
Mariner F. Set Mariner 6.
Mariner G. See Mariner 7
Mariner M Set Mariner 4
Mariner R (Mariner l ), 40, 41, 44 ill, 45, 435-36, 465
Mariner R-2. See Mariner 2
Mariner 1. Destroyed: see Mariner R.
Mariner 2 (Mariner R-2), 40-41, 44, 75, 93, 156, 435-36
Mariner 3 (Mariner C), 63, 75, 164 ill, 197, 437-39
Mariner 4 (Mariner C, D, M), 63, 74-75, 76ill., 78 ill., 79, 93, 94, 107, 137, 141, 156, 157, 158, 164 ill, 176
data transmission, 76-77, 79, 102, 104-05,160, 197, 277, 286
exobiology, 63, 76-77, 80-81
preflight (Mariner C), 34, 45, 48-49, 75, 96, 99, 164 ill
Mariner 5 (Mariner E), 74, 108, 135, 141, 143n, 170, 188, 439-41
Mariner 6 (Mariner F: ste also Mariner Mars 1969), 74, 108, 159, 160 ill., 165 ill., 175-77, 178 ill.. 179-81, 185, 197, 225, 277, 291, 293, 441-43
Mariner 7 (Mariner G: see also Mariner-Mars 1969), 159, 160 ill., 165 ill., 175-77, 179-81,185, 197, 225, 277, 291, 293, 441-43
Mariner 8 (Mariner H: Mariner-Mars 1971), 132-39, 141, 166 ill., 167-69, 181, 188,
195, 197, 288, 290, 443-44
Mariner 9 (Mariner 1: Mariner-Mars 1971), 167 ill., 188, 197, 225, 279, 288, 443-44, 465
dust storm 289-92
prellight (Mariner-Mars 1971), 118, 132-39, 141, 155-56, 159-63, 166ill., 167-69, 181, 195
surface data, 263, 299, 304-05, 313
and Viking, 300-03, 306, 330, 339, 348, 358, 368-69, 371, 373, 376, 423
water search, 311-12. 319
Mariner 10 (Mariner Venus-Mercury), 132-33, 444-46, 465
Mariner-Mars 1964. See Mariner 3 and 4.
Mariner-Mars 1966 (see also Mariner B), 49, 63, 74, 75, 84, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99, 136, 439
Mariner- Mars 1969 (see also Mariner 6 and 7 and Advanced Mariner), 108, 118, 131, 134, 136-37, 141, 155-59, 162, 163, 165 ill., 168, 169 ill, 173, 181, 243
Mariner-Mars 1971. See Mariner 8 and 9.
Mariner-Venus 1962. See Mariner R, Mariner 2.
Mariner-Venus 1967. See Mariner 5.
Mariner Venus-Mercury See Mariner 10.
Mariner program, 25, 31, 34, 44 ill., 48, 83, 94, 99-100, 128-33, 136-43
Mark, Hans, 237
Marquis, Donald G., 56n
Mars (see also Canal, Crater, Exobiology Extraterrestrial life, Landing site certification Planetary exploration, Volcano), xiii, xiv-xvi, 1, 3 ill., 4 ill., 6 ill., 78 ill., 147, 161, 294-96ill., 300 ill., 356ill., 382 ill., 391, 415, 422-23, 427-29
atmospheric composition, 53, 60, 79, 225. 319, 363, 374-79, 385 ill.
atmospheric pressore, 7n, 60, 63, 79, 86, 93-94, 99, 102-03. 127, 129, 243, 260, 365, 373-74
color, 61, 95,177, 381, 383-84, 385 ill., 387 ill., 388 ill.
dunes, 351-52, 354-55, 364
dust storm, 289-92, 331, 371, 392, 418
geologic evolmion, 62, 79, 263, 292-93, 349, 364, 368-69, 371-72, 389-90
magnetic field, 79, 376
meteorology, 61, 62, 279, 285, 372-73, 379, 390-92
polar cap, 2, 5 ill., 61, 95, 181, 225, 302-03, 371-73
soil properties, 309, 348-49, 400-06, 408-18
topography, 175-77, 179-81, 290-91, 320-22, 330-31, 355-57, 363, 380-81
water, 60, 79, 180, 225, 286, 301, 311-12. 315, 364-65, 368, 373, 376
Mars 1, 46n
Mars 2, 291
Mars 3, 291, 321
Mars 4, 318
Mars 5, 318-19
Mars 6, 318-19, 377
Mars 7, 318
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), 38, 47, 48, 83, 106-07, 108-09
Martin, James S., xi, xii ill., xiii-xv, 127-28, 130, 148, 287, 358 ill., 381, 420
budget, 138-40, 279, 293
gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, 222-23, 237-40, 242, 398, 399-400
and JPL, xv, 172, 194, 228-29
landing site, 278, 299, 302, 314, 317, 320-22, 334-44, 346, 348, 350-51, 353-57, 359-61
Viking lander 203-06, 210-13 215, 244, 252, 254-56, 257 ill., 265, 267, 270, 387 ill
Viking missions. 325-27, 329, 394-95
Viking program, 152-53, 169, 172-74, 182. 193, 194, 231-32, 251-52
Martin Marietta Corp., 90, 138, 148, 262 ill., 271 ill, 420, 451-52, 470-72
cost overruns, 219, 232, 255-56, 269, 452
landing site, 287, 294-98, 302, 305
surface sampler, 399, 417
Viking biology instrument, 230-32, 237
Viking lander, 203-04, 216-18, 223, 228, 243-44, 252, 254-56, 259-61, 263, 264, 287, 297-98, 346
and Viking Program Office, 172, 175, 220-21
Mass spectrometer (see also Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, Organic mass analysis spectrometer), 72-73, 148, 208
Massachussetts Insutute of Technology, 37
Masursky, Harold, 161, 284, 288, 310 ill., 323 ill.
Ianding site, 278, 291-92. 299, 301, 304, 305n, 314-15, 317, 322n, 339, 344-53, 359-61
Viking 1, 331-32, 337, 365
Mayo, Robert P.. 186n, 188
Media coverage
Mariner flights, 77, 292
NASA, 22, 105, 186, 189
Viking flights, xi, xiv, 332, 336-38, 344, 346-47, 355-56, 381, 383-84, 394, 400, 403-04, 412-14, 419-20
Medicine, 57
Memnonia (Mars), 305
Mershon, Frank E., 153
Michael, William H., Jr, 218 ill, 323 ill., 352 ill., 414, 415
Mie (Mars), 351-52, 353, 354
Miller, Stanley L, 52-54, 58, 63n, 414
Mills, Rodney A., 231
Milwitsky, Benjamin, 43
Minivator, 69, 72-73
Mirowitz, Leo I., 169
Mission Design Steering Committee (Titan Mars 73), 140, 141
Mitz, Milton A., 205n, 209, 212
Mohl, Casper F., 168, 170
"Mole, Mr.," 419n
Mons Olympia. See Olympus Mons.
Moon. See Lunar entries and Crater.
Moore, Henry J., 11, 278, 288n, 310ill., 322n, 332, 339, 351, 419n
Moorman, Joseph C., 229, 398
Morgan, Norman R., 194n
Morison, Robert S., 56n
Mosher, Charles A., 187
Multivator (exobiology instrument), 68-69, 70 ill., 71-72, 104
Munch, Guido, 93, 103n
Murray, Bruce C., 79, 104, 270
Mutch, Thomas A landing site, 277-78, 288n, 298, 299. 307-08, 323 ill., 353
photograph interpretation, 380-81, 383, 387 ill., 389
 
NASA. See National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
NASA Headquarters, 14, 28, 124, 142
and JPL, 29, 33-34, 85, 100, 134
Mariner program, 38-39, 41, 131, 134, 157, 158, 160
Viking program, 123,155,185-88, 191.206-07, 209, 216, 219-20, 226, 254, 255, 266, 305, 309
Voyager program, 88-89, 92-94, 105,106,107, 109-10, 127-28
National Academy of Sciences, 13, 55-56, 63, 191, 454
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. 9, 10, 15
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (see also individual centers, offices, and programs: Budget, NASA; Contract, NASA; NASA Headquarters; appendix G), 1, 27-28, 118
manned spaceflight, 1, 7-8, 10, 24, 26-27, 31, 42-43, 57, 83-84, 95, 117-18, 153
planetary exploration, 1-2, 14, 17-18, 20-31, 34, 41-43, 85-86, 93, 121, 128-29, 131-37, 142-143, 146, 184-85, 213
reorganization, 29-30, 43, 144-45, 268, 420
space science policy, 10, 18-24, 56-57, 59-60, 63
National Aeronautics and Space Agency (proposed), 14
National Science Foundation, 14, 56, 102
Naugle, John E., 103, 104, 118, 131n, 136, 168, 329
landing site, 297, 300, 303-05, 311-13, 340
planetary exploration program, 137-38, 143, 145, 148, 151-52, 175
Viking program, 185-89, 191, 192, 209, 210, 212, 213, 232-34, 263, 268
Naval Research Laboratory, 14
Navigator spacecraft, 86
Navy, IU.S., 10
Neilson, Robert A., 168
Nelson, Clifford, 130
NERVA (nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application), 142
Neumann, Temple W., 104
Newby, Carl D., 201
Newell, Homer E, 14, 78 ill.
Centaur development, 43-45, 48-49
space science program, 15, 17, 19, 22, 30, 41, 59, 118, 131, 145
Viking program, 217, 268
Voyager program, 49, 93, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 107-09, 125
Nichols, George E., 194n
Nicks, Oran, 43, 44n, 131
launch vehicle development, 39, 45, 49
Mariner program, 93, 97, 99, 160
Voyager program, 86, 88, 94, 103, 109, 127n
Nier, Allred O. C, 228
Nitrogen, 372, 376-78
Nix Olympia (Mars), 176
Nix Olympica (Mars). See Olympus Mons.
Nixon, Richard M., 151, 186, 188
Noachis (Mars), 289
Noneman, Eugene M., 240
Norris, Henry W., 170, 172-75, 182, 190, 192-96, 222, 239
North American Aviation, inc., 90
Nova (launch vehicle), 27
 
Odishaw, Hugh, 13, 16, 41-22
Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART), 123, 124
Office of Launch Vehicle Programs, 29
Office of Lile Sciences 57
Office of Space Flight Development, 14, 26, 29, 34
Office of Space Flight Programs, 29
Office of Space Science, 43, 47, 265, 268n, 297, 301, 312
Office of Space Sciences and Applications, 123, 124,128,134, 153,157-58, 206, 268n
Olympus Mons (Mars), 176, 290, 292, 294 ill., 296 ill., 364, 366 ill., 369 ill., 416
O'Neil, William J., 341
Oparin, Aleksandr Ivanovich, 52, 58
Orbiter, Viking. See Viking orbiter.
Organic analysis mass spearometer (OAMS), 228
Origins of life theories .See Life, origin of
Oro, John, 411
Ostrander, Don R., 29
Oxia Palus (Mars), 179
Owen, Tobias, 223n, 225, 288n, 304, 310 ill., 322n, 359, 376-78
Oxygen, 376, 378, 402, 403
Oyama, Vance 1., 348, 401, 410-13
 
Paine, Thomas O., 151-52, 185-86,188-89, 191, 216, 217
Panagakos, Nick, xiv, 336
Pandorae Fretum (Mars). 95
Panel on Extraterrestrial Life. See EASTEX and WESTEX.
Parachute technology, 125, 126, 127, 216, 248, 260, 319
Parks, Robert J., 34, 45-47, 86, 223
Pasteur, Louis, 51, 54
Paulson, John J, 223
Permafrost (Mars), 365, 368, 378
Petrone, Ror co A., 268-70
Pettengill, Gordon, 322
Phaethontis (Martian bright region), 78 ill.
Phased Project Planning, 100-03, 105
Phobos (Martian moon), 290, 416
Photograph (Mars; see also Camera, Landing site certification) 282 ill., 332-33 ill., 340 ill., 347 ill., 349 iil., 355-56 ill., 366-67 ill., 369-70 ill., 382 ill, 385-88 ill, 397 ill.
Mariner, 76-77, 160-61, 369, 371
orbital mission proposal, 129
and Viking, 206-07, 263, 363-64, 369, 371, 380-89, 392-93, 422-23
Pickering, William H., xiii, 28, 29, 55n, 78 ill., 127n., 148, 170, 270
JPL-Langley interaction, 125, 139, 168, 204-05
space program, 17-20, 22, 30
Pimentel, George C., 145n, 147
Pioneer 1, 26
Pioneer 2, 26
Pioneer 3, 26
Pioneer 4, 26
Pioneer spacecralt, 14, 25, 26
Pioneer-Venus mission. 237, 422
Pittendrigh, Colin S., 58, 59, 80n, 145n
Planetary exploration (see also Mariner entries; National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Pioneer; Voyager entries; Viking entries;
Space program, U.S.), xiv, 8-10, 12, 15-16, 21, 23, 37, 87, 119, 129-39, 141, 453-54
Planetary Missions Technology Steering Committee (Langley), 124-30
Pollack, Jantes A., 383
Porter, James D., 298, 301, 303, 304, 322
Pounder, Edwin, 284
Pratt & Whitney, 32, 38
President's Scienre Advisory Committee, 144
Press, Frank, 17n, 145n
Press relations, NASA See Media coverage
Price A. Gary 323 ill.
Propellant (launch vehicle), 2, 7, 31, 33, 35 ill.
Prospector (spacerraft), 25, 30-31
Purdy, William G., 252
Pyrolitic release experiment (life detection experiment), 231, 400-01, 403-07
 
Quicksand (Mars), 309, 321
Quimby, Freeman H., 43
 
Radar, 298-99, 306, 309, 315, 319-24, 340-45, 354, 357-58, 360-61
Radar aItimeter (Viking lander), 246, 248, 375-76, 378-79
Radio science, 12, 414-16
Ramo, Simon, 80n
Ramsey Norman F. 144-45
Randt, Clark T., 56n
Ranger 4, 40
Ranger 6, 100
Ranger program, 17, 26, 27, 49
Ranger spacecraft, 1, 25, 26, 30, 34, 39-40, 48, 155-57, 201
"Rat, Mr.," 419n
Rea Donald G. 277
Recant, I. George, 299
Recovery temperature instrument (Viking lower atmosphere study), 374-75
Reill, Glenn A . 76
Renzetti, Nicholas A.. 140, 173n
Retarding potentiaI analyzer (Viking ionosphere study), 374, 375, 376
Reynolds, Orr E., 43, 59, 99, 103n
Rich, Alexander, 232, 233, 234
Richtmyer, L. E., 89n
Ridenour, N., 9n
Robens, Leonard, 121-23, 124, 127
Robins, C. Howard, Jr., 278-79, 284, 298, 302
Rochester, Univ. of, 68
Rocket technology (see also Launch vehicle), 2, 5, 7-8, 10, 12, 13, 31
Rocketdyne (North American Rockwell Gorp.), 190-91
Rogers, Dave, 239
Roscn, Milton W . 19, 27, 33
Ross. C. C, 9n
Rossi, Bruno B., 63n
Russell, Henry Norris, 12
Rygh, Patrick J.. 284
 
Sagan, Carl, 189
exobiology, 63, 91, 225
Mars data, 383, 409
site selection, 278, 279, 284-87, 309, 310 ill, 320-21, 323 ill., 339, 340, 353, 359
Sanders, Newell, 30
Sands, George, xi-xii
Satelitte, 1, 12, 13, 24, 28-29, 31
Saturn (launch vehicle), 30-31, 34, 47, 74, 83, 106, 109
Saturn C-1, 48
Saturn IB (launch vehicle), 89,102-03, 105, 106, 107, 116, 142, 447
Saturn V (launch vehicle), 89, 102-03, 105, 106, 107, 116, 125, 126, 135, 137, 142, 189, 447
Saturn-Agena, 48, 49
Schatz, William J., 190, 194n
Schiaparelli, Giovanni Virginio, 2, 6 ill.
Schilling, Gerhardt, 14
Schmitz, Robert A., 287-88, 299
Schneiderman, Daniel, 39, 160. 279, 284
Schubert, Commander W., 43
Schurmeier, Harris M., 103, 158, 183
Schwarzchild M. 80n
Science end-to-end test (SEET), 260-64, 265 ill.
Science Steering Group (Viking), 210, 211, 221, 260, 291, 293
program costs, 214-15, 221. 223, 225-34, 237-38, 241, 280, 283, 421
site cenification, 277-78, 287, 298, 301, 306, 309, 311, 313, 317-18, 323
Scott David 348
Scott Ronald F., 288n
Seaberg, John D., 33, 38
Seaborg, Glenn T., 186n
Seamans, Robert C., Jr, 100, 101, 102, 106, 109, 118, 131, 186n
SEET. See Science endno-end rest.
Seiff, Alvin, 103-04
Seismometer, 253, 392
Seitz, Frederick, 80n
Senate, U.S.
Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee, 93, 114, 142, 186
Astronautical and Space Science Committee, 80n
Serviss, Garrett P., 3
Sharp, Roben C., 79
Shaw, J., 288n
Shoemaker, Eugene M, 145n
Shorthill, Richard W., 288n, 306-07, 323 ill., 416-17
Silverstein, Abe, 9n, 14, 18-19, 22, 29, 30, 41, 48, 49, 56
Singer, S. Fred, 13
Sistrom. William R., 63n
Sloan, Richard K, 79
Slocumb Travis, 299
Smith, Bradford, 292, 353, 359
Smith, Henry J., 213
Smith, Margaret Chase, 113, 134
Snyder, Conway W., 170, 288n, 293. 297, 353, 420, 421, 422
Soderblom, L. 305n
Soffen, Gerald A., 397 ill.
budget cuts, 225. 233, 280, 283
exobiology, 58-59, 67, 231
Mars data, 365, 375, 378, 384, 389, 408, 409, 419-20
site selection, 278, 301, 303, 305n, 306-08, 311 ill., 321, 322n, 323 ill.. 353, 357-59
Viking program, 152, 174, 181, 183, 203-06. 208-10, 220, 227, 228, 235, 264, 420-21
Sol (Martian day), 390n
Solar array, 157, 167 ill., 198, 199 ill, 244, 298
Solar wind, 375-76
Solomon, George, 237, 238
Sonett, Charles P., 43
Soviet Union, 2, 8, 10, 13, 40, 42, 55, 104, 109,143, 147, 151-52, 260, 291, 301, 377
Space probe, 12, 14-15, 19, 22, 24, 26, 31
Space program, U.S., 8-24, 55, 109, 189
Jet Propulsion Laboratory 15, 17-24
scientific criticism 80-82, 141, 143-46
Space race, 2, 8-10, 13, 22
manned spaceflight, 42, 186
unmanned spaceflight, 40, 104, 109, 143,151-52
Space science (ste also names of disciplines and instrumems; Mars: Space program, U.S.), 51, 113, 205
budget (see also Budget, NASA), 1-2, 22, 43, 119, 141 191-92
data, 40-41, 143, 384, 389-90
experiment proposals, 30n, 35-38, 41-42, 57-58, 160
SpaceScienceBoard, 13, 14, 15, 16-17, 22, 41-42, 46, 56-57, 59-60, 142-45, 157, 191, 263, 453-54
Space Sciences Steering Committee, 41
Space Shuttle, 268
Space Task Group ( Nixon administration ), 186, 188
Space Technology Laboratories, 15, 56, 90, 91
Sparks, Brian O., 47
Spinrad, Hyron, 93
Sproull, Royce H., 153
Sputnik 1, 2, 8, 13, 55
Sputnik 2, 8
Squibb, Gael T., 194n
Steinbacher Roben H. 284
Sterilization. See Biological contamination.
Stever, H. Guyford, 9
Stewart, Homer J., 9n, 19, 24
Stone, David G., 127, 128
Stroller, Morton J., 30
Stroud, William G., 45
Stuart, Jerry L., 69
Summer Study, 1964 (NASA-Space Science Board), 59-60
Surface sampler, 253, 262-63, 328, 394-96, 397ill., 398-400
Surveyor (lunar spacecraft), 1, 25, 30-31, 38, 39, 47-48, 50, 85, 107, 140, 141, 150, 314
Surveyor 7, 353
Swarzchild, Martin 80n
Syrtis Major (Mars) 95, 179, 289
Szilard, Leo, 59
 
Taback, Israel, 140, 152, 173n, 174, 203-04
Tarver, Paul, 103n
Teledyne-Ryan, 252, 472
Telemetry, 40, 42, 157, 158, 248, 249, 280, 393
Telescope, 2, 4, 16, 36 ill., 75-76
Television (see also Camera: Vidicon), 67, 76, 122, 125, 157, 161, 163, 181
Tharsis (Mars), 292, 365, 366 ill., 369 ill., 416
Thompson, Floyd. 127-28, 139n
Thor (IRBM), 15n, 26-27
Thor-Able (launch vehicle), 15, 16, 26
Titan II (launch vehicle), 465
Titan-Centaur, 148-51, 253
Titan IllC-Centaur, 89, 104-05, 134, 136, 148-52, 219, 243
Titan IllD Centaur, 138, 147, 152, 169, 465
Titan IllE-Centaur, 271, 272, 273 ill., 274, 323 ill., 325, 326 ill., 447, 465, 469
Titan Mars 73, 134-39, 142, 147-51, 168
Tithonius Lacus (Mars), 295 ill.
"Toad, Mr.," 419n
Tobias, Cornelias A., 56n
Toth-Nepenthes (Mars), 287
Toulmin, Priestley, III, 263-64, 311 ill, 419
Townsend. John W., Jr., 63n
Trimble, G. S., Jr., 9n
Tritonis Lacus (Mars). 314
TRW Space Laboratories, 101, 221, 229, 230, 232, 233, 237, 239, 267, 269, 472
Turkevich, Anthony L., 263
Tyler, G. Leonard. 321-22, 323 ill., 339-45, 357-58, 359, 472
 
United States. See Space Policy, U.S: Space race
United Technologies. 271n
Unmanned spaceflight. See National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Space race.
Upper-atmosphere mass spectrometer. 374-77
Urey, Harold C., 15, 29, 52-54, 91, 414
USSR. See Soviet Union.
Umpia planitia (Mars), 350, 351, 354, 355 ill, 404, 406, 411
 
V-2 rocket, 7, 12
Valles Marineris (Mars). 295-96 ill., 369-70 ill, 373
Vallis Nirgal (Mars), 294 ill.
Van Allen, James A., 145n
Van Ness Harper E., 173n, 195, 222-23
Vanguard satellite project, 27
Vega Mars probe, 28 ill.
Venera 4, 143
Venas (planet)
Mariner plans, 35, 38-40, 44-45, 46, 47, 48, 93, 107, 131-34
physical properties. 40-41, 53
research probe proposals, 11, 15-16, 18-24, 30-34, 65, 117, 130-34
Voyager plans, 49, 83, 89, 94-95
Vidicon television microscope, 67, 68 ill., 72-73
Vidicon television telescope, 36 ill., 75-76
Vietnam war, xv, 83, 111, 115
Viking A spacecraft, 274-76, 302, 305
Viking B spacecraft. 274-76, 302, 305, 313
Viking 1, 219, 326 ill, 328
data, 330-31, 371, 381-84, 389-92, 408, 413, 416
landing, xi-xiv, 301, 346, 348-49, 375-381
site selection, xv, 302-15, 317-18, 320-25, 327, 329-46
technical problems, 325, 329-30, 348-49, 392-95
Viking 2, 219, 325-26, 328, 354-56
data, 390, 392, 393-94, 406, 408
site selection, xv, 302-15, 317-18, 320-25, 345, 346-50, 352-54
Viking biology instruments (see also "Chicken soup" experiment, Galliver, pyrolitic-release experiment, Wolf Trap), 208, 209, 210, 225-26, 227, 238 ill., 240, 249, 253, 286, 394, 397 ill., 401 ill., 454-55, 461-63 225-26, 227, 238 ill, 240, 249, 253, 286. 394. 397 ill., 401 ill., 454-55, 461-63
costs, 214, 220, 229, 232-34, 237-38, 241 ill., 251, 369-70
Mars data, 398, 400, 402-07, 409-13
testing, 239-40, 264-68
Viking extended mission 420-23
Viking lander, xv, 148-53, 155-56, 168-69, 184, 203-04, 216, 218 ill., 219, 243-46, 251-56, 257 ill., 270, 385 ill., 387 ill.
costs (see also Science Steering Groap, program costs), 251-55, 269
data transmission, 249-50 ill., 422-23
personnel, 203-15, 395-96, 398
science instraments, 174-75, 203-04, 207-15, 225-42, 246-47 ill., 248-50, 375, 378, 391 ill., 397 ill., 416, 418 ill, 454-55
technical problems, 251-56
testing, 256, 258-61, 262 ill., 263-66 ill., 26768, 275, 328, 386 ill.
Viking lander 1, 271 ill, 272, 273 ill, 273-74, 374-75, 378, 379-80, 392-95, 417, 421-22
Viking lander 2, 271 ill., 272, 379, 393-94, 417, 421-22
Viking orbiter, 152-53, 155-98 ill., 199 ill.-201 ill, 219, 223, 243, 244-46, 248-49, 253, 415-16
costs, 170, 172. 184, 201, 203, 214-15, 220, 225-28, 269, 284
design, and Mariner influence, 151, 155-59, 168-69, 183-84, 194-96, 200, 296, 298
science data, 197, 300, 302, 371-74
testing, 171, 193, 196, 198ill., 199-200, 271-72, 275, 328
Viking orbiter 1 (VO-1), 196, 198, 200, 271-72, 273 ill., 348, 394, 422
Viking orbiter 2 (V0-2), 198, 200, 272, 355, 393, 421-22
Viking orbiter 3 (V0-3), 198
Viking program (see also Budget, NASA; Jet Propulsion LaboraLory, Langley Research Center),
xiv-xvi, 1-2, 85, 148-53, 170, 172-75, 182-85, 188-94, 203, 219, 221, 447-52, 470-72
Viking Project Office (Langley), 152-53, 170, 172, 420
and costs, 214-15, 219
lander, 209, 220, 252, 256
science instruments, 156, 209, 213, 223, 227-28, 237, 266
site selection, xv, 292, 297, 303, 305, 308-09, 321, 323, 332
Vishniac, Wolf V., 145n, 146,147, 236 ill., 352 ill.
exobiology 58, 63-64, 67-68, 91, 278, 313
Viking piogram, 232-37, 409
Volcano (Mars), 290. 292-93, 364
von Braun, Wernher, 5, 7-9, 28, 29, 38, 47
von Karman, Theodore, Audhorium, xi
von Struve, Henry C., III, 264
Voyager program (see also Budget, NASA), xv, 1, 49, 83-119, 121, 129-30, 131, 134-37,146, 190-91, 243, 430-33, 446-47
Voyager spacecraft, 25, 30-31, 36-37, 125-29
orbiter-lander, 67, 83, 84 ill.-85, 89, 91-92, 94-97, 102-03, 107, 108, 110-115 ill, 129
scientific experiments, 83, 98, 104
Voyager-Jupiter, 422
 
Wallace, Alfred Russel, 5
Waterman, Alan T., 16
Watkins, Kermil 5., 170, 173, 421
Walson, William I, 153
Weather Bureau, U.S., 102
Webb, Dalton D., 168
Webb, James E., 15, 151, 152
manned spaceflight program, 43, 99, 152
planetary exploration program, 131, 134-35, 142-46
Voyager program, 89, 93, 94, 96,100, 106, 107, 109, 113, 115
Wells, H. G., 3
Welsh, Edward C., 78 ill.
WESTEX (Panel on Extraterrestrial Life, West Coast), 63, 215
Whipple, Fred I., 63n
While Sands Test Facilily, 260
Wigley Robert I., 257 ill
Wilson, C. R., 68
Wolf Trap (life delection device), 67, 68 ill., 72, 231-33, 235, 236
Wolfe, Allen E., 170
Woodward, W. H., 9n
Woomera ground station, 157
Working Group on Lunar Exploration, 17
Working Group on Vehicular Program, 9
Wroton, Hatch, 239, 240
 
X-ray flourescence spectrometer (XRFS), 264, 394, 398, 404, 417, 418 ill.
 
Young A. Thomas
site selection, 278-79, 287, 302-03, 305, 308, 311 ill., 313-14, 321, 323 ill., 339, 342-43, 348, 350-53, 356-61
Viking data, 381, 393, 398, 400, 408
Viking-Mariner-Mars 71, 287, 300-01
Viking program, 174, 205-06, 242, 325, 327, 329, 338, 420
Young, Richard S., 63n, 66, 205n, 215, 232, 233, 236 ill, 310 ill., 352 ill.
 
Zavasky, Raymond, 19