On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978

1. This introductory section is based on notes taken by the authors during the mission and tape recordings of communications audio circuits. See Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), "Viking Status Report," 2:00 a.m. PDT, 20 July 1976; and Roy Calvin. "Viking: Intellect and Ingenuity Triumphant, " Martin Marietta Today, no. 3 (1976): 3.
2. Calvin. "Viking: Intellect and Ingenuity Triumphant, "pp. 3-4; and "Viking Status Report," 4:15 a.m. PDT, 20 July 1976.
3. Calvin, "Viking: Intellect and Ingenuity Triumphant," p. 4.
Chapter 1
1. A recent treatment of Lowell's work is William Graves Hoyt, Lowell and Mars (Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press, 1976). See Brian W. Aldiss, Billion Year Spree: The True History of Science Fiction (Garden City, N.Y.: Schocken Books, 1973); and Robert M. Philmus, Into the Unknown: The Evolution of science Fiction from Francis Godwin to H.G. Wells (Berkeley, Los Angeles: Univ. of Calif. Press, 1970).
2. Robert Philmus and David Y. Hughes, eds., H. G. Wells: Early Writings in Science and Science Fiction (Berkeley, Los Angeles: Univ. of Calif. Press, 1975), pp. 175-78.
3. Willy Ley and Chesley Bonestell, The Conquest of Space (New York: Viking Press, 1949), pp. 105-15; and Alfred Wallace, Is Mars Habitable? (London: Macmillan and Co., 1907). Wallace (1823-1913), best known for his independent anticipation of Darwin's work on the origin of species, developed a cogent and amazingly accurate description of the climatic conditions on Mars. He argued that the average temperature would be about-40°C and that few life forms could survive such temperatures. He also predicted that the surface would be cratered and that the polar caps consisted of frozen carbon dioxide.
4. Ernst Stahlinger et al., eds., Astronautical Engineering and Science: From Peenemünde to Planetary Space, Honoring the Fiftieth Birthday of Wernher von Braun (New York, Toronto, London: McGraw-Hill, 1963), p. 371; and Wernher von Braun, "Des Marsprojekt: Studie einer interplanetarischen Expedition," Weltraumfahrt, special issue, 1952, trans. as The Mars Project (Urbane, III.: Univ. of Illinois Press, 19S3).
5. Von Braun, The Mars Project, pp. 2-5, 65-66, 75-76.
6. Ibid. p. 78.
7. See von Braun. "Crossing the Last Frontier," Collier's 22 (March 1952): 22-29, one of a series of articles: von Braun et al.. Across the Space Frontier. ed. Cornelius Ryan (New York: Viking Press, 1952); and von Braun. F[red] L. Whipple, and W[illy] Ley, Conquest of the Moon, ed. Ryan (New York: Viking Press. 1953).
8. Von Braun, with Ryan, ''Can We Get to Mars," Collier's 30 (April 1954): 22-29.
9. Ibid.. p 23. Von Braun's plans for a Mars venture were elaborated in Ley and von Braun. The Exploration of Mars (New York: Viking Press. 1956).
10. House Select Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration, The Next Ten Years in Space, 1959-l969 staff .rpt., H., doc. 115, 86th Cong., 1st sess. (henceforth 86/1), 2 Jan. 2 1959, p. 211.
11. Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Development Operations Div., "Proposal: A National Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development Program," rpt. D-R-37, 10 Dec. 1957, JSC History Archives.
12. Lloyd S. Swenson. Jr.. James M. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, 1966), pp. 75-76..
13. NACA, Special Committee on Space Technology, Working Group on Vehicular Program, "A National Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development Program, " 18 July 1958, JSC History Archives.
14. Robert L. Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, l958-l963, NASA SP-4101 (Washington, 1966). pp. 19-70.
15. Eli Ginzberg et al., Economic Impact of Large Public Programs: The NASA Experience (Salt Lake City) Olympus 1976), p. 83.
16. William D. Metz, ''Report on Astronomy: A New Golden Age,'' Science 177 (21 July 1972): 247.
17. Ginzberg et al., Economic Impact, pp. 81-86 ff; J. Tuzo Wilson, I.G.Y.:The Year of New Moons (New York: Knopf, 1961), pp. 9-10; and Homer E. Newell interview by Edward C. Ezell, 25 May 1977.
18. Leo Goldberg, "Research with Solar Satellites," Astrophysical Journal 191 (1 July 1974): 1-37.
19. Ginzberg et al., Economic Impact, p. 90.
20. Singer's role in the IGY satellite project is detailed in Homer E. Newell's Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science, NASA SP-4211, 1980; and Constance McLaughlin Green and Milton Lomask, Vanguard: A History, NASA SP-4202 (Washington, 1970).
21. Green and Lomask, Vanguard, p. 23.
22. Newell discusses the satellite race in chap. 7 of his Beyond the Atmosphere.
23. Charles M. Atkins, "NASA and the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences," NASA HHN-62, Sept. 1966, p. 13; Hugh Odishaw to Detlev Bronk, 24 Dec. 1957, "Space Science Board" file, NASA History Off.; and Lloyd V. Berkner and Odishaw, eds., Science in Space (New York, Toronto, London: McGraw-Hill, 1961), p. 429. Unless otherwise stated. all unpublished Space Science Board materials are in the NASA History Off. Archives.
24. Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, chap. 8.
25. Ibid.
26. Ibid.
27. Space Science Board, "Minutes of the Second Meeting," 19 July 1958, pp. 14-15.
28. Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc., Missile and Space Systems Div., "The Thor History," Douglas rpt. SM-41860, May 1963, pp. 1-6; and Space Technology Laboratories, "Interplanetary Probes, Tracking, and Communications," proposal 26-17, 27 June 1958, pp. 1-8.
29. Space Science Board ad hoc Committee on Interplanetary Probes and Space Stations, "Minutes," 13 Sept. 1958, pp. 2-3.
30. Odishaw`` to F. Krith Glennan, 2 Dec. 1958, with encl., Odishaw to Admin. NASA, Dir. NSF, and Dir. ARPA, "Memorandum Report," I Dec. 1958, p. 16.
31. R. Cargill Hall, Lunar Impact: A History of Project Ranger, NASA SP-4210 (Washington, 1977), p. 15; Harold C. Urev, The Planets: Their Origin and Development(New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1952); and Robert Jastrow, Red Giants and White Dwarfs: The Evolution of Stars, Planets and Life (New York, Evanston, London: Harper and Row, 1967), pp. 3-4.
32. William H. Pickering to James R. Killian, 9 July 1958, NASA History Off. Archives; and Pickering, "The Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the U.S. Space Program," draft [ca. 1958], box 15, House Off., Off. of Science and Technology, Eisenhower Papers, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kans.
33. R. Cargill Hall, Project Ranger: A Chronology, JPL/HR-2 (Pasadena, 1971),pp. 14, 46-47,56,60; and Clarence R. Gates, "Mars Proposal," JPL, 19 Sept. 1958.
34. John F. Froehlich, "Minutes of Meeting on N.A.S.A. Space Program of October 27, 1958," memo, 28 Oct. 1958, JPL Library Archives.
35. Froehlich, "Minutes of Meeting No. 2 on N.A.S. A. Space Program Held October 28, 1958, " memo, 29 Oct. 1958, JPL Library Archives.
36. Froehlich, "Minutes of Meeting No. 3 on N.A.S.A. Space Program Held 29 October 1958," memo, 30 Oct. 1958, JPL Library Archives.
37. V. C. Larsen, Jr., to Abe Silverstein, 7 Nov. 1958, with encl., JPL, "Proposal for Space Flight Program Study," JPLHF-2-260,7 Nov. 1958; Homer J. Stewart interview, no. 13, 20 Sept. 1972, by J. H. Wilson, JPL Library Archives; Ralph Green to G. W. Green, TWX, 18 Nov. 1958; Hall, Project Ranger, p. 73; and J. D. McKenney, "Minutes of Meeting of the NASA Program Study Committee with the Senior Staff, Held Dec. 12, 1958," memo, l 5 Dec. 1958, roll 21 B2, JPL Vellum Collection (JPLVC).
38. Newell, "Conference Report," memo for record, 18 Dec. 1958.
39. McKenney, "Minutes of the Meeting of the NASA Program Study Committee and the JPL Senior Staff with Dr. Silverstein, Dr. Stewart, Dr. Newell, and Mr. Rosen of NASA....January 12-13, 1959," memo, 16 Jan 1959 and "Meeting of JPL," 12 Jan. 1959, in Newell, "Conference Notes," notebook, box 28. Newell papers.
40. Newell to Silverstein, ''Hiring of Zavasky, Schilling, Berning, Mange, and Bordean," 11 Dec. 1958, with encl., "Objectives of Space Science Program.'' 11 Dec. 1958. The disciplinary approach continued to be reflected in the documents prepared by Newell's office for several years. See NASA, Off. of Asst. Dir for Space Sciences, ''The NASA Space Sciences Program." 16 April 1959; and NASA, Off. of Space Flight Programs. ''Space Flight Programs,'' 1 Apr. 1960.
41. McKennev, ''Minutes of the Meeting, '' 16 Jan. 1959.
42. Glennan to Hugh L. Dryden, 24 Dec. 1958; arid Glennan to Homer J. Stewart, 16 Jan. 1959.
43. Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 130-31, details some of the agency's reluctance to release even the confidential version. See JPL. Exploration of the Moon, the Planets, and Interplanetary Space, ed. Albert R. Hibbs, JPL report 30-1 (Pasadena, 1959); NASA, "Minutes of Meeting of Research Steering Committee on Manned Space Flight," 25-26 May 1959; and NASA, Off. of Program Planning and Evaluation, "The Ten Year Plan of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration," 18 Dec. 1959.