SP-4212
On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978

 
 
 
 
SOURCE NOTES FOR CHAPTER 11 AND EPILOGUE
 
 
 
1. Conway B. Leovy, "The Atmosphere of Mars," Scientific American 237 (July 1977): 34.
 
2. Ibid.
 
3. Martin Marietta Corp., Viking Mars Expedition, 1976 (Denver, 1978), p. 30.
 
4. Michael H. Carr et al., "Some Martian Volcanic Features as Viewed lrom the Viking Orbiters,'' Journal of Geophysical Research 82 (30 Sept. 1977): 3985. This issue contains 53 articles about Viking; it was also published as American Geophysical union, comp., Scientific Resulls of the Vihing Project (Washington, 1977).
 
5. Carr, "Some Martian Features," pp. 4003-11; and Gerald A. Soffen "Mars and the Remarkable Viking Results," paper, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 16th Aerospace Sciences Meeting Huntsville Ala. 16-18 Jan 1978 AIAA paper 78-191.
 
6. Martin Marietta Corp., Viking Mars Expedition, 1976, p. 30
 
7. ibid., p. 31.
 
8. Soffen, "Mars and the Remarkable Viking Results."
 
9. Harold Masursky et al., "Classification and Time of Formation of Martian Channels Based on Viking Data," Journal of Geophysical Research 82 (30 Sept. 1977): 4016-38.
 
10. Carr and Gerald O. Schaber, "Martian Permafrost Features," JournaI of Geophysical Research 82 (30 Sept. 1977): 4039-54; and Martin Marietta Corp. Viking Mars Expedition, 1976, p. 31.
 
11. Carr et al, "Martian impact Craters and Emplacement of Ejecta by Surface Flow," Journal of Geophysical Research 82 (30 Sept 1977): 4055-65.
 
12. Karl R. Blasius et al., "Geology of the Valles Marineris: First Analysis of imaging from Viking 1 Orbiter Primary Mission," Journal of Geophysical Research 82 (30 Sept 1977): 4090.
 
13. Carr to James S. Martin, "October imaging Review," 13 Oct. 1970, with encls.
 
14. Soffen, "Mars and the Remarkable Viking Results."
 
15. Ronald Greeley et al., "Geology of Chryse Planitia," journal ol Geophysical Research 82 (30 Sept. 1977): 4109.
 
16. John E. Guest, P. E. Butterwonh, and Greeley, "Geological Observations in the Cydonia Region of Mars from Viking." Journal of Geophysical Research 82 (30 Sept. 1977): 4119.
 
17. James A. Cutts et al., "North Polar Region of Mars: Imaging Results from Viking 2," Science 194 (17 Dec. 1976): 1329-37.
 
18. Hugh H. Kieffer et al., "Infrared Thermal Mapping of the Manian Surface and Atmosphere: First Results, " Science 193 (27 Aug. 1976): 780-86; and Kieffer et al., "Thermal and Albedo Mapping of Mars during the Viking Primary Mission," Journal of Geophysical Research 82 (30 Sept. 1977): 4257-62.
 
19. Martin Marietta Corp . Viking Mars Expedition, 1976, p. 27.
 
20. Ibid.
 
21. Ibid., pp. 28-29.
 
22. Crofton B. Farmer et al., "Mars: Water Vapor Observations from the Viking Orbiters, " Journal of Geophysical Research 82 (30 Sept. 1977): 4225-48; Leon Kosofsky, Viking 1: Early Results, NASA SP-408 (Washington, 1976), pp. 18-19; and Soffen, "Mars and the Remarkable Viking Results "
 
23. Martin Marietta Corp., Viking Mars Expedition, 1976. p 25.
 
24. Soffen, "Mars and the Remarkable Viking Results "
 
25. Kosofsky, Viing 1: Early Results, pp. 25-26; and Martin Marietta Corp., Viking 75 Project: Viking Lander System Primary Mission Performance Report, by G. C. Cooley and J. G. Lewis, NASA CR 145148 (Denver, 1977), pp V-1 I to V-12, contract NASI-9000.
 
26 Kosofsky, Viking 1: Early Results, p. 26 W. B. Hanson, S. Santani, and D. R. Zuccaro, "The Martian ionosphere as Observed by the Viking Retarding Potential Analyzers," journal of Geophysical Research 82 (30 Sept. 1977): 4351-63; and A Tan and S. T. Wu, "Post-Viking Martian lonospheric Model,' Acta Astronomica 28, 2d issue (1978): 187-94.
 
27. Soffen "Mars and the Remarkable Viking Results"; and A.O. Nier and M. B. McElroy, "Structure of the Neutral Upper Atmosphere of Mars," Science 194 (17 Dec. 1976): 1298-300.
 
28. Martin Marietta Corp., Viking Mars Expedition, 1976, p. 39; Mark Washburn, Mars at Last! (New York, 1977), p 230; and JPL, Viking Science Forum, 28 July 1976, transcript.
 
29. Kosofsky, Viking 1: Early Results, pp. 27-28; Nier and McElroy, "Composition and Structure of Mars' Upper Atmosphere: Results from the Neutral Mass Spectrometers on Viking 1 and 2," Journal of Geophysical Research 82 (30 Sept. 1977): 4341-49; and Klaus Biemann to Monte D. Wright, " 'The Exploration of Mars, 1958-1978'by Edward and Linda Ezell," 13 Apr. 1979
 
30. JPL Viking Science Symposium, 28 July 1976, transcript; and Washburn. Mars at Last,, p 229.
 
31. Soffen, "Mars and the Remarkable Viking Results."
 
32. Kosofsky, Viking 1: Early Results, p. 29; Alvin Seiff and Donn B. Kirk, "Structure of the Atmosphere of Mars in Summer at Mid-Latitudes, " Journal of Geophysical Research 82 (30 Sept. 1977): 4364-78; and Seiff and Kirk, "Structure of Mars' Atmosphere up to 100 Kilometers from the Entry Measurements of Viking 2,' Science 194 (17 Dec. 1976): 1300-03.
 
33. Viking Lander imaging Team, The Martian Landscape, NASA SP-425 (Washington. 1978), p. 23.
 
34. Notes taken by the authors during the mission, 20 July 1976; Washburn, Mars at Last!, pp. 21 9- 20; and "Mission Status Bulletin," no 35, 20 July 1976.
 
35. Viking Lander imaging Team, Martian Landscape. p. 27.
 
36. JPL, "Viking Status Report," 10:00 a.m. PDT, 21 July 1976 [reports were issued several times a day, as events took place, to help keep the press informed].
 
37. JPL "Viking Status Report, " 11:30 a.m. PDT, 22 July 1976; and Viking press briefing, 21 July 1976.
 
38. Viking Lander Imaging Team, Martian Landscape. p 27: Viking press briefing. 26 july1976; JPL . "Viking Lander Color imaging," press handout, 26 July 1976; and VPO, Viking Project Bulletin Special Edition, "The Colors of Mars," Dec. 1976
 
39. Soffen interview by Edward C. Ezell, 23 Dec. 1978.
 
40. Martin Marietta Corp., Vihing Mars Expedition, 1976, pp 34-36.
 
41. Soffen interview.
 
42. Seymour L. Hess, "Weather at Chryse Planitia on Sols 2 and 3 of the Viking Era " 24 July 1976; Hess, "Weather at Chryse on Sols 0 and 1," 21 July 1976; and Hess, "Wealher Report for Chryse Planitia on Sols 9 & 10," meteorology team press handout, 1 Aug. 1976
 
43. Martin Marietta Corp., Viking Mars Expedition 1976, pp 22-24.
 
44. Martin Marietta Corp., Viking Lander System Primary Mission Performance Report, p p. VI-21 to VI-22.
 
45. Martin Marietta Corp., Viking Mars Expedition, 1976, pp. 48-49.
 
46. Washburn, Mars at Last!, p. 223. Viking press briefing 24 July 1976.
 
47. Viking Press Briefing, 24 July 1976.
 
48. Martin Marietta Corp., Viking Lander System Primary Mission Performance Report, p. VI-7
 
49. Ibid.
 
50. JPL, "Viking Status Report," 6;30 a.m. PDT, 22 July 1976.
 
51. Viking press briefing, 22 July 1976; and notes taken by the authors during the mission, 22 July1976.
 
52. JPL, "Viking Status Report, " 1:00 p.m. PDT. 25 July 1976; JPL, "Mission Status BulIetin, " no. 36, 27 July 1976; notes taken by the authors during the mission, 25 July 1976; Cary R. Spitzer," Unlimbering Viking's Scoop, " IEEE Spectrum 13 (Nov. 1976): 92-93; and Martin Marietta Corp, Viking Lander System Primary Mission Performance Report, pp. VI-24 to VI-25.
 
53. Narrative is based heavily on Washburn, Mars at Last!, pp. 225-27. See also JPL, "Mission Status Bulletin," supplement, 10 Sept. 1976.
 
54. Martin Marietta Corp., Viking Lander System Primary Mission Performance Report. pp VI-25 to VI 26; and Viking press briefing, 29 July 1976.
 
55. Martin Marietta Corp, Viking Lander System Primary Mission Performance Report, pp. VI-26 to VI-27.
 
56. Viking press briefing, 31 July 1976.
 
57. ibid.
 
58. ibid.
 
59. Washburn, Mars at Last!, pp 249-50.
 
60. Viking press briefing, 7 Aug. 1976.
 
61. JPL, Viking Science Forum, 10 Aug. 1976, transcript.
 
62. Norman H. Horowitz, "The Search for Life on Mars," Scientific American 287 (Nov. 1977): 57-58.
 
63. Ibid., pp. 58-60.
 
64. Ibid., pp. 60-61.
 
65. Timothy Ferris, "The Odyssey and the Ecstasy," Rolling Stone, 7 Apr. 1977.
 
66. Viking press briefing 7 Aug. 1976.
 
67. Viking press briefing 13 Aug. 1976.
 
68. Martin Marietta Corp., Viking Mars Expedition, 1976, pp 20-21.
 
69. Soffen interview; and Joshua Lederberg and Carl Sagan, "Microenvironments for Life on Mars. ' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 48 (Sept 1962): 1473-75.
 
70. Horowitz, "'The Search for Life on Mars," p. 61.
 
71. David L. Chandler, "Life on Mars," Atlantic 242 (June 1977): 34.
 
72. "One Man's Mars: No Martians," Science News 111 (5 Mar. 1977): 149.
 
73. Ibid., p. 150.
 
74. Soffen interview.
 
75. Martin Marietta Corp. Viking Mars Expedition, 1976, pp. 18-19.
 
76. Philip H. Abelson, "The Martian Environment,' Science 147 (12 Feb 1965): 683.
 
77. Abelson, "Viking 1," Science 193 (27 Aug. 1976): 723.
 
78. Chandler, Life on Mars," pp. 29-36; and Ferris, "The Odyssey and the Ecstasy."
 
79. "The Mars Experiment," New York Times, 18 Nov. 1976, and "Life on Mars?..." New York Times, 20 Sept. 1976.
 
80. William H. Michael et al., "Viking Radio Science investigations," Journal of Geophysical Research 82 (30 Sept.1977): 4293-95. See also "Viking: Riches in a Radio Beam," Science News 110 (20 Nov. 1976): 325-26.
 
81. Michael, "Viking Extended Mission Radio Science Results," unpublished paper, n.d.
 
82. Martin Marietta Corp., Viking Mars Expedition, 1976, pp. 42-43.
 
83. Ibid., p. 44.
 
84. Ibid., pp. 45-47.
 
85. Ibid.
 
86. JPL, Viking Science Forum, 10 Aug. 1976, transcript.
 
87. "Mars Soil Similar at Two Viking Sites," Science News 110 (16 Oct. 1976): 245-46; JPL, "Mission Status Bulletin," no. 44, 29 Sept. 1976, and no. 45, 21 Oct. 1976.
 
88. Soffen, "Mars and the Remarkable Viking Results."
 
89. Langley Research Center., "Viking Project Manager Leaving NASA," news release, 76-37, 5 Nov.1976.
 
90. Noel W. Hinners, "Personnel Changes," NASA Special Announcement: 5 Nov. 1976.
 
91. "Biographical Data, G. Calvin Broome," n.d., in NASA History Office Biography files.
 
 
Epilogue
 
 
1. Conway W. Snyder. ' The Extended Mission of Viking," Journal of Geophysical Research 84 (30 Dec. 1979): 7917.
 
2. Snyder to All Viking Scientists, "The Viking Mission Stams Plans," 9 Apr. 1979; and A. Thornas Young to Noel Hinners. "Future of the Viking Program," 21 Nov 1977.
 
3. Snyder, "The Extended Mission of Viking," p. 7930.
 
4. Snyder to scientists, 9 Apr 1979; and Mike Carr to Snyder, "Imaging from VO-1 during the December 1, 1978 to April 1. 1979 Time Period," 29 Aug. 1978
 
5. Snyder to scientists, 9 Apr. 1979.
 
6. NASA, 'Transminer Switched Off on Viking Orbiter 1," news release 80-129, 8 Aug. 1980; and JPL, "Viking Facts" [4 Aug. 1980].
 
7. Snyder, "The Planet as Seen at the End of the Viking Mission," journal of Geophysical Research 84 (30 Dec 1979): 8487, 8515
 

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