SP-4212
On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978

 
 
 
SOURCE NOTES FOR CHAPTER 3
 
 
1. Charles Darwin letter in Melvin Calvin, "The Origin of Life on Earth and Elsewhere." Annals of Internal Medicine 54 (May 1961): 956.
 
2. Ibid, pp. 956-57.
 
3. Stanley L. Miller, "Production of Amino Acids under Possible Primitive Earth Conditions," Science 117 (15 May 1953): 528-29.
 
4. Shirley Thomas, Men of Space: Profiles of Scientists Who Probe for Life in Space. 6 ( Philadelphia, New York: Chilton Co., 1963): 249.
 
5. Miller and Harold C. Urey, "Organic Compound Synthesis on the Primitive Earth," Science 130 (31 July 1959): 245-46.
 
6. Thomas, Men of Space, 6: 250.
 
7. Ibid., p. 251.
 
8. Miller and Urey, "Organic Compound Synthesis on the Primitive Earth," p. 251.
 
9. Joshua Lederberg, ''A view of Genetics,'' Stanford Medical Bulletin 17(Aug. t959): 123. Lederberg cites A. J. Klayver and C. B. van Niel, The Microbe's Contribution to Biology (Cambridge, Mass., 1956),as the basic overview of comparative biochemistry. ''A View of Genetics'' was also published in Science 131 (29 Jan. 1960): 2269-76.
 
10. Lederberg, "Exobiology: Approaches to Life beyond the Earth," Science 132 (12 Aug. 1960): 398. This article later appeared as chap. 9 in Lloyd V. Berkner and Hugh Odishaw, eds., Science in Space (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961), pp. 407-25, and was an adaptation of a talk given at the 1st International Space Science Symposium, Nice, 13 Jan. 1960, and published in H. K. Kallman Bijl, Space Research: Proceedings of the First International Space Science Symposium (Nice, January, 11-16, 1960) (Amsterdam: North-Hollard Publishing Co., 1960), pp. 1153-70.
 
11. Lederberg, "Memo on Initial Planetary Quarantine," 2 Jan. 1976, from Lederberg's personal files.
 
12. Lederherg, "Lunar Biology?'' Dec. I957, letter to colleague from personal files; Lederberg, "Cosmic- Microbiology," Jan. 1958, letter to colleague from personal files; Lederberg to Hugh L. Dryden, 4 Feb. 1958; and Lederberg and Dean B. Cowie, "Moon Dust," Science 127 (27 June 1958): 1473-75.
 
13. National Academy of Sciences. ''Minutes of the Council Meeting," 8 Feb. 1958; NAS, "Addendum minutes of the Council of the National Academy of Sciences," 8 Feb. 1958; NAS-National Research Council, A Review of Space Research: The Report of the Summer Study Conducted under the Auspices of the National Academy of Sciences at the State University of Iowa, lowa City, lowa, June 17-August 10, 1962 (Washington, 1962), p. 10-11; and Stewart Alsop, "Race for the Moon," Washington Post, 21 Feb. 1958.
 
14. NAS-NRC, Review of Space Research, pp. 10-12,10-13; "Development of International Efforts to Avoid Contamination of Extraterrestrial Bodies," Science 128 (17 Oct. 1958): 887-89; and Charles R. Phillips, The Planetary Quarantine Program: Origins and Achievements, 1956-1973, NASA SP-4902 (Washington, 1974), pp. 3-7. 9-11.
 
15. Space Science Board, "Minutes of the Fifth Meeting," 7-9 May 1959.
 
16. T. Keith Glennan to Odishaw. 13 Oct. 1959.
 
17. R. Cargill Hall, Project Ranger: A Chronology, JPL/HR-2 (Pasadena, 1971),p. 121; and Phillips, Planetary Quarantine Program, p. 10.
 
18. NASA, "Report of National Aeronautics and Space Administration Bioscience Committee," 25 Jan. 1960.
 
19. Ibid. Harold Urey also pressed for the early flight of life detection devices to Mars; see Urey to Homer E. Newell, Jr., 29 Mar. 1961.
 
20. Lederberg interview by Edward C. Ezell, 23 Aug., 1977.
 
21. Harold F. Blum, Time's Arrow and Evolution (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1951).
 
22. Gerald A. Soffen interview by Ezell, 17 Nov. 1978 and 23 Dec. 1978.
 
23. Newell to Harry H. Hess, 20 Feb. 1964.
 
24. Richard W. Porter to Hess, 26 Feb. 1964. Porter, a staunch supporter of the U.S space program, noted, "Although I personally consider the objective to be very important, I believe there would be ample scientific reason to explore the planets even if we were sure that no evidence of extraterrestrial life would be found."
 
25. Lederberg interview, 23 Aug. 1977.
 
26. For an understanding of both the 1964 Summer Study and the state of scientific knowledge on the eve of the first Mariner flights, the report of the sessions is essential reading: Colin S. Pittendrigh, Wolf Vishniac, and J. P. T. Pearman, eds., Biology and the Exploration of Mars: Report of a Study Held under the Auspices of the Space Science Board, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, 1964-1965, NAS pub. 1296 (Washington, 1966; the quoted passage is on p. 5); and Elie A. Schneour and Eric A. Ottesen, comps. Extraterrestrial Life: An Anthology and Bibliography, NAS pub. 1296A (Washington, 1966).
 
27. Pittendrigh, Vishniac, and Pearman, Biology and the Exploration of Mars, p. 6.
 
28. Ibid., p. 7. William M. Sinton, "Further Evidence of Vegetation on Mars," Science 130 (6 Nov. 1969): 1234-37, argued for the presence of life on Mars but disputed the green color, believing it to be ''a complementary hue produced by the bright orange colors of the deserts."
 
29. Pitterldrigh. Vishniac, and Pearman, Biology and the Exploration of Mars; p. 7; pt. 5 of this book is devoted to ''Some Extrapolations and Speculations," including a "Model of Martian Ecology," pp. 229-42, by Vishniac, K. C. Atwood, R. M. Bock, Hans Caffron, T. H. Jukes, A. D. McLaren, Carl Sagan, and Hyron Spinrod.
 
30. Ibid., p. 8.
 
31. Ibid., p. 8.
 
32. Ibid., p. 10.
 
33. Ibid., p. 12.
 
34. Robert F. Fellows to Abe Silverstein, "Supporting Information re Proposed Contract for the Development of an Instrument for the Detection of Microorganisms on Other Planets," 25 Mar. 1959, from Newell reading file. box 11.
 
35. Thomas, Men of Space, 6: 275; ;and Hall, Project Ranger, pp. 78-79. Vishniac, with his Latvian parents and sister, escaped Germany in 1939 and came to America.
 
36. Thomas, Men of Space, 6:276.
 
37. Richard S. Young, Robert B. Painter, and Richard D. Johnson, An Analysis of the Extraterrestrial Life Detection Problem, NASA SP-75 (Washington, 1965), p. 4.
 
38. Ibid.
 
39. F. Jacob and J. Monod, Biological Organization at the Cellular and Supercellular Level, ed. R. J. C. Harris (New York: Academic Press, 1963), p. 1.
 
40. H. J. Muller, "Genetic Nucleic Acid: Key Material in the Origin of Life," Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 5 (Autumn, 1961): 11.
 
41. Young, Painter, and Johnson, An Analysis of the Life Detection Problem, p. 6.
 
42. Pittendrigh, Vishniac, and Pearman, Biology and the Exploration of Mars, p. 12. Lederberg presented an early description of an automated microscope system in "Exobiology: Experimental Approaches to Life beyond the Earth,'' in Berkner and Odishaw, Science in Space, pp. 420-21.
 
43. Young, Painter, and Johnson, Analysis of the Life Detection Problem. p. 6.
 
44. Pittendrigh, Vishniac, and Pearman. Biology and the Exploration of Mars, p. 13.
 
45. Freeman H. Quimby, ed., Concepts for Detection of Extraterrestrial Life, NASA SP-56 (Washington, 1964), with supplementary materials. See also NASA, Extraterrestrial Life: A Bibliography, pt. 1: Report Literature. A Selected listing of annotated references to unclassified scientific and technical reports, 1952-1964, NASA SP-7015 (Washington, 1964).
 
46. "Minutes of the Working Group Meeting of the Exobiology Summer Study," 15 June 1964, from Lederberg's personal files.
 
47. Ames Research Center, Life Detection Team, "A Survey of Life-Detection Experiments for Mars," TMX-54946, Aug. 1963, pp. 29-43, N66-29419; Harold D. Watkins, "Ames Study Supports Mars Life Theory," Aviation Week & Space Technology (18 Nov. 1963): 61, 65-66, 71; and Young to Ezell, "Life Sciences Work at Ames," 20 June 1978.
 
48. Quimby. Concepts for Detection of Extraterrestrial Life, p. 11.
 
49. Ibid., p. 13; and Soffen, "Extraterrestrial Optical Microscopy," Applied Optics 8 (July 1969): 1341-47.
 
50. Ames Life Detection Team, "Survey of Life-Detection Experiments," p. 15.
 
51. Lederberg interview, 23 Aug. 1977, by Ezell.
 
52. Vishniac, ''Extraterrestrial Microbiology," Aerospace Medicine 31 (Aug. 1960): 678-80, reprinted in Shneour and Ottesen, comps., Extraterrestrial Life: An Anthology and Bibliography, pp. 282-84.
 
53. Ames Life-Detection Team, "Survey of Life-Detection Experiments," p. 14.
 
54. Lederberg, "Multivator: Proposal for Mariner B Experiment-Capsule," submitted in Lederberg, "Cytochemical Studies of Planetary Microorganisms&emdash;Explorations in Exobiology, " NsG 81-60,1 Apr. 1960 to 31 Mar. 1961 (N102 172).
 
55. Ames Life-Detection Team, "Survey of Life-Detection Experiments," p. 12; and E. L. Hundley, and Lederberg, "Multivator&emdash;A Biochemical Laboratory for Martian Experiments," in M. Florkin and A. Dolfuss, eds., Life Sciences and Space Research 11 (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co.; New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1964). pp. 112-23.
 
56. Ames Life-Detection Team, "Survey of Life-Detection Experiments," pp. 12-13.
 
57. Gilbert V. Levin interview by Ezell, 31 Aug. 1977.
 
58. Ames Life-Detection Team, "Survey of Life-Detection Experiments,'' pp. 9-10: Levin and A. Wendell Carriker, "Life on Mars," Nucleonics 20 (Oct. 1962): 71-72; Levin et al., '' 'Gulliver'&emdash;A Quest for Life on Mars, '' Science 138 (12 Oct. 1962): 114-21; Levin, ''Rapid Microbiological Determinations with Radioisotopes," Advances in Applied Microbiology 5 (1963): 95-133; and Levin et al., "'Gulliver,' an Experiment for Extraterrestrial Life Detection arid Analysis. '' in Florkin and Dolfuss, Life Sciences and Space Research II, pp. 124-32. See also Ira Blei and J. W. Liskowitz. Review of Concepts and Investigations for the Use of Optical Rotation as a Means of Detecting Extraterrestrial Life," in Florkin, ed., Life Sciences and Space Research III (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co.; New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1965), pp. 86-94.
 
59. Pittendrigh. Vishniac, and Pearman, Biology and the Exploration of Mars, pp. 12-17.
 
60. Fred D. Kochendorfer to Newell, "Selection of Experiments for Mariner C," 8 Feb. 1963, Lunar and Planetary Programs (SL) chron file.
 
61. NASA, :Mariner-Mars 1964: Final Project Report, NASA SP-139 (Washington, 1967), prepared under contract by JPL, provides the best summary of this project from conception to conclusion.
 
62. Ibid, p 131; NASA, JPL, Report from Mars: Mariner IV, 1964-1965, EP-39 (Pasadena, 1966), p.21; and Oran W. Nicks, memo for record, "Mariner '64 Bulletin No. 2," 18 Nov. 1964.
 
63. "Mariner III Agena Shroud," 2 March 1965, SL chron file.
 
64. NASA, Mariner-Mars 1964, pp. 132-54.
 
65. Robert B. Leighton to Glen A. Reiff, 11 Jan. 1965.
 
66. William Hines, "U.S. Plans Double-Barrel Mars Shot," Evening Star (Washington),14 Aug. 1964.
 
67. A sample of Mariner 4 and related articles includes: ''First of 2 Mars Shots Due Next Week," Evening Star (Washington), 29 Oct. 1964; Ronald Kotulak, "Space Probes to Mars Set within Month: Seek to Learn if Life Exists," Chicago Tribune, 2 Nov. 1964; "Search for Life in Space: Mars Called Prime Target," New York Herald Tribune, 17 Nov. 1964; Howard Simons, "Early Search for Mars Life Urged," Washington Post, 17 Nov. 1964; J. Allen Hynek, "Probe May Clear Age-Old Mars Mysteries," Indianapolis Star, 20 Nov. 1964; "Journey to July; Mariner IV," Newsweek 64 (7 Dec. 1964): 67; Walter Sullivan, "Panel Finds Mars Life Likely and Urges Exploration by U.S.," New York Times, 27 April 1965; Simons, "Scientists Feel Mars Has Life; Seek Probes," Washington Post, 27 April 1965; Simons, "Get Ready for a Peek at the Red Planet," Washington Post, 11 July 1965; and "Searching for Life: Mars and a Magnificent Flying Machine," National Observer, 12 July 1965.
 
68. Sullivan, "First U.S. Rocket Aimed for Mars Is Ready for Launching Tomorrow," New York Times, 3 Nov. 1964.
 
69. David Hoffman, "Mariner Takes First Mars Closeups Today," New York Herald Tribune, 14 July, 1964.
 
70. NASA, "Initial Scientific Interpretation of Mariner IV Photography," news release 65-249,29 July, 1965.
 
71. Leighton et al., "Mariner IV Photography of Mars: Initial Results,'' Science 149 (6 Aug. 1965): 627-30, reprinted in Shneour and Ottesen, Extraterrestrial Life, pp. 307-12; and Richard K. Sloan, "Scientific Results of Mariner Missions to Mars and Venus," in Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Proceedings of the Conference on the Exploration of Mars and Venus, August 23-27, 1965 (Blacksburg, Va., 1965), pp. IX-1 to IX-37.
 
72. John W. Finnery, "Biologist Backs Space Plan Foes," New York Times, 9 June 1963; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Scientists' Testimony on Space Goals, hearings, 88th Cong., lst sess.(henceforth 88/1), 10-11 June l963, pp. 3ff.; and Thomas, Men of Space, 6, pp. 1-27.
 
73. John Barbour, "Scientist Abelson Raps Race for Man on Moon," Evening Star, (Washington), 2 Sept. 1963.
 
74. Karl Abraham, "Scientist Attacks NASA's Proposed Project to Search for Life on Planet Mars," Evening Bulletin (Philadelphia), 28 Dec. 1964.
 
75. Philip H. Abelson, "The Martian Environment," Science 147 (12 Feb. 1965): 683; and Evert Clark, "Scientist Decries Mars Life Search," New York Times, 13 Feb. 1965. For Abelson's earlier involvement, see Thomas, Men of Space, 6, pp. 1-27; and Abelson to Clark T. Randt, 14 0ct. 1960.
 
76. Rae Goodell, The Visible Scientists (Boston, Toronto: Little Brown & Co., 1977), discusses the general issue of scientists as public promoters and critics of science and the social, economic, and political implications of conducting science in a democratic society.
 
77. "The Dead Planet," New York Times, 30 July 1965.
 
78. Pittendrigh, Vishniac, and Pearman, Biology and the Exploration of Mars, p. 19; and NAS-National Research Council, Space Science Board, Biology and the Exploration of Mars: summary and Conclusion of a Study Supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Washington, 1965). Academy President Frederick Sietz sent this report to NASA Administrator James E. Webb 16 April 1965.
 
79. Pittendrigh, Vishniac, and Pearman, Biology and the Exploration of Mars, p. 20.
 
80. Ibid., pp. 20-21.
 

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