SP-4212
On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978

 
 
 
 
 
SOURCE NOTES FOR CHAPTER 4
 
 
 
1. Edgar M. Cortright to Ad Hoc Committee to Name Space Science Projects and Objects, "Revised Suggestions for Lunar and Planetary Program," 18 May 1960; and Cortright, "Exploration of the Moron. Planets, and Interplanetary Space," in NASA, NASA-Industry Program Plans Conference, July 28-29,1960 (Washington, 1960), p. 71.
 
2. NASA, Fourth Semiannual Report to Congress, April 1, 1960 through September 30, 1960 (Washington, 1960), p. 66.
 
3. Raymond A. Bauer and Richard F. Meyer et al., "NASA Planning and Decision Making, Final Report,'' vol. l, rpt. X70-90256, Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration, cat 1970, p. 111-4; JPL, "Advanced Planetary Spacecraft Study Report," vol. 1, Engineering Planning Document (EPD) 139, 28 Dec. 1962, p. I-l; JPL, "Study of Mars and Venus Orbiter Missions Launched by the 3-Stage Saturn C-IB Vehicle," vol. 2, pts. 1 and 2, EPD-132, 1 Mar. 1963; and JPL, ''Study of Mars and Venus Orbiter Missions Launched by the 3-Stage Saturn C-IB Vehicle. 'vol. 3, pts. 1 and 2, EPD-139, 31 Dec. 1963.
 
4. Donald P. Hearth to Oran W. Nicks, "Voyager Review at JPL, November 1962," 19 Nov. 1962. Unless noted otherwise, all letters, memos, and telexes are in the chronological files of Hearth's office (NASA Hq. code SL). boxes 50 and 5l, accession 255-74-663, record group 255, Federal Records Ctr., Washington. In Nicks to Hearth, 4 June 1962, Hearth is offered the job of Staff Engineer, Advanced Programs, Lunar and Planetary Programs Office.
 
5. Hugh L. Dryden to James E. Webb, "Current Status of Certain Programs," 31 July 1962. Hearth to Nicks, "Proposed Industry Studies on Voyager in FY63,'' 19 Nov. 1962.
 
6. Hearth to Nicks, "Proposed Industry Studies on Voyager in FY63, " 19 Nov. 1962.
 
7. Forrest Hogg to Hearth, 22 Jan. 1963; E. F. Wilcomb to Hearth, 23 Jan. 1963; George N. Mangurian to Hearth, 31 Jan. 1963; R. L. Winters to Hearth, 28 Jan. 1963; Robert W. Menzel to Hearth, 11 Feb. 1963; and Hearth, "OSS Review&emdash;January 17, 1963 Advanced Programs Status Report, " 17 Jan. 1963.
 
8. Hearth, "OSS Review," 17 Jan. 1963; and Nicks to Homer E. Newell, Jr., "Proposed Industry Studies on Voyager," 30 Jan. 1963.
 
9. Hearth, "Presentation for Administrator's Review&emdash;9 Feb. 63," n.d.
 
10. Nicks to Newell, "Proposed Industry Studies on Voyager," 30 Jan. 1963.
 
11. Carl M. Grey, "Request for Proposal No. 10-929, Voyager Design Studies." memo, 5 Mar. 1963, with encl.
 
12. Ibid. The schedule and process for evaluating the proposals is outlined in Hearth, "Industry Voyager Studies," memo, 6 Mar. 1963; Hearth to Grey, "Method for Technical Evaluation of Proposals in Response to RFP No. 10-929," 12 Mar. 1963; NASA, "NASA Simplifies Names of Saturn Launch Vehicles," news release 63-26, 7 Feb. 1963; and General Electric Co., Missile and Space Div., Valley Forge Space Technology Center, "Voyager Design Study," vol. 1, "Design Summary," doc. 635D801, 15 Oct. 1963, p. 1-1 (N65-32171).
 
13. Grey, "Request for Proposal Number 10-929, Voyager Design Studies."
 
14. Hearth to Grey. ''Selection of Contractors for Voyager Studies," 5 Apr. 1963; Grey to Hearth, "Technical Evaluation of Proposals Received in Response to RFP No. 10-929," 4 Apr. 1963; Hearth, note of conversation with Grey and R. Wallace Lord, 4 April 1963; and Hearth and Andrew Edwards, Jr., to Grey, "Technical Evaluation of Proposals Received in Response to RFP No. 10-929," 2 Apr. 1963.
 
15. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1964 NASA Authorization, hearings before Subcommittee on Space Sciences and Advanced Research and Technology, 88th Cong., 1st sess. (henceforth 88/1), pt. 3(a), Mar.-May 1963, pp. 1620-22; and "Voyager-A $700 Million Program," Space Daily, 13 Mar. 1963.
 
16. Charles A. Taylor to Hearth, 7 May 1963.
 
17. Hearth to William P. Neacy, 28 June 1963; and Hearth to Taylor, 28 June 1963.
 
18. Hearth to Nicks, ''FY Funding for Voyager," 26 June 1963.
 
19. Bauer and Meyer, "NASA Planning and Decision Making," 1: III-4 to III-5.
 
20. Ibid., pp. III-5 to III-6.
 
21. Lewis D. Kaplan, Guido Munch, and Hyron Spinrad, "An Analysis of the Spectrum of Mars, " Astrophysical Journal 139 (I Jan. 1964): 1-15; and Alvin Seiff and David E. Reese, Jr., ' Defining Mars' Atmosphere&emdash;A Goal for the Early Missions," Astronautics & Aeronautics 3 (Feb. 1965): 16-21.
 
22. Nicks to Newell, "Changes to AVCO and GE Voyager Studies," 9 Aug. 1963; and Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year l965, hearings, 88/2, pt. 1, Scientific and Technical Programs, 4 Mar. 1964, pp. 131-33.
 
23. Nicks, "Planetary Program," in NASA, "Briefing for the Administrator on Possible Expansion of Lunar and Planetary Programs," 2 Dec. 1963; Nicks to Milton Rosen, "Centaur Success," 29 Nov. 1963; Newell to William H. Pickering, TWX, 19 Dec. 1963; and Urner Liddel to Chairman, Space Sciences Steering Committee, "Mars 1966 Mission," 31 Dec. 1963.
 
24. Hearth to Nicks, "JPL's Plan to Suspend Their Voyager Study," 8 Aug. 1963.
 
25. Ibid.
 
26. Hearth, "Mariner Plan and Voyager Concepts," in NASA, "Briefing for the Administrator on Possible Expansion of Lunar and Planetary Programs," 2 Dec. 1963, pp. 34-36.
 
27. GE Missile and Space Div., "Design Summary," p. 2-1.
 
28. Ibid pp. 5-9 to 5-15; and AVCO Corp., Research and Advanced Development Div., "Voyager Design Studies," vol. 1, "Summary," 15 Oct. 1963, pp. 67-74.
 
29. Hearth. "Mariner Plan and Voyager Concepts," p. 41.
 
30. Hearth, ''OSSA Review&emdash;February 24, 1964: Advanced Studies Status Report," n.d.; and Liddel, "OSSA Review, February 24, 1964, Mars 1966 Mission," n.d.
 
31. Nicks to Liddel et al., "Line Assignments for Mariner 66 Mission Definition," 6 Jan. 1964.
 
32. Seiff. ''Call from Mr. Donald Easter, Office of Lunar and Planetary Programs, NASA Headquarters to Set Meeting for Potential 1966 Mars Mission Experimenters," telephone memo, 7 Jan. 1964; Liddel ''OSSA Review, January 23, 1964, Mariner 66 Mission Definition,'' n.d.: Seiff, "Call by Mr. John Dimeff and Writer to Mr. Joseph Koukol, Chief, Communication System Development Branch. JPL, concerning Capsule to Bus Communication System for 1966 Mars Mission," telephone memo. 5 Feb. 1964; Liddel to Donald P. Burcham, TWX, 20 Feb. 1964; Liddel, "OSSA Review. February 24. 1964, Mars 1966 Mission," n.d.; and Nicks to Newell, "JPL Manpower Requirements," 13 March 1964.
 
33. NASA, "NASA Statement on Appropriation Bill," news release 64-221, cat 30 Aug. 1964. For a general discussion of NASA budgets from 1964 to 1969, see NASA, Preliminary History of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration during the Administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson, November 1963-January 1969 (Washington, 1969).
 
34. Hearth to Nicks, "Mariner Missions to Mars in 1969," 18 Mar. 1964.
 
35. Ibid.; Hearth to Nicks, "Call from Dr. Newell Relative to Mariner '64 Occultation Experiment," 11 May 1964; and Nicks to Chairman, Space Sciences Steering Committee, "Mars Atmosphere Experiment for Mariner '64," 5 June 1964, with encl.
 
36. Hearth to Nicks, "Mariner Missions to Mars in 1969."
 
37. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Investigation of Project Ranger, hearings before Subcommittee on NASA Oversight, 88/2, April-May 1964, pp. 211-46. See also R. Cargill Hall, Lunar Impact: A History of Project Ranger, NASA SP-4210 (Washington, 1977), pp. 240-55.
 
38. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., to NASA Management Committee, "Outline for Discussion&emdash;Probable Contributing Factors to Project Schedule Slippage," 17 June 1964.
 
39. For the story of Mariner-Mars 69, consult: Donald P. Burcham, "Listing of Voyager Important Documents & Meetings Relative to Project Direction," 14 Dec. 1964, rev. 14 March 1967 and Oct. 1967; Newell to Pickering, 7 Aug. I964 Newell to Pickering, TWX, 9 Sept. 1964; Newell to Seamans, "Voyager Program and the Fiscal Year 1966 Budget, " 25 Sept. 1965; Hearth, "Discussion of Planetary Programs with the Associate Administrator, September 23, 1964," memo for record, 30 Sept. 1964; Hearth, ''Current Actions and Guidelines on the Post-1964 Mars Program,'' memo for record, 13 Oct. 1964; Nicks to Alvin R. Luedecke. 19 Oct. 1964: Hearth, "OSSA Review of November 3, 1964: Mariner Mars 69," 5 Non. 1964; Newell to Pickering, 7 Jan. 1965; Lockheed Missiles & Space Co., "Finial Report, Mariner Mars l969 0rbiter Study Contract No. JPL 950877," report M-29-64-1,4 Oct. 1964 (N65--1458); JPL, ''Mariner Mars 1969 0rbiter Technical Feasibility Study,'' EPD-250, 16 Nov. 1964 (N65-27875); and JPL, "Mariner Mars 1969 Lander Technical Feasibility Study," EPD-261, 28 Dec. 1964.
 
40. Seamans to Donald F. Hornig, 14 Dec. 1964; and James O. Spriggs to Newell, "Voyager 1969," 7 Dec. 1964.
 
41. Hearth to Nicks, "Proposed Headquarters Organization for Voyager," 14 Dec. 1964; Hearth to Pickering, TWX, 1 Jan. 1965; Newell to Pickering, 7 Jan. 1965; and Nicks to staff, "SL Organization" 29 Jan. 1965.
 
42. NASA,''NASA Asks Proposals on Mars Voyager Design Definition,'' news release 65-15, 15 Jan. 1965.
 
43. Cortright to Pickering, TWX, 1 Jan. 1965; Hearth, "Mr. Hilburn's Suggestion Relative to Submission by Voyager Phase IA Proposers of Fully Expected Contracts," memo for record, 8 Jan. 1965; George J. Vechietti to Seamans, "Voyager Procurement Plan," 12 Jan. 1965: Cortright to Pickering, TWX 13 Jan. 1965; Hearth, ''Status of Voyager RFP." memo, 25 Jan. 1965, Newell to Paul Ross, 28 Jan 1965; Earl D. Hilburn to Newell. "Voyager Procurement Plan, " 8 Feb. 1965; Hearth to Carl Schreiber, "Contractor Performance Information on Voyager Proposers." 16 Feb. 1965; Hearth to Nicks, "Status of Voyager Proposals and Evaluation," 24 Feb. 1965; Hearth to C. W. Cole, 10 Mar. 1965; NASA, NASA Selects Three Firms for Voyager Design.'' news release 65-135, 22 Apr. 1965; and Hilburn to Newell, ''Fixed-Price Contract for Phase IA of the Procurement of a Voyager Spacecraft System by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory," 26 Apr. 1965.
 
44. William J. Normyle, ''Space Sciences Receive Budget Reprieve," Aviation Week & Space Technology 82 (l8 Jan 1965):23-24 NASA, "Background Material and NASA FY 1966 Budget Briefing, 23 January 1965,' 'news release, 25J an. 1965; John W. Finney, "99.7 Billion Budget Puts Emphasis on Broader Aid for Schools and Welfare," New York Times, 26 Jan. 1965; "Still in the Space Race," New York Times, 30 Jan. 1965; George C. Wilson, "Johnson Maps Strong Aerospace Efforts," Aviation Week & Space Technology 82 (I Feb. 1965): 16-18; and Robert Hotz. ''The Aerospace Budget.'' Aviation Week & Space Technology 82 (1 Feb. 1965): 11.
 
45. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1966 NASA Authorization, hearings, 89/1, pt. 1, Feb. and Apr. 1965, pp. 43-44, 278, and pt. 2, Mar. 1965, p. 947; and House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1966 NASA Authorization, hearings before Subcommittee eon Space Science and Applications, 89/1, pt. 3, Mar. 1965, pp. 154-55.
 
46. Arvydas J. Kliore et al., "The Mariner 4 Occultation Experiment," Astronautics & Aeronautics 3 (July 1965): 72-80.
 
47. Nicks to Newell, ''Voyager Capsule Coordination," 23 Mar. 1965; Newell to Pickering, 31 Mar. 1961: Newell to Floyd L. Thompson, "Voyager Capsule Coordination Group," 7 Apr. 1965; Newell to Wernher von Braun, "Meeting on Martian Capsule Technology," 28 Apr. 1965; and Hearth, "Meeting on Martian Capsule Technology, May 11, 1965," memo, 30 Apr. 1965.
 
48. Newell, "Establishment of the Voyager Capsule Advisory Group," memo, 14 July 1965.
 
49. Robert Lindsey, "Mars Atmospheric Probe Proposed," Missiles and Rockets 16 (8 Feb. 1965): 13; Rex Pay, "Experts at Odds over Mars Goals." Missiles and Rockets 16 (22 Feb. 1965): 39; Michael Yaffe, "Martian Atmosphere Experiment Urged for 1969 Voyager Vehicle," Aviation Week & Space Technology 82 (8 Feb. 1965): 61-62; Temple W. Neuman, "The Automated Biological Laboratory," in George W. Morgenthaler and Robert G. Morra, eds., Unmanned Exploration of the Solar System, Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, vol. 19 (North Hollywood: American Astronautical Society, 1965), pp. 237-51; and Seiff and Reese, "Defining Mars' Atmosphere&emdash;A Goal for the Early Missions," pp. 16-20.
 
50. Bruce C. Murray, "A Martian Horror Story: Requirements vs. Capabilities for the Photographic Exploration of Mars, " in Morgenthaler and Morra, Unmanned Exploration of the Solar System, pp. 153-73. The volume contains several other articles pertaining to Mars exploration. The Cal Tech-J PL Planetary Exploration Study Group studied the Mars exploration program 1964-1965 in an effort to influence NASA policy. A collection of documents is available as "B. C. Murray NASA-CIT Voyager Dialogue, 1964-1965," JPLHF 3-481.
 
51. Pay. ''Experts at Odds over Mars Goals;'' and Irving Stone, "Mariner Data May Limit Voyager Payload,'' Aviation Week & Space Technology 83 (2 Aug. 1965): 55, 57, 60.
 
52. John E. Naugle to Newell, Nicks, and Hearth, ''Interim Report of the Voyager Capsule Advisory Group,'' 20 Aug. 1965; and Paul Tarver, memo, "Summary Minutes of Meeting No. 1," 27 July 1965.
 
53. Newell to Pickering, 10 Sept. 1965; and Hearth, "Meeting with Dr. Seamans, Mr. Hilburn, Mr. Rieke on September 3, 1965," memo for record, 14 Sept. 1965.
 
54. NASA. "NASA Considers Saturn V for Voyager Program," news release 65-328, 14 Oct. 1965; ''Major Reorganization Upcoming in Voyager Program," Missile/Space Daily 15 (1 Oct. 1965): 131-52: Ha1 Taylor, "Voyager Program Facing Reorganization," Missiles and Rockets 17 (4 Oct. 1965): 14; Howard Simons, "NASA Weighs Major Changes in Voyager's Mission to Mars," Washington Post. 9 Oct. I965: and Seamans to Newell. 8 Oct. 1965.
 
55. Donald E. Fink, "NASA Reorients Lunar, Planet Missions," Aviation Week & Space Technology 83 (27 Dec. 1965): 20; Taylor, ''Seamans Crystallizes Voyager Plans,'' Missiles & Rockets 17 (25 Oct. 1965): 17; Fink, "NASA Revamping Voyager Development," Aviation Week &Space Technology 83 ( 1 Nov. 1965): 20; Stone, "Atmosphere Data to Alter Voyager Design," Aviation Week & Space Technology 83 (22 Nov. 1965): 66-67, 69; "War to Limit NASA Budget, Teague Says," Houston Post. 30 Aug. 1965, Hearth, "Revisions to Planetary Program (Discussions with NASA)," 17 Dec. 1965: and Nicks, "Discussion with Mr. Fink of 'Aviation Week,' on Oct. 7, 1965," memo for record, 14 Oct. 1965.
 
56. General Electric, Missile and Spacecraft Div., Spacecraft Dept., "Voyager Spacecraft System Study (Phase I&emdash;Titan IIIC Launch Vehicle), Final Report," vol. 1, "Summary, doc. 64SD933, 7 Aug. 1964 (N65-24896);and General Electric Co., "Voyager Spacecraft System Study (Phase II, Saturn V Launch Vehicle). Final Report," vol. 1, "Summary," doc. 64SD4376) Dec. 1964 (N66-15824).
 
57. Newell interview by Edward C Ezell, 11 Jan. 1978; Cortright to Seamans. ''Launch Vehicles for Voyager, " 11 Jan. 1965; and V. L. Johnson to Rosen, "Proposed Statement on Launch Vehicle for Voyager," 21 Jan. 1965.
 
58. Hearth. "Presentation for Administrator's Review," 9 Feb. 1965; and "Saturn V May Boost Two Voyagers," Missiles and Rockets 17 (18 Oct. 1965): 15.
 
59. Seamans to E. C. Welsh, 2 Dec. 1965.
 
60. Newell interview, 11 Jan. 1978.
 
61. Bauer and Meyer, "NASA Planning and Decision Making," vol. 1, pp. III-l to III-12.
 
62. Ibid., p.111-14. See also Burcham, "Voyager Notes, " 23 Jan. 1966, JPL History File (JPLHF)3-270, JPL Library, for detailed JPL comments on changes in the Voyager project.
 
63. NASA, "NASA Defers Voyager: Schedules Three Mariners." news release 65-389, 22 Dec. 1965; JPL Off. of Public Information, ''NASA Defers Voyager: Schedules Three New Mariners," 22 Dec. 1965, JPLHF 3-165, JPL Library and Newell to Luedecke, TWX, 22 Dec. 1965.
 
64. Fink, "Fund Bite Halts Voyager Bus Work: Lander Capsule Design to Continue," Aviation Week & Space Technology 84 (3 Jan. 1966): 24; and Hearth, "Voyager Plans," memo for record, 14 Jan. 1966.
 
65. Bauer and Meyer, "NASA Planning and Decision Making," vol. 1, p.111-16; Newell interview, 11 Jan. 1978; James E. Webb to Clinton P. Anderson, 2 May 1966; and House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1967 NASA Authorization, hearings before Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, 89/2, pt. 3, Feb.-Mar. 1966, pp. 22-23, 223-24.
 
66. Bauer and Meyer, "NASA Planning and Decision Making," vol. 1, pp. III-16 to III-17; [Hearth], "Webb Review, Planetary Program," 14 Feb. 1966; and [Hearth], "Answers to Nasty Questions, Planetary Programs," 15 Feb. 1966.
 
67. JPL, "Voyager Presentation to Executive Council." 7 July 1966; JPL. "Voyager Project Study&emdash;Backup Data,'' 7 July 1966; JPL, "Voyager Project Study&emdash;Backup Data," 12 July 1966; JPL, "Voyager Mars Mission Science Models," 19 July 1966; JPL, "Voyager Project Study Presentation to NASA&emdash;Backup Data," 21 July 1966; JPL, "Voyager Project Study&emdash;Presentation to NASA," 14 Sept. 1966; and Newell to Pickering, 5 Oct. 1966.
 
68. JPL, "Voyager Project Study&emdash;Presentation to NASA (Seamans)," 12 Oct. 1966; and Burcham, "Listing of Voyager Important Documents & Meetings Relative to Project Direction," 14 Dec. 1966, and revisions.
69. [Hearth] "Voyager Project Management Chronology," 9 June 1967.
 
70. Hearth, "Chronology of Voyager Management Decisions," memo for record, 11 Jan. 1967; Hearth, "Chronology of Voyager Management," memo for record, 12 Jan. 1967; Hearth to David G. Stone and Burcham, TWX, 13 Jan. 1967; NASA, "Memorandum of Agreement between OSSA and OMSF on the Voyager Project," 9 June 1967; and Newell to Webb and Seamans, "Voyager Management Decisions," 21 Feb. 1967.
 
71. Newell to Webb and Seamans, "Voyager Management Decisions"; and NASA, "NASA Organizes Management for Voyager Project," news release 67-40, 28 Feb. 1967.
 
72. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1968 NASA Authorization, hearings before Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, 90/1, pt. 3, Mar.-Apr. 1967, pp. 539-40; and Bauer and Meyer, "NASA Planning and Decision Making," vol. 1, p. 111-27. The lengthy discussions of the impact of managing Voyager on the size of the JPL staff are documented in JPL, "File on Manpower-Management Negotiations with OSSA, Oct.-Dec. 1966," n.d., JPLHF 3-271, JPL Library.
 
73. Bauer and Meters, "NASA Planning and Decision Making," vol. 1, p. 111-27.
 
74. William Hinds, "Apollo Fire May Delay Mars Probe till 1979," Washington Evening Star, 3 Feb. 1967. See also Jane Van Nimmen and Leonard C. Bruno with Robert L. Rosholt, NASA Historical Data Book, 195S-1968, vol. I, NASA Resources, NASA SP-4012 (Washington, 1976), p. 118.
 
75. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1968, hearings, 90/1, pt. 1, Apr. 1967, p. 30.
 
76. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1968 NASA Authorization. hearings before the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, 90/1, pt. 3, Mar.-Apr. 1967, p. 1061.
 
77. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1968, 90/1, rpt. 353, 23 June 1967, p. 35.
 
78. The fate of the NASA budget authorization for fiscal 1968 can be followed in the Congressional Record; NASA "Chronological History, Fiscal Year l968 Budget Submission," 8 Nov. l967; and the press. For the press, see "Budget Looks to Era beyond Moon Landing," Chicago Tribune, 25 Jan. 1967: "Mars Can Wait, " Chicago Tribune. 5 Mar 1967; Philip H. Abelson, ''The Future Space Program," Science 155 (17 Mar. 1967): 1367; "Space Budget Request Kept Nearly Intact by House Unit, but It Facts Tougher Tests.'' Wall .Street Journal, 17 May 1967; Space Agency's Budget Faces House Challenges, Washington Evening Star, 22 June 1967: J. V. Reistrup. House NASA Budget Cut Doubled by Senate Group," Washington, Post 24 June 1967; Hines. ''NASA Meets the Budget Ax," Sunday Star. 25 June 1967; Jerry Klutz. "NASA Budget Cut $23 Million," Washington Post. 27 June 1967; "House and Senate Cut NASA Request, " New York Times. 29 June 1967; House and Senate Approve Separate Space Budgets,'' Wall Street Journal. 29 June 1967; ''Space Funds Cut Deeply by House, Senate." Aviation Week & Space Technology 87 (3 July 1967): 28; Luther J. Carter, "Space Budget: Congress Is in a Critical, Cutting Mood," Science 157 (14 July 1967): 170-73; and Edward C. Welsh, "Selling the Space Program,'' Aviation Week & Space Technology 87 (24 July 1967): 11.
 
79. Hotz, ''The Turbulent Summer," Aviation Week & Space Technology 87 (31 July 1967): 11; and David Tarr, "Civil Rights." in Congressional Quarterly Service, Congress and the Nation, vol. 2, 1965-1968 (Washington, 1969), pp. 354-55.
 
80. Senate Committee on Appropriations, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1968, hearings before the Subcommittee, 90/1,[26 July] 1967, pp. 73-77; Katherine Johnsen, "Webb Refuses to Choose Program for Cuts,'' Aviation Week & Space Technology 87 (31 July 1967): 20; Louis Harris. "Space Programs Losing Support,'' Washington Post, 31 July 1967; and ''Our Priorities Are out of Balance," Washington Post, 31 July 1967.
 
81. MSC contracting officer to prospective contractors, "Request for Proposal No. BG721-28-7-528PÉPlanetary Surface Sample Return Probe Study for .Manned Mars/Venus Reconnaissance/Retrieval Missions, '' 3 Aug. 1967.
 
82. L. R. Magnolia and S A. Gogin compiled Manned Mars Missions: A Bibliography, research bibliography 35. For TRW Space Technology Laboratories (Redondo Beach, Calif., 1965), containing 348 entries. Several hundred more recent references can be obtained through NASA's RECON computerized information retrieval system. See also Robert B. Merrifield, "A Historical Note on the Genesis of .Manned Interplanetary Flight," paper XVE 3, Joint National Meeting, American Astronautical Society (15th Annual) and Operations Research Society (35th National), 17-20 June, 1969.
 
83. Normyle, "Priority Shift Blocks Space Plans," Aviation Week & Space Technology 87 (11 Sept., 1967): 27.
 
84. NASA Public Affairs Off., to field centers, TWX, 24 Aug. 1967; Hotz, "New Era for NASA," Aviation Week & Space Technology 87 (7 Aug. 1967): 17; Carter, "Space: 1971 Mariner Mission Knifed by Budget Cutters," Science l5 (11 Aug. 1967):658-60; "Fund Cuts Redirect Space Plans," Aviation Week & Space Technology 87 (21 Aug. 1967): 23; "NASA Budget Cut $500 Million by House," Washington Post, 23 Aug. 1967; "House Votes Fund for Space Agency," New York Times, 23 Aug. 1967; and "White House Stand Blocks NASA Budget Restoration," Aviation Week & Space Technology 87 (28 Aug. 1967): 32.
 
85. Thomas O'Toole, "Some of Cut Funds Regained by NASA," Washington Post, 4 Oct. 1967; Reistrup, "Senate Boosts NASA Funds," Washington Post, 7 Oct. 1967; and Albert Sehistedt, Jr., ''Conferees Vote 4.5 Billion to NASA, None for Voyager," Baltimore Sun, 26 Oct. 1967.
 
86. "People," Electronics 40 (4 Sept. 1967): 8, 10.
 

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