On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978

1. Unless otherwise noted, this section is based on James F. McNulty, "The Defining of Mars Project Viking," unpublished typescript [ca. 1976], pp. 27 ff.
2. Ibid., p. 32.
3. Leonard Roberts, ''Entry into Planetary Atmospheres,'' Astronautics & Aeronautics 2 (Oct. 1964): 22-29. Also see Roberts, "Probe and Lander Design Problems," Proceedings of the Conference on the Exploration of Mars and Venus, August 23-27, 1965, Virginia Polytechnic Institute Engineering Extension Series Circular 5 (Blacksburg, Va., 1965), pp. xvi-1 to xvi-10. For background information on studies related to Mars missions, see the following Langley Working Papers (LWP): Lawrence D. GUY, "Tension-Shell Configurations for Low-Density Entry Vehicles," LWP-51, 4 Nov. 1964; Perry A. Newman. "Tables of Thermodynamic Properties of the Six Proposed Mars Atmospheres, VM-l to 6, " LWP 149, 14 Sept. 1965; William M. Adams, Jr., and J. W. Young, "Study of an Unmanned Mars Mission Beginning with Separation of a Lunar Capsule from a Fly-by Bus and Ending near the Surface of Mars,'' LWP-205.6 May 1966; Richard N. Green and John F. Newcomb, "A Parametric Analysis of Orbital Geometry for Mars Voyager,'' LWP-248, 22 July 1966; Richard J. Bendura and Charles H. Whitlock. "A Dispersion and Motion Analysis of the Balloon Launched Phase of the Planetary Entry Parachute. Project,'' L.WP-290. 1 Oct. 1966; L. D. Guy and M. S. Anderson, "Technology Programs in Supersonic Decelerators," LWP-307, Oct. 1966; staff, Flight Reentry Programs Off.. Langley Research Ctr., "Guidelines for Phase B LRC Voyager Capsule Bus Mission Mode Study,'' LWP-366, 15 Feb. 1967; Vernon L. Alley, Jr., and Raye C. Mathis, "An Analysis and Computing Program for Three-body Parachute Deployment Dynamics with Specific Applications to the PEPP (Balloon) Program," LWP-398, 20 April 1967; J. L. Humble and W. W. Fernald, Voyager, Mars Aerodynamic Decelerator Trajectories," LWP-401, 25 April 1967; and Langley Research Ctr. Inhouse Study Team, ''Voyager Capsule Bus System Baseline and Mission Mode Description-1973 Mission on Saturn V," LWP-478, 28 Sept. 1967.
4. McNulty, "Defining Project Viking," pp. 44-47, describes the details of the statement of work.
5. "Voyager Components Must Withstand 293F," Aviation Week & Space Technology 82 (26 April 1965): 100; Hal Taylor, "JPL to Manage Voyager Lander," Missiles and Rockets 16 (3 May 1965): 14; and "AVCO Will Perform Two Separate Studies…," Astronautics & Aeronautics 3 (June 1965): 108. Also see AVCO, Research and Development Div., "Mars Probe Final Oral Presentation to Langley Research Center,…Contract No. NASI-5224," 1 March 1966, Viking Project Off. Files (VPOF). Unless otherwise noted, letters, memos, telexes, and related documents are from VPOF or Code SL chron. files.
6. McNulty, "Defining Project Viking,'' p. 75.
7. Parachute deployments at high speeds were tested using test vehicles launched by balloons and Honest John-Nike rockets. The full-scale tests lifted a 4.6-meter simulated entry body to about 40 000 meters, the point at which Earth's atmosphere approached the 10-millibar pressure of Mars. At that altitude, the shell would be released. Twelve small rockets would accelerate it to mach 1.2. The 26-meter test chute would then be deployed and, with an instrument package, would subsequently be separated from the shell. John C. McFall of Langley was NASA project manager for the Planetary Entry Parachute Project. The balloons were launched by the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory at the balloon launch facility, Holloman Air Force Base, N. Mex., and Walker Air Force Base, N. Mex. The balloons were fabricated by G. T. Schjeldahl Co., Northfield, Minn. Overall cost of the project was far below that projected for similar tests using the Little Joe II rocket. Honest John-Nikes were launched at the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Consult the following documents: H. Lee Dickinson to Richard T. Mittauer, "AFCRL to Launch Largest High Altitude Balloon Made for NASA's Voyager Program," 14 Apr. 1966; NASA, "NASA to Explore Use of Parachutes for Mars Landing," news release 66-90, 27 Apr. 1966; "Launch of Huge Balloon Delayed," Washington Evening Star, 22 June 1966; Walter Sullivan, "Giant Balloon Is Lofted in Test for Mars Landing," New York Times. 19 July 1966; NASA, "Martin to Build Planetary Entry Parachute Units," news release 66-229, 25 Aug. 1966; NASA, "First Planetary Parachute Test Planned Aug. 29," news release 66-225, 26 Aug. 1966; NASA, "Parachute Test in New Mexico Complete Success," news release 66-241, Sept. 1966; NASA Off. of Advanced Research and Technology (OART), "Post-Launch Preliminary Report for Small Flight Project,…Planetary Entry Parachutes,'' 7 Sept., 18 Nov., and 21 Nov. 1966; "Chuting for Mars," Newsweek 68 (12 Sept. 1966): 59; NASA, "Parachute Entry Experiment Fails in WSMR Launch [rocket flight] news release 66-292, 10 Nov. 1966; NASA, "Soft-Lander Parachute Test a Success.'' News release 67-120, 10 May 1967; NASA, "Parachute Tests Reach Halfway Point," news release 67-162, 20 June 1967; NASA, "Large Balloon to Launch NASA Parachute Test," news release 67-170, 6 July 1967; and "Voyager Parachute Test Completed at White Sands," Space Business Daily, 23 Oct. 1967.
8. McNulty, ''Defining Project Viking,'' p 79.
9. Homer E. Newell, Jr., to William Pickering, 14 July 1965.
10. Donald P. Burcham to Roberts, 29 June 1965.
11. McNulty, "Defining Project Viking," pp. 80-82.
12. Floyd L. Thompson to R. W. May, Jr., ''Redirection of NASA Contract NASI-5224, 'Comparative Studies of Conceptual Design and Qualification Procedures for a Mars Probe/Lander,' '' 18 Nov. 1965.
13. McNulty ,''Defining Project Viking,'' pp. 87-88; "Impact of Voyager upon the OART Program,'' ca. 22 Oct. 1965; and Donald E. Fink, ''Fund Bite Halts Voyager Bus Work; Lander Capsule Design to Continue, " Aviation Week & Space Technology 84 (3 Jan. 1966): 24.
14. McNulty, "Defining Project Viking," pp. 96-97; and AVCO, "Mars Probe Final Oral Presentation,'' 1 Mar. 1966.
15. McNulty, "Defining Project Viking." pp. 114-16; and McNulty, Daniel B. Snow, and Roberts, Modal and Conceptual Design Comparisons for the Voyager Capsule." Langley Working Paper-326, 2 Dec. 1966.
16. McNulty, ''Defining Project Viking," pp. 118 26; and Donald P. Hearth, "Chronology of Voyager Management Activities and Decisions since September 1966,'' memo for record, 7 Feb. 1967.
17. McNulty, "Defining Project Viking,'' pp. 137-38;[NASA],"Biographical Data-James S. Martin, Jr.,'' n.d.; and Bruce K. Byers, Destination Moon: A History of the Lunar Orbiter Program, NASA TMX-3487 (Washington, 1977), pp. 51, 208-10.
18. McNulty, "Defining Project Viking,'' pp. 137-40.
19. McNulty, "Minutes of the Twenty-fifth Meeting of the Planetary Missions Technology Steering Committee, 1st Session, September 6, 1967,…[and] 2nd Session, September 11, 1967,'' n.d.; Oran W. Nicks to Charles J. Donlan, TWX, 29 Aug. 1967; Nicks to H. Julian Allen, 31 Aug. 1967; and Nicks to Mac C. Adams, "Assistance from NASA Centers in Planning a Planetary Program," 1 Sept. 1967.
20. Eugene S. Love to Clifford H. Nelson, "Comments on In-House Feasibility Study Items in Hand-out of 8/31/67 relating to near Planet Exploration," 1 Sept. 1967.
21 Ibid.
22. Hearth, "Minutes, Voyager Management Committee, September 7, 1967," [8 Sept. 1967].
23. McNulty, "Minutes of the Twenty-fifth Meeting"; and Clifford H. Nelson, "In-House Feasibility Studies-Planetary Exploration Program," rev. 8 Sept. 1967. Also see Anthony J. Calio to R. J. Parks, E. C. Draley, D. G. Newby, and Roberts, TWX, 11 Sept. 1967.
24. James S. Martin, Jr., to Donlan, "OSSA Proposed Planetary Programs," 5 Oct. 1967; and "Planetary Program Extension FY 1968-1969 Program Issues and Options," 9 Oct. 1967.
25. "Planetary Program Extension," 9 Oct. 1967.
26. Ibid.; Hearth to Nicks, "Work Assignments," 18 0ct. 1967; Nicks to Thompson and Martin, TWX, 19 Oct. 1967; Eugene Love to Martin, "Comments on Role of Planetary Missions Technology Steering Committee," 19 Oct. 1967; Martin, "Planetary Projects-Implementation Information," memo, 30 Oct. 1967, with encl., C. W. McKee and R. N. Parker, "Proposed Project Organization and Procurement Implementation Plans for Selected Planetary Programs," 25 Oct. 1967; Hearth to Earle J. Sample and Parks, TWX, 30 Oct. 1967; and Nicks to Webb, "Planetary Program Discussion with the Congress," 7 Nov. 1967.
27. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA's Proposed Operating Plan for Fiscal Year l968, hearing, 90th Congress 1st sess. (henceforth 90/1), 8 Nov. 1967, p. 16; and Luther J. Carter, "Planetary Exploration: How to Get by the Budget-Cutters," Science 157 (24 Nov. 1967): 1025-28.
28. Carter, "Planetary Exploration''; William J. Normyle, "NASA Pushes Planetary Program," Aviation Week & Space Technology 87 (27 Nov. 1967): 16-17: and Normyle, "Planetary Program Support Seen Lacking, " Aviation Week & Space Technology 87 (11 Dec. 1967): 32-33.
29. "NASA FY 1969 Budget Reclama of BOB Tentative Allowance," 30 Nov. 1967; and [Hearth], "Reclama to FY 1969 Bureau of the Budget Mark," 1 Dec. 1967.
30. "Planetary Exploration Program: Collection of Comments, Policy Statements, etc. (Excerpts from NASA Press Conf. on FY69 Budget, Jan. 29, 1968)," n.d.
31. Ibid.; and Newell to Hugh Odishaw, 10 Mar. 1961.
32. Naugle to Donlan, TWX, 9 Feb. 1968.
33. McNulty, "Defining Project Viking," pp. 164-65; "Fourteen Bids in on New Mars Mission Studies," Space Business Daily 18 Mar. 1968; Martin, "Procurement Planning-Mars '73 Mission, " memo, l3 Feb. 1968; Charles W. Cole to Martin, 17 Feb. 1968; McNulty, "Minutes of the Twenty-eighth Meeting of the Planetary Missions Technology Steering Committee," 21 Feb. 1968; A. J. Kullas to John Naugle, 12 Feb. 1968; Hearth to Naugle, ''Letter from Martin Marietta Corporation Dated February 12, 1968," 23 Feb. 1968; Martin to LOPO staff, ''Mars '73 Mission-Coordination Meetings with JPL," 27 Feb. 1968; Israel Taback, ' Coordination Meeting with JPL Personnel regarding Tasks Required for Defining the 1973 Mars Mission, ' memo for record, 4 Mar. 1968; William J. Boyer to Martin, ''Analysis of Proposed Assignment of the Operations System for the Mars '73 Project to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory,'' 19 Mar. 1968; E. B. Lightner, "Minutes of Mars '73 Mission Planning Meeting, March 26, 1968,'' 27 Mar. 1968; Martin, "Oral Presentations for Mars '73 Study Contracts," memo, 4 Apr. 1968; Martin to LOPO staff, "Mars 1973 Mission Definition Report No. M73-101-0," 8 Apr. 1968, with encl.; Pickering to Donlan, 17 Apr. 1968; Langley Research Ctr., "Mars '73 Mission Status: Material Discussed with OSSA/SL on April 17, 1968," n d.; and Martin, "Mars '73 Statement of Work," memo, 13 June 1968. with encl.
34. Pickering to Donlan, 17 April 1968.
35. Draley, "Langley Research Center Management Proposal for 1973 Mars Mission, " memo, 18 Apr. 1968.
36. [Langley Research Ctr.], briefing charts, 20 Apr. 1968.
37. ''NASA-LRC/JPL Management Agreement for Advanced Planetary Mission Technology Mars Lander-Mission Study," Aug. 1968; Martin to Edgar M. Cortright, ''Meeting with JPL Representatives to Discuss Management Options for the Mars '73 Mission, May 21, 1968,'' 22 May 1968; Cortright to Draley, ''Mars '73 Management," 21 May 1968; Langley Research Ctr., Announcement 29-68, "Change in Organization in the Office of Assistant Director for Flight Projects.'' 7 June 1968; Martin to Draley, ''Mars 73 Mission Design Steering Committee," 10 June 1968; and A. Gustaferro, "Minutes, Mars '73 Mission Design Steering Committee June 5th, 1968, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California." [11 June 1968].
38. NASA Hopes to Remain in Orbit by Selling Congress on Mars, Venus, Mercury Probes," Wall Street Journal, 26 Jan. 1968; NASA, "Background Material, NASA FY 1969 Budget Briefing." news release. 29 Jan. 1968.
39. Philip M. Boffry, "LBJ's New Budget: Another Tight Year for Research and Development," Science 159 (2 Feb. 1968): 509; William Leavitt, "A Dreary Season for NASA," Air Force and S pace Digest 51 (Feb. 1968): 72-76; "Physicist Says Space Budgets Cuts 'Kill' Scientific Exploration," New York Times, 21 Apr. 1968; and Joel A. Strasser, "Tight Budget Spurs New Look at Low-Cost Planetary Plans," Aerospace Technology 21 (6 May 1968); 22-25.
40. NASA Off. of Admin., Budget Operations Div., "Chronological History Fiscal Year 1969 Budget Submission," 14 Oct. 1968: Carter, "Space Budget: Down 20 Percent in 1 Year-at Least,'' Science 160 (10 May 1968): 634; ''President Limits NASA to $4.008 Billion Appropriation," Space Business Daily, 20, May 1968; Jerry Klutz. "NASA Glamor Gone, Becomes Pet Target for Economy Cuts," Washington Post, 27 May 1968; Richard D Lyons, "NASA Will Drop 1,600 Men and Cut Projects," New York Times 9 Aug. 1968; John B. Campbell, "Is NAS A Viable?" Space/Astronautics 52 (July 1968): 45: Victor Cohn, "U.S. Science Is Feeling Budget Pinch," Washington Post, 4 Aug. 1968; Neal Stanford. "Budget Cuts Abort U.S. Space Plans," Christian Science Monitor, 12 Aug. 1968; War s Effect on U.S. Budget to Committee for Years after Peace, Humphrey Is Told," Wall Street Journal, 1 Aug 1968; and Executive Off. of the President, Bureau of the Budget, "Summer Review of the 1969 Budget,'' Sept. 1968.
41. NASA, "NASA Interim Operating Plan," news release 68-141, 8 Aug. 1968.
42. Hearth to Naugle, "Background on Titan Mars '73 for Congressional Hearings on the Interim Operating Plan," [ca. Sept. 1968]; Martin to Draley, "Mars 73 Mission and Related Items Discussed during Telephone Conversation with Mr. Don Hearth on June 28. 1968," 28 June 1968; and Martin, "FY69 Planetary Program Information," memo for record, 26 June 1968.
43. Harry H. Hess to Webb, 3 Nov. 1967; and Peter L. Smolders, Soviets in Space, trans. Marian Powell (Guildford, London: Lutterworth Press, 1973), pp. 227-28.
44. Hess to Webb, 3 Nov. 1967, and 14 Dec. 1967. See Webb to Hess. undated letter not sent; Jim Long to Nicks, 7 Feb. 1968; Nicks to Hearth, 12 Feb. !968; and Naugle to Webb, "Comments on Letters of Dr. Hess from the Space Science Board (SSB) concerning NASA Programs," 16 Feb. 1968.
45. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Planetary Exploration 1968-1975: Recommends Expanded Planetary Effort," S pace Business Daily, 15 Aug. 1968; "Academy Renews Its Stand against Manned Exploration," Space Business Daily, 16 Aug. 1968; "Space Science Boar Emphasizes Mars Surface Studies," Space Business Daily, 19 Aug. 1968. More detailed comments on relations between NASA and the scientific community are found in Raymond A. Bauer, Richard F. Meyer, et al., "NASA Planning and Decision Making, Final Report," vol. 1, rpt. X70-90256, Harvard Univ. Grad. School of Business Admin. [ca. 1970], pp. III-37 to III-39.
46. Webb to Norman F. Ramsey. 14 Jan. 1966. See "NASA Ad Hoc Science Advisory Committee Report to the Administrator," 15 Aug. 1966, pp. 27-30. OSSA files, for a list of issues that Webb asked Ramsey's committee to address itself to. For a general, overview of the Lunar and Planetary Missions Board's history see Barry Rutizer, ''The Lunar and Planetary Missions Board." HHN-138, 30 Aug. 1976, NASA History Off. Archives.
47. "NASA Ad Hoc Science Advisory Committee Report.'' pp. 1-25.
48. For discussion of the reaction, see Rutizer, "Lunar and Planetary Missions Board," p. 12. See also Newell. "Interirm Response to the Report of the Ad Hoc Science Advisory Committee," 7 June 1967. OSSA files
49. Rutizer, "Lunar and Planetary Missions Board,'' pp. 13-14.
50. Ibid., p. 16.
51. Ibid., p l9 and note 72.
52. John W. Findlay to Newell, 11 Oct. 1967; Newell to Findlay, 24 Oct. 1967: and Findlay to Webb, 2 Nov. I967.
53. Wolf Vishniac to Findlay, 7 Nov. 1967; Lester Lees to Findlay, 10 No. I967: Gordon J. F. MacDonald, 13 Nov. 1967; Findlay to Webb, 11 Dec. 1967; Webb to Findlay. n.d.: and Jesse L. Greenstein to Findlay, 15 Dec. 1967, personal files of Findlay and OSSA files. See also Carter, ''Planetary Exploration: How to Get by the Budget-Cutters," p. 1026, for a summary of the NA.SA-Mission Board disagreement. Carter's article in Science (note 27) reflects one disgruntled member of the board.
54. A. Thomas Young to Martin, "Mars Panel Meeting Summary," 14 June 1968; and George C. Pimentel to Martin, 5 June 1968, with encl.
55. A. Thomas Young to Martin, "Mars Panel Meeting, June 28, 1968," 2 July l968 Young to Martin, "Report on Lunar and Planetary Missions Board Meeting," 19 July l968; Young to G. C. Broome and J .C .Moorman, "Candidate Objectives for Mars '73 Mission," 19 July l968; Young to Martin, Report on Lunar and Planetary Missions Board Meeting, September 5 and 6,1968," 10 Sept. 1968; Hearth to Naugle, "Solicitation to the Scientific Community for Participation in the Development of Instruments for Mars Landers," 10 Sept. 1968 and Findlay to Newell, 17 Sept. 1968 and 11 Oct. 1968.
56. " Mars Panel Report," 5 Oct. 1968, with encl., Young, "Science Critique Meeting, October 3,1968, " memo for record, 18 Oct. 1968 and Young, "Lunar and Planetary Missions Board Meeting, October 4-5. 1968," memo for record, 18 Oct. 1968. For discussion of the launch vehicle and the lander decision, see Gustaferro, "Minutes of July 29, 1968, Briefing on Mars '73 Mission Planning Status to Mr. Edgar M. Cortright," memo for record, 31 July 1968 Martin to R. N. Conway, "Mars 73 Research and Development POP 68-2 Funding Requirements for OSSA," 13 Aug. 1968: G. W. Brewer to Martin, "Request for SRT Support of a Study for Assessment of Technical and Cost Impact of a Mars '73 Hard Lander," 20 Aug. 1968: C. F. Mohl, "Minutes of the 3d Orbiter Design Team Meeting Held 29 August 1968," memo, 30 Aug. 1968 Gustaferro, "Minutes of August 29, 1968, Briefing on Titan Mars '73 Mission Planning Status to Mr. Edgar M. Cortright," memo for record, 3 Sept. 1968; Cortright to Naugle. "Titan/Mars '73 FY 1969 Project Approval Document (Code 84-840-815)," 7 Oct. 1968; M. G. Dietl, "Minutes of the 7th Orbiter Design Team Meeting Held on 10 October 1968," memo, 11 Oct. 1968 and Hearth to Naugle, "Solicitation to the Scientific Community for Participation in the Development of Instruments for Mars Landers," 10 Sept. 1968, with encl., "Solicitation for Participation in the Development of Instruments for Mars Landers," draft, 3 Sept. 1968.
57. Boeing Co., ''Study of Powered Spacecraft for Mars Missions," D2-140028-5, 2 vols., Sept. 1968, 68N34279; General Electric Co., Missile and Space Div., "Titan/Mars Hard Lander, " 68SD7041, 2 vols., 6 Jan. 1969. 69N19165-6: General Electric Co., Missile and Space Div.. "Mars Hard Lander Capsule Study," 68SD952-1-8, 4 vols., 31 July 1968, 68N35980-7: General Electric Co., Missile and Space Div., "Final Report Direct Versus Orbital Entry for Mars Mission," 68SD4293, 3 vols., l Aug. 1968, privately funded rpt.; Hughes Aircraft Co., Space Systems Div.. "Mars Spinning Support Module Study, " NASI-8638, contractor rpt. CR66732-1, CR66732-2,2 vols., 31 Jan. 1969, 69N19945-6: Martin Co. ''Study of Direct Versus Orbital Entry for Mars Missions," NASI-7976, 6 vols., Aug. 1968, 68N31831-6: McDonnell Douglas Corp., McDonnell Astronautics Co., "Soft Lander Mars Lander Capsule Study (Entry from Orbit). Final Report" [prelim. draft], G346. 1 July 1968: Mr Donnell Douglas Corp., McDonnell Astronautics Co., "Soft Lander," NASI-7977, 9 pts., Sept. 1968, 68N34050-8; Martin Co., "Study of a Soft Lander/Support Module for Mars Missions," NASI-7976, vols. 1-3, 7, Jan. 1969..69N15600-2. 68N37340.
58. Young, "Titan Mars '73 Mission Mode Meetings Summary," memo for record, 14 Nov. 1968, with encl. ''.Summary Titan Mars '73 Mission Mode Meeting, November 8-9,1968, at Langley Research Center, " n. d. Langley Research Ctr., "Titan Mars '73 Mission Mode Briefing, November 7-8, 1968,'' 7 Nov. 1968; and W. 1. Watson, "Viking Project Phase B Report," M63-110-0 [Circa Nov. 1968].
59. Young, "Titan Mars '73 Mission Mode Meetings Summary," 14 Nov. 1968.
60. Naugle interview by Ezell, 17 Apr. 1978. See also Hearth to Parks, TWX, 12 Nov. 1968; Naugle, ''Review of Titan Mars 73 Options." memo, 12 Nov. 1968; Naugle to Thomas O. Paine, "Reprogramming of FY 1969 Funds for Titan Mars 1973,'' 13 Nov. 1968; Hearth, memo, 18 Nov. 1968, with encl. "Actions Required That Have Been Deferred Pending Resolution of FY70 Budget," 18 Nov. 1968; Martin to multiple addressees, TWX, "ASPO Review of the Draft Copt of the (JPL Task Order Dated November 11, 1968," 25 Nov. 1968: Julian Sheer to Paine, 2 Dec. 1968; NASA, ''Scientific Payloads for Mars '73,'' news release 68-207, 5 Dec. 1968; Naugle to Scheer, ''Titan Mars1973 Orbiter/Lander," 22 Nov. 1968: and Naugle. ''Project Viking,'' 23 Dec. 1968.
61. Robert F. Allnutt to Joseph E. Karth, 4 Dec. 1968.
62. Bauer and Meyer, "NASA Planning and Decision Making,'' vol. 1, p. III-45.
63. Allnutt to Karth, 4 Dec. 1968.
64. Langley Research Ctr. Announcement 60-68, "Establishment of Interim Viking Project Office." 6 Dec. 1968