SP-4212
On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978

 
 
 
 
SOURCE NOTES FOR CHAPTER 6
 
 
 
1. Allen E. Wolfe and Henry W. Norris, "The Viking Orbiter and Its Mariner Inheritance," in Proceedings of the Twelfth Space Congress: Technology Today and Tomorrow (Cocoa Beach, Fla., 1975), pp. 6-17 and 6-27.
 
2. The initial project is described in Jet Propulsion Laboratory, "Mariner Mars l969 0rbiter Technical Feasibility Study," EPD-250, 16 Nov. 1964, N65-27875; and JPL, "Mariner Mars 1969 Lander Technical Feasibility Study.'' EPD-261, 28 Dec. 1964. See also NASA, "NASA Defers Voyager: Schedules Three New Mariners,'' news release 65-389,22 Dec. 1965; and Homer E. Newell to Alvin R. Luedecke, TWX, 22 Dec. 1965.
 
3. JPL, Mariner Mars 1969 Final Project Report: Development, Design and Test, vol. 1, JPLTR32-1460 (Pasadena, 1976), p. 199.
 
4. Ibid., pp. 7-8; and William R. Corliss, "A History of the Deep Space Network, " NASA CR-15195, Nov. 1976, p. 199.
 
5. JPL, Mariner Mars 1969 Final Project Report, 1: 9.
 
6. James H. Wilson, Two over Mars: Mariner VI and Mariner VII, February to August 1969, NASA EP-90 (Pasadena: JPL, 1971), pp. 11-12.
 
7. Ibid., p. 13; and JPL, Mariner Mars 1969 Final Project Report, 1: 12-13.
 
8. NASA, "Background Material NASA FY 1969 Budget Briefing, " news release, 29 Jan. 1968; NASA, "NASA Interim Operating Plan," news release 68-141,8 Aug. 1968; and NASA Off. of Administration, Budget Operations Div., "Chronological History Fiscal Year 1969 Budget Submission," 14 Oct. 1968.
 
9. NASA, "JPL Building Mariners," news release 68-196, 14 Nov. 1968.
 
10. Oran W. Nicks, "Applying Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter Techniques to Mars," paper, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics meeting, Washington, D.C., 5 Dec. 1968.
 
11. Robert A. Schmitz to A. Thomas Young, "Wave of Darkening," 20 May 1969, with encl., Schmitz, "Martian Seasonal Darkening," 9 May 1969; James S. Martin, Jr., "Martian Wave of Darkening Phenomena," memo, 27 May 1969; Duwayne M. Anderson to Martin, 4 June 1969; Melvin Calvin, 5 June 1969; Schmitz to Young, "Martian Wave of Darkening Phenomena relative to the Mars 1973 Mission," 31 July 1969; and Gerald A. Soffen, "Information on the Martian Wave of Darkening Requested at June 10-11, 1970 Science Steering Group Meeting," memo, 26 June 1970.
 
12. Schmitz to Young, "Position of Martian Polar Caps during the Period January-August 1974," 26 Aug. 1969.
 
13. JPL, Mariner Mars 1971 Project Final Report: Project Development through Launch and Trajectory Correction Maneuver vol. 1, JPLTR32-1550 (Pasadena, 1973), pp. 2-3, N73-20855; and E. S. Travis, Mariner Mars 1971 Mission Specification and Plan: Mission Specification, vol. 1, PD-610-16, rev. A, change I (Pasadena: JPL, 1971).
 
14. Nicks, "Applying Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter Techniques to Mars."
 
15. JPL, Mariner Mars 1971 Project Final Report, 1: 3.
 
16. Ibid., pp. 3-4; and Dan Schneiderman et al., "The First Mars Orbiters," Astronautics & Aeronautics 8 (April 1970): 65.
 
17. Casper F. Mohl telephone interview by Edward C. Ezell, 24 Oct. 1978; Mohl, "Minutes of the 1st M73 Orbiter Design Team Held 8 August 1968," memo, 12 Aug. 1968; and Mohl, "Minutes of the 2nd Orbiter Design Team Meeting Held 22 August 1968," memo, 23 Aug. 1968.
 
18. Mohl, "Minutes of the 2nd Orbiter Design Team Meeting"; Mohl, "Minutes of the 3rd Orbiter Design Team Meeting Held 29 August 1968," memo, 30 Aug. 1968; Martin G. Dietl, "Minutes of the 7th Orbiter Design Team Meeting Held 10 October 1968." memo, 11 Oct. 1968; and Dietl, "Minutes of the 9th TM'73 Out-of-Orbit Design Team Meeting Held 21 November 1968,'' memo, 4 Dec. 1968.
 
19. JPL, "Titan Mars 1973 Orbiter: Option I Minimum Orbiter Study." 9 Oct. 1968; and JPL, "Titan Mars 197.S Orbiter Option 11." 30 Oct. 1968.
 
20. Charles W. Cole to Martin and Donald P. Hearth, TWX, 12 Nov. 1968 and Dietl "Minutes of the 10th TM'73 Out-of-Orbit Design Team Meeting Held 5 December 1968," memo, 6 Dec. 1968.
 
21. Cole to Martin ''Viking Baseline Orbiter Conceptual Design Description Document," 7 Feb. 1969; and JPL "Viking Project Orbiter System Visual Presentation,'' 13-14 Feb. 1969.
 
22. L. I. Mirowitz to Martin, "Viking Orbiter Presentation, February 14. 1969'' [21 Feb. 1969].
 
23. A. J. Kullas to Martin, 21 Feb. and 28 Feb. 1969; and T. T. Yarnauchi to Martin, "Informal Comments on Orbiter-Lander Interfaces," 19 Mar. 1969.
 
24. See enclosures to S. R. Schofield, ''Minutes of the 17th Viking 1973 Orbiter Design Team Meeting Held 20 March 1969," memo, 24 Mar. 1969.
 
25. JPL news release, 17 April 1969; and JPL, "Henry W. Norris, Biographical Sketch," n.d.
 
26. JPL news release, 17 April 1969; and "Conway W. Snyder, Biographical Sketch," 1 June 1976.
 
27. Norris, "Viking Project Meeting Minutes," memo, 1 Apr. 1969.
 
28. Cole to Martin, ''JPL Resource Requirements for Viking Project," 10 Feb. 1969.
 
29. Schofield, "Minutes of the 17th Viking 1973 Orbiter Design Team Meeting"; Norris, "Viking Project Meeting Minutes, April 9, 1969. " memo, 11 Apr. 1969; idem for April 16, dated 21 Apr. 1969; William H. Pickering to Edgar M. Cortright, 21 Apr. 1969; Norris, "Viking Orbiter Project Staff Meeting, Minutes of May 7, 1969," memo, 9 May 1969; idem for May 14, dated 19 May 1969, and for May 21. dated 26, May 1969.
 
30. Norris, "Viking Orbiter Staff Meeting, Minutes of June 4, 1969," memo, 9 June 1969; Rolf C. Hastrup and Richard Case, "Minutes of 26th Viking 1973 Orbiter Design Team Meeting Held 12 June 1969,'' memo, 17 June 1969; Donald H. Kindt to Raymond S. Wiltshire, "Action Items 3, 5 and 8 from the Spacecraft interface and Integration Working Group Meeting of June 10 and 11," 23 June 1969; and Joseph Shaffer, Jr., to Wolfe, "Action Item 11 (Possible Reduction of VLV/VO Dynamic Envelope) from Spacecraft Interface and Integration Working Group Meeting of 10-11 June 1969," 24 June 1969.
 
31. Norris, "Viking Orbiter Project Staff Meeting, Minutes of August 27, 1969," memo, 29 Aug. 1969.
 
32. Martin to Viking Project Management Council (VPMC), "Establishment of VPMC," 10 Mar. 1969; and Martin, "Transmittal of Minutes of the Viking Project Management Council," memo, 29 Sept. 1969, with encl., Fred W. Bowen, Jr., "Minutes, Viking Project Management Council Meeting, Denver, Colorado, August 18-19, 1969," n.d.
 
33. Norris, ''Viking Orbiter Project Staff Meeting, Minutes of August 20. 1969," memo, 22 Aug. 1969.
 
34. Langley Research Ctr., Viking Project Off. (VPO), "Viking Project Mission Definition No. 2," M73-112-0, Aug. 1969. Following is a summary of the revisions of this document through Aug. 1969:
 

Revision

Date

Description

1

5/22/68

Table of Contents and Introduction added. Other msections amplified, including minor modifications. Lander lifetime requirements changed.

2

8/12/68

With exceptions of sections 1.0, 2.0. and 3.0, document completely revised in accordance with new guidelines.
3
(Mission Definition No. 1)

1/21/69

Document almost completely revised to reflect selection of mission mode for Viking Project. Cover and title sheet revised to reflect establishment of Viking Project Office.
4
(Mission Definition No. 2)

6/23/69

Sections 3, 4, 6, and 12 revised to reflect action of Viking science Steering Group. Section 5 added Section 10 revised to include 3 85-foot dish antennas. Section 2 and11 updated to reflect events since last revision. Table of Contents and Preface revised accordingly.
5
(Mission Definition No. 2)

8/11/69

Sections l and 2, minor word changes. Section 3 revised to include last listed orbiter objective and necessary discussion of objective. Section 4 revised to include orbiter science requirements. Sections 4 .and 3 revised to include modifications of entry and lander science requirements based on July Science Steering Group meeting. Section 6 changed landing zone to 20°S-30°N. Date for Mission Definition no. 2 changed in section 11.
 
35. VPO, "Viking Project Definition No. 2,'' p. 18; and VPO, "Viking Lander Science Instrument Teams Report," M73-112-0, Aug. 1969.
 
36. Norris, "Viking Orbiter Project Staff Meeting, Minutes of August 27. 1969," memo, 29 Aug. 1969.
 
37. VPO, "Viking Project Definition No .2," pp. 18-l9; and Hastrup, "Minutes of 7th Orbiter Mission Design Team Meeting of 2 September 1969,'' memo, 3 Sept. 1969.
 
38. NASA, "Progress Report&emdash;Mariner Mars 1969 Mission (Mariner 6 and Mariner 7)," transcript of press conference, 11 Sept. 1969.
 
39. Robert B. Leighton, Norman H. Horowitz, Bruce C. Murray, Robert P. Sharp, Alan H. Herriman, A. Thomas Young, Bradford A. Smith, Merton E. Davies, and Conway B. Levoy, "Mariner 6 and 7 Television Pictures: Preliminary Analysis," Science 166 (3 Oct. 1969): 49-67 (also idem, "Television Observations from Mariners 6 and 7," Mariner Mars 1969: A Preliminary Report, NASA SP-225 (Washington: 1969), pp. 37-82). See also Leighton et al., "Mariner 6 Television Pictures: First Report," Science 165 (15 Aug. 1969): 684-90.
 
40. Leighton et al., "Mariner 6 and 7 Television Pictures."
 
41. NASA, "Progress Report. "
 
42. Ibid.
 
43. Leighton et al., "Mariner 6 and 7 Television Pictures," pp. 66-67.
 
44. R. A. Schmitz, "Minutes, Viking Science Steering Group Meeting in Washington, D.C., on September 11, 1969."
 
45. JPL, "NASA Viking Orbiter Science Briefing," 12 Sept. 1969.
 
46. Norris, "Viking Orbiter Project Staff Meeting, Minutes of Sept. 10, 1969.'' memo, 12 Sept. 1969.
 
47. Martin Marietta Corp., Denver Div., "Viking Project Quarterly Review Held October 7 & 8, 1969 at Langley Research Center: Presentation Material," PM-3700005, Oct. 1969.
 
48. Harper E. Van Ness to Martin, "The Center Directors' Meeting on October 9, 1969," 15 Oct. 1969; Van Ness to Martin, "Viking Project Management Council Meeting on October 9, 1969," 15 Oct. 1969; and Bowen, "Minutes, Viking Project Management Council Meeting Langley Research Center, October 9, 1969" [21 Oct. 1969].
 
49. Walter Jakobowski, "LPMB Meeting on September 13, 1969," memo, 19 Sept. 1969, with encl., "Attachment B [resolution adopted by Lunar and Planetary Missions Board, 13 Sept. 1969]."
 
50. Nicks to John E. Naugle, "Discussion with Dr. Paine on the Viking Program, May 29, 1969," 4 June 1969; and Jakobowski, "Briefing to Dr. Paine on May 28, 1969: Viking Funding Estimates," memo for record, 2 June 1969.
 
51. Andre J. Meyer, Jr., notebooks on advanced planning, 31 July 1969, JSC History Archives.
 
52. Homer E. Newell, "Conference Report of Space Task Group Meeting of March 22," 25 Mar. 1969; NASA, "America's Next Decade in Space," draft, 9 July 1969, pp. i-iii; NASA, America's Next Decades in Space: A Report for the Space Task Group, Sept. 1969; and Hearth to Newell, "Study of Manned Planetary Program Alternatives," 8 Apr. 1969. The language in NASA's draft report for the Space Task Group said,"…we recommend that the United States begin preparing for a manned expedition to Mars at an early date." In the published version, the sentence was changed to, "Manned expeditions to Mars could begin as early as 1981." A series of articles and editorials was submitted by Rep. Ryan to Congressional Record, 13 Aug. 1969: "After Apollo&emdash;Mars?" New York Times, 18 July 1969; John A. Hamilton, "Meanwhile, back on Earth," New York Times, 28 July 1969; and "Poll Finds Public Cool to Mars Trip&emdash;Opinions Split by Age, with Young Adults in Favor," New York Times, 7 Aug. 1969. See also Clinton P. Anderson, "Future Space Goals," Congressional Record, 29 July 1969, p. S8739.
 
53. Space Task Group, The Post-Apollo Space Program: Directions for the Future (Washington, 1969) ;"Nixon Backs Mars Flight but Rejects All-Out Drive ,"New York Times, 16 Sept. 1969; and William Leavitt, "A Muted Martian Manifesto," Air Force/Space Digest 52 (Nov. 1969): 51-54.
 
54. Naugle to Cortright, "The Cost of the Viking Project," 26 Aug. 1969.
 
55. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Supplemental Review&emdash;NASA&emdash;OSSA Projects, hearings before Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, 91st Cong., 1st sess. ( henceforth 91/1), 16 0ct. 1969, pp. 6-7, 11-12, 20; Thomas O. Paine to Clinton P. Anderson, 31 Dec. 1969; and Robert P. Allnutt to Henry M. Jackson, 12 Jan. 1970. See also Jakobowski, "Briefing to Dr. Paine on May 28, 1969," memo for record; and Thomas Campbell to William E. Lilly and Joseph F. Malaga, "Review of Viking Project Costs,'' 12 Aug. 1969.
 
56. Paine to Robert P. Mayo, 5 Dec. 1969; Hearth to Naugle, "Headquarters Controls on the Viking Program," 26 Nov. 1969; Naugle to Nicks, "Importance of Controlling Viking Costs," 8 Dec. 1969: George M. Low to Naugle, "Control of Viking Costs,'' 19 Dec. 1969; Low to Naugle, "Questions on the Viking Program," 19 Dec. 1969; Nicks to Hearth, "Viking Program Management," 24 Dec. 1969; and Naugle to Low, "The Viking Program," 30 Dec. 1969.
 
57. NASA Off. of Administration. Budget Operations Div., "Chronological History Fiscal Year 1968 Budget Submission," 8 Nov. 1967; idem for FY 1969, 14 0ct. 1968; for FY 1970, 5 Dec. 1969; for FY 1971, 11 June 1971; and "NASA FY 1971 Budget Reclama of BoB Tentative Allowance" [17 Nov. 1969].
 
58. Naugle ''Decision to Reschedule Viking to 1975," memo for record, 4 Jan. 1970; Victor Cohn, ''Scientists Cite Social Needs; Cut in Space Program Urged," Washington Post, 29 Dec. 1969; and Walter Orr Roberts, "After the Moon, the Earth," Science 167 (2 Jan. 1970): 11-16.
 
59. Paine statement at press conference, release, 13 Jan. 1970; and NASA, "NASA Future Plans Press Conference," transcript, 13 Jan. 1970.
 
60. Naugle. TWX, 13 Jan. 1970.
 
61. Norris, "Viking Orbiter Project Staff Meeting, Minutes of January l3 and l4, 1970," memo, 19 Jan. 1970.
 
62. Ibid.
 
63. Low to Naugle, "Priority of Viking," 6 Feb. 1970; Naugle to Cortright. TWX, 10 Feb. 1970; and Norris, "Viking Orbiter Staff Meeting, Minutes of February 18, 1970," memo, 20 Feb. 1970.
 
64. Paine to Philip Handler, 24 Dec. 1969.
 
65. Naugle to Paine, Low, et al., 18 Mar. 1970, with encl., "Viking Review Panel Statement," draft, Mar. 1970; and Handler to Paine, 31 Mar. 1970, with encl., "Viking Review Panel Statement," 24 Mar. 1970.
 
66. Joseph R. Goudy to Martin, "Weekly Report," 9 Feb. 1973.
 
67. Norris, "Viking Orbiter Project Staff Meeting, Minutes of February 4, 1970,'' memo, 6 Feb. 1970; idem for March 4, dated 6 Mar. 1970; and Bowen, "Minutes, Viking Project Management Council Meeting, Martin Marietta Corporation, Denver, Colorado, February 26, 1970" [11 .Mar. 1970].
 
68. See R. Cargill Hall, Lunar Impact: A History of Project Ranger, NASA SP-4210 (Washington, 1977), pp. 34-37, for comments on early NASA reactions to the JPL organizational structure.
 
69. Norris, "Review Meetings with Viking Project Manager," memo. 25 Mar. 1970.
 
70. Norris, "Viking Orbiter Project Staff Meeting, Minutes of April 8, 1970,'' memo, 13 Apr. 1970.
 
71. Van Ness to Cortright and Nicks, "Viking Weekly Highlights Report," 28 Oct. 1971.
 
72. Van Ness to Cortright and Nicks, "Weekly Report, Week of July 9, 1973,'' 19 July 1973; and Van Ness to Martin, "Summary of Executive Session following the Orbiter CDR," 30 July 1973.
 
73. The progress of the orbiter can be followed in Norris, "Viking Orbiter Project Staff Meeting Minutes," 1972-1973; Goudy, "Weekly Report," 1972-1973; JPL, "Viking 75 Orbiter System Monthly Progress Report," 1972-1973; VPO, "Viking 75 Project Quarterly Review, Presentation Material,'' PM-370233, 15-16 Feb. 1972; VPO, "Viking 75 Project Quarterly Review, Presentation Material,'' PM-3720276, 14-15 June l972; VPO, 'Viking Project Status Presentation to Dr. George M. Low....and Dr. John E. Naugle....," 23 Apr. 1973; VPO, "Viking Project Status Presentation to....Low...and....Naugle...," 11 May 1973; and Jack E. Harris to Martin, "Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Status Summary," 7 Feb. 1973.
 
74. Goudy to Martin, Weekly Report," 10 ,24, and 31 Aug. and l4 Sept. 1973; JPL, "Viking 75 0rbiter System Monthly Progress Report, August 1973." 31 Aug. 1973.
 
75. Goudy to Martin, "Weekly Report, " 26 0ct. and 9 Nov. 1973 with encl., R. Glaser and M. Trummel to R. Malgren, V0'75 DTM Pyro Shock Data," 8 Nov.1973; and E. L. Leppert, B. K. Wada, and R. Miyakawa, Modal Test of the Viking Orbiter, JPL TM-330688 (Pasadena, 1974).
 
76. JPL, "Viking 75 Orbiter System Monthly Progress Report, December 1973" [1 Jan. 1974] and ''January 1974," [Feb. 1974]; Goudy to Martin, "Weekly Report," 5 Apr. and 3 May 1974.
 
77. Goudy to Martin, "Weekly Report," 10, 17 ,and 24 May l974; and JPL, "Viking 75 0rbiter System Monthly Progress Report, May 1974" [June 1974].
 
78. JPL, ''Viking 75 Orbiter System Monthly Progress Report, June 1974" [June 1974]; idem for July and Aug. 1974; and Goudy to Martin, ''Weekly Report," 5, 12, 19, and 26 July and 2 Aug. 1974.
 
79. Goudy to Martin, "Weekly Report." 27 Sept. 1974; and JPL, "Viking 75 Orbiter System Monthly Progress Report, September 1974" [Sept. 1974].
 
80. Goudy to Martin, "Weekly Report," 4 Oct. 1974.
 
81. Goudy to Martin, "Weekly Report,'' 10 and 31 Jan. 1975; and JPL, "Viking 75 Orbiter System Monthly Progress Report, February 1975" [Feb. 1975].
 
82. Carl D. Neuby telephone interview by Ezell, 8 July 1979.
 

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