SP-4212
On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978

 
 
 
 
SOURCE NOTES FOR CHAPTER 7
 
 
 
1. "The Authors of the 1973 Viking Voyage to Mars," Astronautics & Aeronautics 7 (Nov. 1969): 59; and Gerald A. Soffen interview by Edward C. Ezell. 17 Nov. 1978.
 
2. James S. Martin to Eugene C. Draley, "Weekly Reports," 9 and 30 Aug., 16 and 30 Sept., 14 Oct., 8 Nov., and 16 Dec. 1968.
 
3. Martin TWX. "Establishment of Science Instrument Working Group (SIWG), "27 Aug. 1968; and C. H. Stembridge, ''Minutes, Meeting of Science Instrument Working Group, September 4, 1968," 5 Sept. 1968.
 
4. Martin to [Langley Research Center Deputy Director], "Mars '73 Mission&emdash;Project Scientist," 27 Feb. 1968; and Soffen interview, 17 Nov. 1978.
 
5. Edgar M. Cortright to William H. Pickering, "Request for JPL Support for Mars 73 Mission Planning," 30 Aug. 1968; Angelo Guastaferro. "Report of September 12, 1968, Briefing on Titan. Mars '73 Mission Planning Status to Mr. Edgar M. Cortright." memo for record, 16 Sept. 1968: and Soffen interview. 17 Nov. 1968.
 
6. Soffen interview, 17 Nov. 1968.
 
7, ''Authors of the 1973 Viking Voyage to Mars," p. 59.
 
8. Martin to Draley, "Weekly Reports," 19 Aug. 1968.
 
9. Soffen ''Mars '73 Science Instrument Team Selection," memo, 3 Dec. 1968, with encl., "Selection Criteria for Team Membership," n.d.
 
10. Ibid.; Viking Lander Imaging Team, The Martian Landscape, NASA SP-425 (Washington,1978), p. 7; Maynard D. MacFarlane, " Digital Pictures Fifty Years Ago, " Proceedings of the IEJE:E 60 (July 1972): 768-70; and Rafael C. Gonzalez and Paul Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Reading, Mass., 1977), pp. 1 - 11.
 
11. Klaus Biemann, "Detection and Identification of Biologically Significant Compounds by Mars Spectrometry,'' in M. Florkin, ea., Life Sciences and Space Research 111, a Session of the Fifth International Space. Science Symposium, Florence, 12-16 May 1964 (Amsterdam, 1965), pp.77-85; and Biemann to Monte D. Wright, '"The Exploration of Mars, 1958-1978' by Edward and Linda Ezell,'' 13 Apr. 1978.
 
12. Soffen, ''Mars '73 Science Instrument Team Selection."
 
13. John E. Naugle, ''Solicitation for Participation in the Development of Instruments for Mars Landers," 27 Sept. 1968; Langley Research Ctr., Viking Project Off. (hereafter VPO), "Viking Science .Management Plan," M73-105-1, 21 Aug. 1969, pp. 6-7, 21; and Milton A. Mitz to Space Science and Applications Steering Committee, "Scientists Selection for the 1973 Viking Mars Lander,'' 22 Jan 1969.
 
14. The conflict between scientists and engineers can be studied in: R. Cargill Hall, Lunar Impact: A History of Project Ranger, NASA SP-4210 (Washington, 1977), pp. i7, 74-76, 223-28; and W. David Compton and Charles D. Benson, "History of Skylab," in process, of which chap.3 deals with science in manned spaceflight before Skylab and pp.115- 16 the different outlooks of scientists and engineers.
 
15. Martin to Joshua Lederberg, ll Feb. 1969; and filecopy of Martin to Lederberg, 11 Feb. 1969, with 38 other addressees listed.
 
16. Martin, "Meeting of Science Instrument Teams for the Viking Project," memo, 12 Feb. 1969, with encl.; "Minutes, Viking Project Science Steering Group Meeting," 21 Feb. 1969; Martin to Lederberg. 5 Mar. 1969; and ''Minutes of Viking Biology Instrument Team Meeting," 19-20 Feb. 1969.
 
17. NASA, "Viking Scientific Teams. ''newsrelease 69-31, 25 Feb.1969. Possible conflict of interest on the part of nongovernment scientists whose companies might subsequently bid on instrument contracts (e.g., Jack A. Ryan, Gilbert Levin, and Mario D. Grossi) was examined by persons NASA Headquarters, Who decided that it was not a real concern. See George J. Vecchietti to Donald P. Hearth, '' Selection of Scientists to Participate in the Development of Instruments for the Viking Project,'' 12 Mar. 1969.
 
18. VPO, "Minutes, Viking Project Science Steering Group Meeting," 28-29 Apr. 1969.
 
19. Evolution of the "science definition" is described in "Minutes, Viking VPO, Project Science Steering Group Meeting, May 27-28, 1969,'' 13 June 1969.
 
20. VPO, "Minutes, Viking Project Science Steering Group Meeting, June 17- 18, 1969,'' 11 July 1969.
 
21. Donald G. Rea to Naugle, ''Plan for Viking Investigator Selection," 22 Apr. 1969; Walter Jakobowski to Martin, ''Plans for Viking Instrument Selection,'' 3 July 1969; VPO, "Viking Science Management Plan," pp. 27-35, includes Naugle. ''Opportunities for Participation in Space Flight Investigations Memorandum Change 23, Viking 1973 Mars Missions," memo change 23 in NHB 8030.1A. 15 July 1969; and VPO, "Viking Lander Science Instrument Teams Report," M73- 112-0, draft, July 1969.
 
22. VPO," Minutes, Viking Project Science Steering Group Meeting, July 17-18, 1969," 12 Aug. 1969; Walter Jakobowski, "Viking Science Review," memo, 15 Aug. 1969; and Hearth to Naugle, "Viking Science Constraints," 11 Sept. 1969.
 
23. Mitz to Soffen, "Selection of Scientists for Viking 16 Oct. 1969. With encl.; Mitz to Martin, "Project Support for Viking Science Proposal Evaluation by the Subcommittees of the Space Science and Applications Steering Committee," 10 Oct. 1969; Miltz, "Record of Meeting Held on September 28, 1969, on Evaluation of Viking Proposals," memo, 13 Oct. 1969; and Israel Taback, memo, "Assessment of Science Proposals," 16 Oct. 1969.
 
24. Martin to Cortright, "Final VPO Assessment of Proposed Science Payload for Viking 73,''8 Dec.1969.
 
25. Hearth to Naugle, "Viking Science Constraints," 11 Sept. 1969.
 
26. Martin to Cortright, "Final VPO Assessment of Proposed Science Payload for Viking 73," 8 Dec. 1969.
 
27. Richard S. Young to Lederberg, 24 Feb. 1969.
 
28. Ibid.
 
29. Ibid.
 
30. Thomas O. Paine, "Selection of Contractor for Viking Lander System and Project Integration, Langley Research Center" [26 Aug. 1969].
 
31. NASA, "Viking Contract Award," news release 69-82, 29 May 1969.
 
32. David B. Ahearn telephone interview by Eze11. 22 Nov. 1978; and NASA Audit Div., "Report on Audit of Viking Program Project Initiation to Contractor Selection. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia," rpt. LR-DU: 33-70, 18 Dec. 1969, p. 17.
 
33. Ahearn telephone interview, 22 Nov. 1978.
 
34. VPO, "Viking 75 Project Planning Status Report, Presentation Material," 3 Feb. 1970.
 
35. Harper E. Van Ness to Draley, "Weekly Reports," 19 Jan.; 2, 9, 13, and 20 Feb.; 2 and 24 Mar.; 28 Apr.; 5 May; and 13 July 1970; Clarence A. Robins, Jr., to Martin, "Weekly Report for Week of January 5, 1970,'' 19 Jan. 1970; idem for ''Week of January 12, 1970," 26 Jan. 1970; "Week of January 19, 1970,'' 27 Jan. 1970; and VPO, "Viking 75 Project, Resources Planning Report, July 1970.''30 July 1970.
 
36. Martin to Ahearn. ''Proposed Contracts for Science Team Leaders," 10 Dec. 1969; Martin to Ahearn, ''Proposed Contracts for Science Team Principal Investigator," 11 Dec. 1969; Martin to Ahearn, ''Procurement of Services from Other Government Agencies," 11 Dec. 1969; Guastaferro to Frank W. McCabe. NASA contract NASl-9000, provisions for VPO and science Team Review and Comment on Proposals Received in Response to Request for Proposal Associated with WBS 4.0. Science Instruments,'' 30 Dec. 1969; Soffen, letter, 2 Jan. 1970; Van Ness to Draley, "Weekly Reports," 9 and 19 Jan. 1970.
 
37. Soffen. Viking 1975," memo, 21 Jan. 1970.
 
38. Guastaferro to McCabe, "NASA Contract NASI-9000. Technical Discussions of Scientific Instrument Specifications prior to Subcontract Negotiations between Martin Marietta Corporation and Selected Vendor,'' 19 Feb. 1970.
 
39. Martin Marietta, "Viking Science Newsletter," no. 1, 3 Apr. 1970, pp. 1-2.
 
40. Soffen. "Science Review for the Viking Project," memo, 11 Mar. 1970; Martin, "Minutes of Special Viking Science ,Meetings," memo, 7 May 1970; Andrew T. Young to Soffen, 20 Apr. 1970; and "Viking Science Newsletter," no. 2, 24 Apr. 1970.
 
41. Martin to Charles W. Coles, 28 Aug. 1968; VPO, "Viking Project Viking Lander Science lnstrument Teams Report.'' 30 July 1969, pp. 46-57.
 
42. Dale R.Rushneck et al., ''Viking Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer," Review of Scientific Instruments 49 (June 1978): 817-34.
 
43. VPO, Viking Science Activities, ''no. 6, 19 June 1970; no.7,9 July l970; no.8, 31 July 1970; and no. 9, 21 Aug. 1970.
 
44. G. Calvin Broome to Martin, ''VPO/JPL Management Meeting, Inputs relative to GCMS Management Problems," 3 Sept. 1970.
 
45. Van Ness to Cortright and Oran W. Nicks, "Viking Project 'Highlights' Report," 16 Feb. 1971.
 
46. Ibid.
 
47. Robins to Martin, ''Activity Report for Week of March 1,1971, " 8 Mar. 1971; and VPO, "Minutes, Viking .Science Steering Group Meeting, 2-3 March 1971," 19 Mar. 1971.
 
48. Van Ness to Cortright and Nicks, "Viking Project 'Highlights' Report, 8 Mar. and 20 July 1971.
 
49. Van Ness to Cortright and Nicks, "Viking Project 'Highlights' Report," 22 Mar. 1971.
 
50. VPO. ''Minutes, Viking Science, Steering, Group Meeting, June 2-3, 1971," 24 June 1971; and Joseph C. Moorman. ''Prelimimary Report: Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (CCMS) Requirements Review Panel,''21 May 1971.
 
51. VPO, Viking Science Symposium, April 19-20, 1971," 19 Apr. 1971; Joel S. Levine, "Notes on the Viking Science Symposium on Mars Held at the NASA Langley Research Center April l9-20, 1971 " memo, 4 May 1971; and VPO. "Viking Science Activities," no 23, 5 May 1971.
 
52. Harold P. Klein to Martin, 23 Sept. 1971.
 
53. Don L. Anderson to Soffen, 24 Sept. 1971. Other reactions can be found in M. Nafi Toksoz Anderson, 22 Sept. 1971; Richard W. Shorthill to Soffen, 28 Sept. Hugh Kieffer to Soffen, 24 Sept. 1971; Robert B. Hargraves to Soffen. 28 Sept. 1971; Welcome W. Bender to Soffen, 27 Sept. 1971: and William H. Michael, Jr., to Soffen, 1 Oct. 1971.
 
54. VPO, "Minutes, Viking Science Steering Group Meetings," 19 Sept. and 6-7 Oct. 1971.
 
55. Van Ness to Cortright and Nicks, "Viking Weekly Flighlights Report," 12, 20, and 28 Oct. and 3 Nov. 1971; Martin to John J. Paulson, 26 Oct. 1971; Paulson to Martin, "Viking Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (CCMS) Objectives for the Period December 1971 through May 1972," 5 Nov. 1971: and Martin to Robert J. Parks. 16 Dec. 1971.
 
56. Alfred O. C. Nier to Soffen, 20 Sept. 1971.
 
57. VPO, "Minutes, Viking Science Steering Group Meeting, February 16-18, 1972," 3 Apr. 1972;Van Ness to Cortright and Nicks, " Viking Weekly Highlights Report, Week of January 24, 1972," 3 Feb.1972; idem for "Week of February 2, 1972, "2 Mar.1972; "Week of February 28, 1972, "10 Mar. 1972;" Weeks of March 6 and 13, 1972,''22 Mar.1972; Naugle to George M. Low, "Status of the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (CCMS),'' 8 Mar. 1972; and Naugle to Pickering, TWX, 10 Mar. 1972.
 
58. Fred S. Brown, "The Biology Instrument for the Viking Mars Mission," Review of Scientific Instruments 49 (Feb. 1978): 139-82; TRW Systems Group, "Hybrid Life Detection Instrument Design Review Data Package, " 3 vols., 30 June 1969; and Bendix Aerospace Systems Div., "Viking Integrated Life Detector Instrument Final Report," BSR 2797, 2 vols., Dec. 1969.
 
59. Loyal G. Goff, "Viking Biology Instrument Narrative History," 8 Nov. 1974.
 
60. Klein, Lederberg, and Alexander Rich, "Biological Experiments: The Viking Mars Lander," Icarus 16 (Feb. 1972): 139-46.
 
61. Rodney A. Mills to Jakobowski, 'Visit to TRW regarding Biology Instrument," 22 Feb. 1972.
 
62. Martin, "Viking '75 Malfunction Protection Policy," Viking Project Directive 6, I July 1971.
 
63. Van Ness to Cortright and Nicks, "Viking Weekly Highlights Report, Week of 4 October 1971," 12 Oct. 1971; and TRW, "Viking Lander Biology Instrument Preliminary Design Review," 2 vols., 4-6 Oct. 1971.
 
64. Langley Research Ctr. "Viking Project Manager's Presentation to Physics Panel of SPAC," 22 Nov. 1971; VPO, "Viking Science Activities," no. 32. 3 Dec. 1971; and Van Ness to Cortright and Nicks, "Viking Weekly Highlights Report, Week of January 31, 1972," 9 Feb. 1972.
 
65. Jakobowski, "Viking Instruments Status Report No. 8," memo, 3 Feb. 1972; "Minutes, Viking Science Steering Group,''16-18 Feb.1971;Young, "Memo of Telephone Conversation with Dr. N. Horowitz Re: Deletion of Vishniac Experiment (Light Scattering) from Viking '75 Payload,'' memo for record, 13 Mar. 1972;Young to Naugle," Letter&emdash;Telephone Dictated on 15 March from Dr. Lederberg and Dr. Rich concerning the Deletion of the Light Scattering Experiment from Viking Biology Package," 15 Mar. 1972; Lederberg to Young, 15 Mar. 1972; Naugle to Wolf V. Vishniac, 17 Mar. 1972; and Lederberg interview by Ezell, 23 Aug. 1977.
 
66. Klein to Naugle, 22 Mar. 1972; and VPO, "Minutes of the Viking Biology Team Meeting, March 19, 1972," 30 Mar. 1972.
 
67. Vishniac to Naugle, 6 Apr. 1972.
 
68. Naugle to Vishniac, 20 Apr. 1972; and Naugle to Klein, 20 Apr. 1972.
 
69. Vishniac to Soffen, 16 Mar. 1973.
 
70. Horowitz, Roy E. Cameron, and Jerry S. Hubbard, "Microbiology of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica," Science 176 (21 Apr. 1972): 242-45.
 
71. Terry Dillman, "Death in Frozen Wasteland," Times-Union (Rochester), 12 Dec. 1973; "Mars Landing Instrument to Be Tested," Houston Chronicle. 12 Dec. 1971; "Mars Instrument Test in Antarctica Hikes Confidence," Chicago Sun-Times, 30 Mar. 1972; and Lederberg interview, 23 Aug. 1977.
 
72. Martin to Cortright, ''Meeting at TRW on July 20, 1973, to Discuss Status of V'75 Biology Instrument-Schedule, Cost, Management," 20 July 1973.
 
73. Cortright to George Solomon, 15 Oct. 1973.
 
74. Martin to Walter O. Lowrie, "Top Ten Problem," 26 Oct. 1973; Cortright to Solomon, 31 Oct. 1973; Cortright to Richard D. DeLauer, 14 Nov. 1973; and DeLauer to Cortright, 4 Dec. 1973.
 
75. Loyal G. Goff to Jakobowski, "Viking Biology Instrument," I Feb. 1974; and Broome to Martin, "Management Interface Problems between VPO/MMA Resident Team at TRW," 7 Feb. 1974.
 
76. Martin to Lowrie and Norris, "Viking Contingency Planning," 21 June 1974; Cortright to DeLauer, 22 July 1974; Martin to Lowrie, 17 Dec. 1974; Broome to Martin, "Residual Top Ten Problems," 28 May 1975; Martin to Lowrie, 6 June 1975; and Jakobowski telephone interview by Ezell, 11 Dec. 1978.
 
77. VPO, ''Viking, Science Activities, no. 83,'' 14 Mar. 1975.
 
78. Jakobowski telephone interview, 11 Dec. 1978.
 

previousindexnext