On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978

1. John D.Goodlette, ''Challenge, of the Viking Mars Lander system. "in Proceedings of the Twelfth Space Congress: Technology Today and Tomorrow (Cocoa Beach, Fla.: Canaveral Council of Technical Societies. 1975), p. 6-3. Unless otherwise noted, the first part of this chapter is based on this article.
2. James S. Martin to Henry Norris, "Viking Top Ten Problems." 4 May 1970; identical letters were also sent to John J. Paulson and Albert J. Kullas. See also Harper Vari Ness to Edgar M. Cortright and Oran W. Nicks, "Viking Project 'Highlights' Report, Week of December 14, 1970," 21 Dec. 1970; Van Ness, "Procedures for- 'Statusizing' Viking Project Top Ten Problems," memo, 3 Aug.1971: Langley Research Ctr., Viking Project Office (hereafter VPO), "Viking Top Ten Problems," Viking Project Directive 7,4 Oct. 1971; and Martin to Contrite, "Viking Top Ten Problems," 20 Apr. 1972.
3. Contrite to John E. Naugle, 18 Jan. 1973, with encls. describing problems and suggested materials for letters; Cortright to Naugle, 6 Feb. 1973; and James C. Fletcher to George A. Roberts, 2 Feb. 1973; similar letters were sent by Fletcher to Russell D. O'Neal, Hudson Drake, Harry J. Gray, Barry J. Shillito, Stephen F. Keating, and Frauldin A. Lindsay.
4. Gray to Fletcher, 14 Feb. 1973; O'Neal to Fletcher, 19 Feb. 1973; Fletcher to O'Neal, 8 Mar. 1973; Lindsay to Fletcher, TWX, 6 Mar. 1973; Frank J. Madden to Cortright, 20 Mar. 1973; Fletcher to Lindsay, 4 Apr. 1973: Fletcher to Roberts, 16 Mar. 1973; Roberts to Fletcher, 10 and 27 Apr. 1973; Shillito to Fletcher, 2 Mar. and 17May 1973; Martin to Shillito, 20 Aug.1973;Fletcher to Charles B. Thornton, 7 Mar. 1973; Thornton to Fletcher, 15 Mar. 1973; and Fred W. O'Green to Fletcher, 17 Apr. 1973.
5. [VPO], "Development History of the Viking Lander Computer," 26 Nov. 1974.
6. Fletcher to John W. Anderson, 8 Mar. 1973.
7. Anderson to Fletcher, 22 Mar 1973: George M. Low to Anderson. 9 Apr. 1973; Martin to Cortright GCSC Computer Development at Honeywell," 16 Aug. 1973; Sherwood L. Butler to Nolan I. Jones." Guidance and Control and Sequencing Computer (GCSC)," 3 Oct. 1973; and Honeywell," 16 Aug. 1973; Sherwood L. Butler to Nolan I. Jones, (Guidance and Control and Sequencing Computer (GCSC)," 3 Oct.1973; Martin to Walter O. Lowrie, Computer ( C.CSC:) Contingency Plans, " 16 Oct.1973; Low to Fletcher, "Status of the Viking Lander Computer." 29 Jan. 1974; Robert S. Kraemer to Low and Noel W. Hinners, "Status of the Viking Lander Computer," 29 July 1974 Hinners to Low, "Status of the Viking Lander Computer," 29 July 1974; Hinners to Low, "Status of the Viking Lander Computer," 14 Aug. 1974.
8. [VPO], '' Development History of the Viking Lander Computer," 26 Nov. 1974.
9. Cortright to Lou, 30 Oct. 1973.
10. [VPO], "Development History of the Viking Lander Computer," 26 Nov. 1974.
11. Lowrie to Martin, "Computer," datafax, 15 Jan. 1975.
12. Unless otherwise noted, this section is based on Henry Caruss, "Testing the Viking Lander," Environmental sciences 20 (Mar.-Apr. 1977): 11-17.
13. Stanley Barrett, "The Development of Sine Wave Vibration Test Requirements for Viking Lander Capsule Components," in Institute of Environmental Sciences, comp., Cost Effectiveness in the Environment Sciences: Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Meeting (Mount Prospect, Ill., 1974), pp. 77-82; and R. E. Snyder et al., "Specification and Correlation of the Sine Vibration for Viking 75,'' paper. Society of Automotive Engineers, National Aerospace Engineering and Manufacturing Meeting, San Diego, 1-3 Oct. 1974.
14. A. F. Leondis, "Viking Dynamic Simulator Vibration Testing and Analysis Modeling." Shock and Vibration Bulletin, no 45, pt. 3, n.d., pp. 103-13; and H.N. McGregor, "Simulation of Viking Spacecraft Acoustic Environment,'' in Cost Effectiveness in the Environmental Sciences, pp. 183-85.
15. Stanley Barrett, "The Development of Pyro Shock Test Requirements for Viking Lander Capsule Components," in Institute of Environmental Sciences, comp., Proceedings, 21st Annual Technical Meeting 2 (Mount Prospect, Ill., 1975): 5-10.
16. R. P. Parrish, Jr., "Performance and Operating Characteristics of a 4.48-M Diameter Solar Simulator for Viking Space Simulation Tests," Goddard Space Flight Center, comp., 8th Conference on Space Simulators (Greenbelt, Md., 1975) .pp.409-17:T. Buna. "Special Techniques the Viking Lander capsule Thermal Vacuum Test Program," in 8th Conference on Space Simulators, pp. 419-33; T. R. Tracey, Theodore F. Morey, and David N. Gorman. "Thermal Design of the Viking Lander Capsule." paper, AIAA 12th Aerospace .Sciences Meeting. Washington, D.C., 30 Jan.-l Feb. 1974; Tracey. To Buna, ''Thermal Testing the Viking Capsule System,'' paper, Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems. 29 July-1 Aug. 1974 (place not known); Morey and Gorman, "Development of the Viking Mars Lander Thermal Control Subsystem Design," paper, AIAA and ASME Thermophysics .and ASME Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Boston, 15-17 July 1974: Buna and T. C. Shupert. ''Cost Effectiveness as Applied to The Viking Lander Systtols -Level Thermal Development Test Program,'' in Effectiveness in the Environmental Sciences pp 133-37:and Gorman and Morey, Thermal Design, Analysis, and Testing of a Full-Size Planetary Lander Model," paper, AIAA Thermophysics Conference, San Francisco, 16-18 June 1989.
17. NASA, ''Viking Parachute Tests Scheduled," news release 72-118, 8 June 1973: "Balloon Launching Delayed,'' New York Times, 11 June 1973; NASA White Sands Test Facility, "NASA News'' new release, 26 July 1972; Buna and H. H. Battley, "Thermal Design and Performance of the Viking Balloon-Launched Decelerator Test Vehicle (BLDTV).'' paper. AIAA and ASME Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference. Boston, 15-17 July 1974: James L. Raper, Frederick C. Michel, and Reginald R. Lundstrom, "The Viking Parachute Qualification Test Technique," paper, AIAA Fourth Aerodynamic Decelerator Systems Conference, Palm Springs, 21-23 May 1973; Sy Steinberg et al., "Development of the Viking Parachute Configuration by Wind Tunnel Investigation," idem; N. N. Murrow, "Development Flight Tests of the Viking Decelerator System." idem Richard D. Moog et al., "Qualification Flight Tests of the Viking Decelerator System," idem; Clarence L. Gillis, "The Viking Decelerator System-An Overview," idem: and Jesse D. Timmons, ''Viking Balloon Launched Decelerator Tests," IAF paper 76-155, 27th International Astronautical Federation, Anaheim, Calif., 10-16 Oct. 1976.
18. Buna and J. R. Ratliff, "Operation of a Large Thermal Vacuum Chamber at Martian Pressure Levels," in J. C. Richmond, ea., Space Simulation: Proceedings of a Conference Held at NBS, Gaithersburg, Maryland, September 14-16, 1970, National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 336 (Washington, 1970), pp. 725-48; and Buna, "Thermal Testing under Simulated Martian Environment," paper, AIAA Third Thermophysics Conference, Los Angeles, 24-26 June 1968.
19. Frank W. McCabe to David B. Ahearn. Contract NAS1-9000, End-to-End Systems Level Science Testing,'' 18 Oct. 1973; Arlen F. Carter, "Science 'End-to-End' Testing (SEET) Objectives, Requirements, and Success Criteria,'' memo, 21 Jan 1974, with draft, "Science End-to-End Test Objectives,'' 17 Jan. 1974; and Carter, "Science End-to-End Testing (SEET). Test Requirements Outline,'' memo. 24 Jan 1974, with encl.
20. Craig Covault, "Mars Lander Proof Vehicle Passes Tests," Aviation Week & Space Technology 101 (4 Nov. 1974): 44-46.
21. VPO. ''Viking Science End to End Test (SEET) Bulletin No. I," 26 Aug.1974; No.3,6 Sept. 1974; No. 6.16 Sept. 1974; No. 7,17 Sept. 1974; No. 8,18 Sept. 1974; No. 9, 19 Sept. 1974; No. 10, 20 Sept. 1974; No. 11, 22 Sept. 1974; and No. 13, 24 Sept. 1974.
22. Welcome W. Bender to Gerald A Soffen, 26 0ct. 1971; "Summary Minutes: Ad HOC Subcommittee to Evaluate Viking Inorganic Instruments-The Alpha Backscaner (ABS) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometer," 4 Jan. 1972; Kraemer to Naugle, Viking Science Payload Changes,'' 14 Mar. 1972; Naugle to Anthony L. Turkevich, 17 Mar. 1972; Stephen E. Dwornik to Walter Jakobowski, ''Viking Inorganic Analysis Experiment,''4 Apr. 1972; Fletcher to Turkovich, 11 May 1972; and Naugle to Fletcher, "Inorganic Analysis Experiment for Viking,'' 8 May 1972.
23. Priestley Toulmin III to Soffen, 9 Sept. 1974.
24. Toulmin to Martin, 7 Oct. 1974.
25. G. Calvin Broome to Martin, "Considerations relative to Post-Launch End to End Biology Test on PTC Lander," 30 June 1975; VPO, "Viking Science End to End Test (SEET) Bulletin No. 15," 9 Oct. 1974; Carter to Soffen, "Preparation of the Unknown Sample for GCMS Analysis during Biology Performance Verification Test." 7 Feb. 1975; VPO, "Viking BIO PV/GCMS End to End Test Bulletin No. 1," 12 Feb. 1975; No. 3, 19 Feb. 1975; and No. 4, 27 Feb. 1975.
26. H. E. Adelson et al., "The Viking Lander Biology Instrument," TRW report 21020-6003-RU-00, Aug. 1975, pp. II-1 to II-3.
27. Carter to Harold P. Klein [29 Sept. 1975]; and Martin to Hinners, 7 Oct. 1975.
28. Klein to Martin, 17 Nov. 1975; and Jakobowski to Hinners," Viking Biology Instrument Testing Program," 1 Dec. 1975.
29. Martin to Klein, 9 Dec. 1975.
30. Martin to Hinners, "Closure of All Open Items relative to Further Prelanding Biology Testing," 9 Dec. 1975; and Hinners to Naugle, "Viking Biology Testing.'' 30 Dec. 1975.
31. NASA, "NASA Reorganization and Key Personnel Appointments," special announcement.5 Mar. 1974; and NASA, ''Naugle Named Associate Administrator at NASA," news release, 75-297, 21 Nov. 1975.
32. VPO, "Monthly Financial Report, January/February/March" 3 Apr. 1974.
33. Rocco A. Petrone to Hinners," Viking Management Plan," 16 Oct. 1974;VPO, Viking Project Cost Status Presentation to Dr. Rocco A. Petrone, Associate Administrator, 23 May 1974; VPO, "Viking Project Cost Status Presentation, September 5, 1974, to Dr. Noel W. Hinners, Associate Administrator for Office of Space Science," 5 Sept. 1974; and VPO, "Viking Project Program Plan and Cost Management Presentation. October 22, 1974, to Dr. Noel W. Hinners, Associate Administrator for Office of Space Science," 22 Oct. 1974;
34. Langley Research Center, "New Directorate NASA Langley," newsrelease 75-l9, 11 July 1975 and NASA, ''Appointment of New Director of JPL," announcement, key personnel change, 23 June, 1975.
35. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Viking Project, hearings before Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, 93d Cong., 2d sess. (henceforth 93/2), 1974, passim.
36. VPO, "Minutes of the Viking Science Steering Group Meeting, " 7 Oct.1974; Hinners to Cortright, "Viking Budget Guidelines." 3 Oct. 1974; and Covault "Orbiter, Backup Lander Cut from Viking," Aviation Week & Space Technology 101 (28 Oct. 1974): 18-19.
37. VPO, ''Mission Operations Status Bulletin, " no. 3, 25 Apr. 1975; and Hinners to Jakobowski, 17 Sept. 1974,
38. VPO, 'Mission Operations Status Bulletin," no. 4, 9 May 1975.
39. VPO, ''Mission Operations Status Bulletin," no.5, 26 May 1975; and W. R. Durrett, "Lightning-Apollo to Shuttle....Case Histories and Spacecraft Protection," in Canaveral Council of Technical Societies, comp., Technology for the New Horizon: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Space Congress, Cocoa Beach, Florida, April 7-9, 1976 (Cocoa Beach, 1976), pp. 4-27 to 4-32.
40. "Mission Operations Status Bulletin," no. 9, 29 July 1975.