SP-4212
On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978

 
 
 
 
SOURCE NOTES FOR CHAPTER 9
 
 
 
1. Langley Research Ctr., Viking Project Office (VPO), "Minutes, Viking Project Science Steering Group .Meeting at Langley Research Center," 21 Feb. 1969, p. 2. Mars orbital imaging had been a topic of discussion for a number of years. For an early view of the site selection problem, see Paul R. Swan and Carl Sagan, "Martian Landing Sites for the Voyager Mission," Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets 2 (Jan-Feb. 1965): 18-25. See also J. W. Kiefer, "The Influence of Visual Imaging Experiments on Unmanned Mars Spacecraft Missions," paper, 104th Technical Conference of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, 10-15 Nov. 1968; this 16-page paper was prepared by McDonnell Douglas Corp. under contract 952 000 for JPL as part of its studies for Project Voyager.
 
2. VPO, ''Minutes, Viking Project Science Steering Group Meeting at Stanford University," 20-21 Mar. 1969, p. 3.
 
3. James S. Martin, "Landing Site Group," memo, 20 Aug. 1970.
 
4. VPO, ''Minutes, Viking '75 Project Landing Site Group Meeting at MIT," 2 Sept. 1970, pp. 1-5.
 
5. John E. Naugle, "Decision to Reschedule Viking to 1975," memo for record, 4 Jan. 1970; and Victor Cohn, "Scientists Cite Social Needs; Cut in Space Program Urged," Washington Post, 29 Dec. 1969.
 
6. VPO, "Minutes, Viking '75 Project Landing Site Group Meeting at NASA Ames Research Center," 26-27 Oct. 1970, p. 5.
 
7. VPO, "Minutes, Viking '75 Project Science Steering Group Meeting at Jet Propulsion Laboratory,'' 10-11 June 1970, pp. 5-6; and "Viking Science Activities," 7 July 1970, p. 2.
 
8. Orbiter Imaging Team, "An Assessment of Viking Orbital Imaging and a Comparison of the Viking and MM71 Camera Systems" [Oct. 1970], encl. to Michael H. Carr to Martin, "Orbiter Imaging Review," 13 Oct. 1970; and Harold Masursky telephone interview, 21 Oct. 1976, by Edward C. Ezell.
 
9. Orbiter Imaging Team, "An Assessment of Viking Orbital Imaging."
 
10. VPO, ''Minutes, Landing Site Group Meeting," 26-27 Oct. 1970, pp. 5-6; and VPO, "Minutes, Viking Science Steering Group Meeting," 28-29 Oct. 1970, p. 3.
 
11. VPO, ''Minutes, Viking Science Steering Group Meeting," 19 Sept. 1971 and 6-7 Oct. 1971; and Masursky telephone interview.
 
12. VPO. "Minutes, Landing Site Group Meeting," 26-27 Oct. 1970, pp. 6-9; Robert S. Kramer, "Coordination of Mars Investigation Programs," memo, 25 May 1970; Earl W. Glahn to Dan Schneiderman, 28 Jan. 1971; and Steve Z. Gunter to John Newcomb, Edward Hinson, and Jim Hardy, 20 June 1973, with encl., N. R. Haynes et al., "Mariner Mars 1971 Adaptive Mission Planning," AIAA paper 72-944, AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Conference, Palo Alto, Calif.. 11-12 Sept. 1972.
 
13. Sagan, ''Provision Criteria for Viking Landing Site Selection,'' n.d., encl. to'' Minutes, Viking Landing Site Group Meeting,,'' 2-3 Dec. 1970; and Glahn to Kraemer. "Radar Studies of Mars for Topographic Data," 30 Mar. 1970.
 
14. Sagan, "Provisional Critetia for Viking Landing Site Selection"; and Alan Binder, ''Viking Lander Site Criteria," n.d.. encl. to Binder to A. Thomas Young. 23 Sept. 1970.
 
15. Sagan, ''Provisional Criteria for Viking Landing Site Selection."
 
16. VPO, ''Minutes, Viking Science Steering Group Meeting,'' 15-l6 Dec. 1970.
 
17. "Mariner Mars 1971 Project Office/Viking Project Office Memorandum of Agreement for Viking Program for Viking Participation in Mariner '71 Mission Operations,'' 2 Feb. 1971, encl. to VPO, "Minutes, Fourth Viking '75 Project Landing Site Group Meeting at NASA, Langley Research Center," 21 Apr. 1971.
 
18. VPO," Minutes, Landing Site Group Meeting, "21 Apr. 1971; Martin, "Membership to the Viking Data Analysis Team for Participation in the Mariner Mars '71 Mission Operations," memo, 19 July 1971; and Angelo Guastaferro to Frank W. McCabe, 17 Aug. 1971.
 
19. JPL, Mariner Mars 1971 Status Bulletin 2, "Mariner 8 Lost at Sea," 10 May 1971, and Bull. 3, "Mariner 1 Launch Scheduled 29 May '71," 25 May 1971; George M. Low to James C. Fletcher," Mariner 1 Launch Readiness," 27 May 1971; JPL, Mariner Mars 1971 Status Bull. 4, "Mariner 9-Right on!" 1 June 1971; Naugle to Fletcher, "Mariner 9 Post Launch #1, " 2 June 1971; and JPL, Mariner Mars 1971 Status Bull. 17, "Mariner 9 MOI-How Sweet It Is!" 15 Nov. 1971.
 
20. Unless otherwise noted, the information on the Mariner 9 mission is taken from William K. Hartmann and Odell Raper, The New Mars: The Discoveries of Mariner 9, NASA SP-337 (Washington, 1974). See also the following press accounts: Eric Burgess, "First Maps Produced of Martian Weather System," Christian Science Monitor, 24 June 1971; John Noble Wilford, "Thick Dust Shown on Mars," New York Times, 16 Nov. 1971; Walter Sullivan, "Mars: The Strange Storms of the Red Planet, " New York Times, 21 Nov.1971; and Sullivan, " Mars: Threat of a 'Major Scientific Disaster,' " New York Times, 12 Dec. 1971.
 
21. Hartmann and Raper, The New Mars, pp. 39-42; Peter Smolders, Soviets in Space (New York: Taplinger Publishing Co., 1974), pp. 230-35; and VPO, "Minutes, Viking Science Steering Group Meeting," 8-9 Dec. 1971, pp. 4-5, in which C. W. Snyder summarized what the Soviets had told Sagan and what they had released to the press: "1. The Soviet Mars 2 and 3 spacecraft were identical. 2. The Mars orbit inclination for both spacecraft was 40 degrees. 3. There was some difficulty with one spacecraft and it might not orbit." From this, Snyder hypothesized the following: "l. Soviet Mars 3had trouble in achieving orbit as evidenced by its 11-day orbit period. 2. The lander from Soviet Mars 2 said by the Russians to have landed a pennant on the surface had crashed. 3. The lander from Soviet Mars 3 had landed successfully but transmitted (through its orbiter) only a part of a picture." See Charles F. Capen and Leonard J. Martin, "The Developing Stages of the Martian Yellow Storm of 1971," Lowell Observatory Bulletin 7 [Jan. 1972]: 211-16; JPL, Mariner Mars 1971 Status Bull. 20, "Mariner 9 TV Pictures," 10 Dec. 1971, and Bull. 22, "Dust Storm Dying," 12 Jan. 1972; and William A. Baum to Robert A. Schmitz, 10 Feb. 1972.
 
22. V. V. Prokof'eva and V. A. Fenchak, "O zaktukhanii global'noi pylevoi burl 1971 g. na Marse" [Subsiding of the 1971 global dust storm on Mars], Astronomicheskii Vestnik 9 (Oct.-Dec. 1975): 201 -09, trans. as "Dying Down of the 1971 Global Storm on Mars." Solar System Research 9 (April 1976): 165-71; Peter J. Gierasch, "Martian Dust Storms," Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics 12 (Nov. 1975): 730-34; Barney J. Conrath, " Thermal Structures of the Martian Atmosphere during the Dissipation of the Dust Storm of 1971," 1carus 24 (1975):36-46; and Baum," Results of Current Mars Studies at the IAU Planetary Research Center," in A. Woszgzyk and C. Iwaniszewska, eds., Exploration of the Planetary System ( Dordrecht, Holland, Boston, 1974), pp.241-51. See also A. B. Whitehead, "Reports on Russian Mission, " memo, 27 Sept.1972, with encl., trans. of 25 Aug. 1972 Pravda article, "Initial Results of Mars Probe Analyzed"; Young, "Transmittal of USSR Technical Papers relating to the Mars 2 and 3 Missions," memo, 26 June 1973, with encls.. V. 1. Moroz, "Rabochaya model' atmosfery Marsa" [Working model of the atmosphere of Mars], NASA TT F-14 907, Apr. 1973; M. K. Rozhdestvenskiy and V.1. Shkirina, "Mars-3: Otsenka parametrov atmosfery v meste posadki sa" [Mars 3 estimate of parameters of the atmosphere at the landing point of the spacecraft], NASA TT F-14 907, Apr. 1973; Moroz, "Orbitalt'nyye apparaty Mars-2 I Mars-3; Rezul'taty issledovaniy poverkhnosti i atmosfery Marsa" [Mars 2 and Mars 3 orbital spacecraft; Results of studies of the surface and atmosphere of Mars], NASA TT F-14 908, Apr. 1973; and Gerald A. Soffen to Viking Scientists, "Pravda Article by Dr. 1. Koval," 15 Aug. 1973.
 
23. VPO, " Minutes, Viking Science Steering Group Meeting, "7-8 Dec.1971;" Minutes of Viking Data Analysis Team Meeting at JPL," 16 Dec.1971; Schmitz," Viking Data Analysis Report Number l," memo. 28 fan. 1972: Baum, "Where Will the Martian Dust Be When Viking Arrives," paper, AAS Div. of Planetary Sciences Meeting. Kona, Hl. 20-24 Mar. 1972; JPL. .Mariner Mars 1971 Status Bull. 23, "Pits. Spots, Cracks and Rilles,'' 14 Jan. 1972 and Bull. 224, ''Unique Martian Landform,'' 20 Jan. 1972.
 
24. VPO, "Minutes, Viking, Science Steering Group Meeting.'' 16-18 Feb. 1972.
 
25. NASA, ''News Conference on Mariner 9," news release. 2 Feb. 1972. For an evaluation of the Mariner 6 and 7 television science team work, see special issue, Journal of Geophysical Research 76 (10 Jan. 1971): 293-472. which includes Robert B. Leighton and Bruce C.Murray, ''One Year's Process and Interpretation-An Overview," 293-96. Murray et al.. "The Surface of Mars: 1. Cratered Terrains,'' 313-30, Robert P. Sharp et al., ''The Surface of Mars: 2. Uncratered Terrains Terrains,'' 331-42, James A. Cutts et al., "The Surface of Mars: 3. Light and Dark Markings," 343-56; Sharp et al., "The Surface of Mars: 4. South Polar Cap,'' 357-68. See also J.A. Stallkamp, A. G. Herriman, and the Mariner Mars 1969 Experimenters, Mariner Mars 1969 Final Project Report: Scientific Investigations, JPL Technical Rpt. 32-1460. vol. 3 (Pasadena. 1971); and Whithead to MM 71 Investigators, "Bruce Murray Seminar," 2 Oct. 1972, with encl., "A New View of Mars,'' 28 Sept. 1972.
 
26. VPO, ''Minutes, Viking Science Steering Group Meeting," 16-18 Feb.1972: VPO, "Viking Science Activities,'' no. 29, 23 Sept. 1971. p. 5; and Schmitz. "Viking Data Analysis Report Number 1.''
 
27. Soffen to Science Steering Group. "Meetings during the Week of February 14, 1972," 9 Feb. 1972.
 
28. VPO, "Minutes, Viking Science Steering Group Meeting," 16-18 Feb. 1972, pp. 6, 8-10.
 
29. C. Howard Robins. Jr., "Review of M75-140-0, Viking '75 Project Landing Site Selection Plan,'' memo, 10 Feb. 1972, with draft plan encl.
 
30. VPO, "Coordination Copy, M75-141-0. Viking 75 Project Landing Site Selection Plan," n.d.: .Masursky to Martin, 28 July 1971; Harold F. Hipsher, "Mapping Coverage of Mars with Mariner Mars '71 (MM'71)," memo for record. 4 June 1971; Martin to Vincent McKelvey. 3 Sept. 1971;.Vlartin to McKelvey, "Mars Mapping Support for Viking Project," 18 Oct. 1971; Guastaferro to John P. Campbell Jr., ''Mars Mapping Support for Viking, Purchase Request 06.000.1 j5," 12 Nov. 1971: Masursky to George Recant, "Viking Cartography," 3 Nov. 1971; Masursky to N. J. Trask, ''Viking Cartography." 29 Oct. 1971; Masursky to Robins, 8 May 1972; and U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Astrogeologic Studies, "Proposal to Conduct Geologic Mapping in Support of the Viking'75 Landers," 8 May 1972.
 
31. Thomas A. .Mutch to Schmitz, l June 1972, with encl., Mutch, "VDAT Terrain Analysis.''30 May 1972; VPO, "Minutes, Viking Data Analysis Team Meeting, Jet Propulsion Lab," 15 March 1972 Schmitz to Viking Data Analysis Team Members, "VDAT Final Report on Participation in the Mariner Mars '71 Mission," 16 May 1972 and Schmitz. "Viking Data Analysis Team Report on MM'71 Participation,'' memo, 13 July 1972, with encl.. "Viking Data Analysis Team Report,'' prelim., .M75-144-0, n d.
 
32. VPO, " Minutes, Viking 75 Project Landing Site Working Group Meeting at Jet Propulsion Laboratory,''25 Apr. 1972.
 
33. Recant, "Rating of Viking Target Areas to Be Photographed by Mariner 9," memo, 30 May 1972.
 
34. Robins to Landing Site Working Group, "Revision to Near-Term Selection Activities Schedule." 25 May 1972.
 
35. Recant, "Rating of Viking Target Areas."
 
36. Schmitz to Martin. 'Status of Planning for Coverage of Viking Targets in the Mariner 9 Extended .Mission,'' 6 June 1972.
 
37. Masursky et al to Schmitz," Additional Viking Targeting Sites for Extended Mariner 9 Mission," 9 June 1972.
 
38. VPO, ''Viking Science Activities," no. 42. 23 June 1972, p. 4; Mutch to Naugle, 10 July 1972; and VPO, "Minutes, Viking Science, Steering Group Meeting," 13 June 1972.
 
39. Young, "Transmittal of Mariner 9 Data on Viking Target Sites," memo, 19 July 1972; George P. Wood to Martin . "Some Inferences from Martian Crater Trails, " 13 July 1972; Young, "August 4-5 Meeting," memo, 13 July 1972 and Kraemer to Naugle, "Viking Landing Sites." 31 July 1972.
 
40. Young, handwritten notes from 4 Aug. 1972 meeting.
 
41. VPO, "Minutes, Viking 75 Project Landing Site Working Group Meeting at Langley Research Center," 4-5 Aug. 1972; and Young," Regions of Interest for Landing Sites," memo, 1 Aug. 1972.
 
42. Henry W. Norris to Martin. " 'North Polar Region' Landing Site Impact," 22 Sept. 1972: Joshua Lederberg to Robins [26 June 1972], with encl.. Lederberg to James D. Porter, "LSWG " [26 June 1972], both items handwritten.
 
43. Young to Landing Site Working Croup, " 'Polar Region' Landing Site Study," 25 Aug.1972; and Young to Martin, 17 Aug. 1972.
 
44. VPO. ''Minutes, Viking 75 Project Landing Site Working Group Meeting at Langley Research Center,'' 28.Sept. 1972 and ''Viking Project Science Steering Group Minutes for Meeting Held September 29, 1972 at the Langley Research Center.'' 29 Sept. 1972.
 
45. Young to Landing Site Working Group, 'Candidate Landing Site Locations," TWX, 19 Oct. 1972: Masursky to Robert H. Steinbacher, 19 Oct. 1972; Young to Sagan 20 Oct. 1972 Young to Porter, 24 Oct. 1972 Young to L. Kingsland, Jr., 24 Oct. 1972; and Leonard V. Clark to Young, "LSWG Comments regarding Hal Masursky's Suggested Changes to Candidate Landing Site Locations," 25 Oct. 1972.
 
46. Naugle to Fletcher. "Mariner Mars '71 Programs, Assessment of Extended Mission Post Launch Mission Operation Report No. S-819-71-01/02. 4 Dec. 1972; Low to Naugle, ''Viking Landing Site," 13 Nov. 1972; VPO, "Landing Site Selection Status and 'North Polar Region Landing Site Study," presentation to Fletcher, 22 Nov.1972; and Martin to Kraemer, "Viking Landing Sites,'' 29 Nov. 1972.
 
47. VPO, ''Minutes, Viking 75 Project Landing Site Working Group Meeting at Kennedy Space Center,'' 4-5 Dec.1972; VPO, "Viking Project Science Steering Group Minutes for Meeting Held at Martin Marietta Aerospace Orlando Facility," 7 Dec. 1972; and Soffen and Young to Science Steering Group and Landing Site Working Group, "Joint Meeting in December 1972," 10 Nov. 1972.
 
48. Young, "Candidate 'North Polar Region' Sites." memo, 15 Dec.1972, and "Candidate Backup 'A' Site," memo, 26 Dec. 1972; Don L. Anderson to Soffen, 21 Dec. 1972; and Alfred O. C. Nier to Soffen, 22 Dec. 1972.
 
49. Michael H. Carr to Soffen, 26 Dec. 1972.
 
50. Richard W. Shorthill to Soffen, 5 Jan 1972; Seymour L. Hess to Soffen, 13 Feb. 1973; and Hess to Soffen, 22 Dec. 1972.
 
51. Harold P. Klein to Soffen, 9 Jan. 1973.
 
52. Mutch to Soffen, 10 Jan. 1973.
 
53. Robert B. Hargraves to Soffen, 10 Jan. 1973; Hugh H. Kieffer to Soffen, 10 Jan. 1973; Kieffer to Young, 11 Jan. 1973; C. Barney Farmer to Soffen, 11 Jan. 1973; and Klaus Biemann to Soffen, 12 Jan. 1973.
 
54. Sagan to Young, 12 Jan. 1973; and Sagan to Martin, 3 Feb. 1973.
 
55. VPO, "Minutes, Viking 75 Project Landing Site Working Group Meeting at Langley Research Center," 8 Feb. 1973; and Soffen and Young to Science Steering Group and Landing Site Working Group, "Viking Landing Sites,'' 12 Feb. 1973.
 
56. Naugle to Fletcher, "Viking Landing Sites in Polar Latitudes," 1973; and Naugle to Fletcher, "Viking Landing Sites in Polar Latitude," 7 Mar. 1973.
 
57. Naugle to Fletcher, "Viking Landing Sites in Polar Latitudes" [6 March 1973].
 
58. VPO, "Minutes, Viking 75 Project Landing Site Working Group Meeting at Langley Research Center," 2-3 Apr. 1973.
 
59. Wolf V. Vishniac to Lederberg, 1 Mar. 1973. Discussion of water, biology, and temperature can be followed in: Leighton, "The Richtmyer Memorial Lecture: A Physicist Looks at Mars," American Journal of Physics 40 (Nov. 1972): 1569-75; Sagan to Farmer, 13 Feb. 1973; Michael C. Malin to Soffen, 20 Feb.1973; Soffen, "AdHoc Meeting on February 28, 1973,"TWX, 21 Feb.1973;Conway B. Leovy to Farmer, 22 Feb. 1973; Sagan to Farmer, 26 Feb.1973; Masursky, "Statement of Mariner 9 Volatiles Working Group on the Probable Distribution of Liquid Water on Mars," craft, 27 Feb. 1973; Lederberg to Sagan, 2 Mar.1973; Leslie E. Orgel to Soffen, 5 Mar.1973; Lederberg to Farmer, 6 Mar. 1973; Klein to Walter Jakobowski, 8 Mar. 1973; Leovy, "Exchange of Water Vapor between the Atmosphere and Surface of Mars," Icarus 18 ( 1973): 120-25; Lederberg to Klein, 12 Mar. 1972; Mutch to Soffen, 4 Apr. 1973; and Norman L. Crabill to Young, "Viking 75 Mission B Site Selection Process," 6 Apr. 1973.
 
60. NASA, "News Conference on Mariner 9," news release. 2 Feb. 1972, p. 29.
 
61. Lederberg to Klein, 12 Mar. 1973; VPO, "Minutes, Landing Site Working Group," 2-3 Apr. 1973; and Soffen to Martin, ''Landing Site Recommendation,''3 Apr. 1973.
 
62. Young interview by Ezell, 9 Sept. 1976.
 
63. Masursky telephone interview by Ezell, 15 Nov. 1976.
 
64. NASA, "News Conference on Viking Landing Site Selection," news release, 7 May 1973, and "Viking Landing Sites," news release 73-91, 2 May 1973. Press reactions included: Marvin Miles," 1st Viking Spacecraft Targeted to Land on Mars July 4, 1976," Los Angeles Times, 8 May 1973; Harold M. Schmeck, Jr., "2 Mars Sites Chosen for Unmanned Landings in '76," New York Times, 8 May 1973; and Vern Haugland, "Mars Probe Aims at Canyon Mouth," Washington Post, 8 May 1973.
 

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