Lunar Science Objectives:
The Rationale for Apollo Landing Site Selection
Following is a summary of material presented to the Apollo Site
Selection Board at its meeting on July 10, 1969, intended to show how
the Site Selection Subgroup of the Group for Lunar Exploration Planning
arrived at their recommended list of primary and alternate sites
(presented at the June meeting of the Board). It relates scientific
experiments to the "15 Questions" tabulated above.
Determination of the absolute age of lunar surface materials by
radioactive-decay methods was of prime importance. The method dates the
time at which a given sample became a closed system for a particular
element; for example, the potassium-40-argon-40 method determines the
time at which a rock containing radioactive potassium-40 cooled
sufficiently to retain the gaseous argon-40 decay product. The age thus
determined may reflect a period of volcanism, melting by meteoric
impact, or original accretion of lunar material.
Ages of primary interest to lunar scientists were:
- the age of the moon's formation or of its oldest crust; this age
might make it possible to distinguish among various theories of lunar
origin. One key site for locating such material was the Fra Mauro
Formation. This widespread blanket of debris is considered to consist of
debris from the "Imbrian event," the cataclysmic occurrence
that produced Mare Imbrium, the enormous circular mare in the
northwestern quadrant of the Earth-facing side of the moon. The Fra
Mauro Formation was given high priority on all lists of potential
- The time at which the maria became filled with the relatively smooth
material, probably once-molten rock, that characterizes them. This date
would be relatively easy to establish, since mission planners preferred
smooth, level landing sites, most often found in the maria.
- The time of significant post-mare events, such as the impacts that
created the craters Copernicus and Tycho. Equally interesting was the
origin of the sinuous rilles, which appeared to have been formed largely
in this later period of lunar history.
A primary interest of geochemists was to find "primitive"
solar system material to deduce the conditions under which planets and
satellites condensed from the solar nebula. Data from analysis of
terrestrial and meteoritic samples, along with solar and stellar
spectral studies and theoretical physics, comprised the prime source of
such information, but both the earth and meteorites have been modified
by subsequent heating and weathering, which have obscured the original
composition. The moon's small size (possibly resulting in a smaller flow
of heat from the interior) and its lack of an atmosphere suggest that it
might still have original material on the surface. It was generally
accepted that this material could most likely be found in the lunar
highlands, which appeared to represent the oldest lunar material.
Second in importance was establishing the bulk composition of the moon.
The abundance of the major elements was expected to be important in
establishing the moon's origin; if it proved to be totally unlike the
earth in composition it could hardly have split off from the earth. The
abundance of radioactive elements would indicate how much energy had
been available for heat-induced chemical changes in the moon since its
formation. To determine the bulk composition of the moon it was
necessary to sample as many different geologic units as possible.
Particularly important were sites showing evidence of differentiation or
the presence on the surface of deep-seated material, such as would be
present in and around impact excavations or explosive craters and in
blankets of material ejected from craters. Radioactivity could be
measured by instruments in lunar orbit, hence the importance of flying
experiments in the service module.
Finally, analysis of any present or past lunar atmosphere would give
clues to lunar origin and evolution. Gas detectors operating over a long
period of time might possibly detect transient events, such as had been
reported in the crater Aristarchus. The sinuous rilles (e.g., Rima
Prinz) were also likely sites for detecting any emission of gases from
the lunar interior.
Major Geomorphic Processes.
The study of the processes by which lunar landforms have been created
and destroyed was important mainly to second- and third-order questions
about the moon, but was essential in holding the first-order questions
(above) together. Knowledge of dominant processes would provide the
basis for selection of samples and determining their place of origin, as
well as providing major clues to past energy expenditure on the moon.
Regions of particular interest in this regard were the sinuous rilles
and areas of volcanic cratering. Since photography covered a large
fraction of the lunar surface, data from a few landing sites would
enable geomorphologists to draw conclusions about most of the moon.
The only source of information on the moon's internal structure was the
emplaced ALSEP experiments, which included a seismometer and a heat flow
instrument. (Later ALSEPs would include different geophysical
Seismic data were expected to yield information on layering in the moon,
the rate of release of internal strain, and the number and energy of
meteorite impacts. It would be very useful to the seismologists to
produce an impact of known energy at a known location, such as by
causing a spent S-IVB stage or a lunar module ascent stage to crash on
the lunar surface. It was important to have at least four seismic
instruments active at one time; they should be about 1,000 km apart with
as much angular separation as possible. Thus sites at high latitudes,
such as Tycho, were quite important.
Data on heat flow were difficult to interpret but could assist in
determining whether the moon had originally been hot or cold.
Lunar gravity and geodesy would determine the extent of the
"mascons" (mass concentrations) and whether the moon was in
hydrostatic equilibrium. These were well suited to study by orbiting
The laser retroreflectors were expected to make it possible to determine
earth-moon distances within a few centimeters, enabling scientists to
measure the librations of the moon with previously unattainable
accuracy. Best results would be obtained with widely separated
Characteristics of the Recommended Landing Sites.
The short list of landing sites for the first 10 lunar exploration
missions should include:
Following is a description of the 10 prime sites chosen by the Group for
Lunar Exploration Planning. The sites were selected in order of their
preferred execution on one "G," four "H," and five
- two types of mare material, "older" or eastern and
"younger" or western;
- regional stratigraphic units, such as blanket (ejecta) deposits
around mare basins;
- various types and sizes of impact craters in the maria and in the
- morphological manifestations of volcanism in the maria and in the
- areas that may give clues to the nature and extent of processes
other than impact and volcanism, which may have acted on the lunar
The Group for Lunar Exploration Planning recommended this list of sites
after considering the expected evolution in capability as well as the
constraints imposed by operations. Those selected for "J"
missions, for example, were picked on account of the additional time on
the surface that would be available and the increased mobility that
would be provided by a powered vehicle. Tycho, accessible only in the
early part of the year because of operational limitations, was switched
from the third to the second "J" mission for that reason,
although it was better than the Marius Hills site for exploration on
- (1) Landing Site 2 ("older" or eastern mare).
- This site is entirely within relatively old mare (Imbrian) material.
It includes many large subdued craters 200 to 600 meters in diameter but
comparatively few in the size range 50-200 meters, a distribution common
to many apparently old surfaces. Determination of the age and nature of
this Imbrian mare material was a primary object of landing at this site.
- (2) Landing Site 5 ("younger" or western mare).
- Landing Site 5 is located within relatively young (Eratosthenian)
mare material and displays many craters 50 to 200 meters in diameter and
relatively fewer of the larger (200-600 meter) craters. It is surrounded
by well developed rays from Kepler, making it likely that it contains
material derived from considerable depth. The chief goal of a landing at
Site 5 was to determine the age and composition of Eratosthenian mare
- (3) Fra Mauro Formation.
- This extensive geologic unit covers large portions of the surface
around Mare Imbrium and is thought to be material ejected when Imbrium
was formed. Samples from the Fra Mauro Formation would help to
understand its nature, composition, and formation and its relation to
the "Imbrian event."
- (4) Rima Bode II.
- Rima Bode II, a single linear rille running close to a fresh,
elongate crater and a crater chain, was of interest because both the
rille and the crater were possible sources of several dark geologic
units most probably of volcanic origin. The site was selected as an
example of a region where material of deep-seated origin was expected.
An alternative site was Hyginus Rille, similar in characteristics but
apparently less fresh. Another site, Littrow, would meet part of the
objectives of a mission to Rima Bode H.
- (5) Censorinus
- Censorinus is a 3.8-km crater located within and near the edge of a
highland block south-southeast of Mare Tranqillitatis. It offered the
opportunity, early in the exploration program, to sample both highland
material and features associated with a fresh impact crater. The
proposed site was within the ejecta blanket about 1 km north of the
crater rim and allowed investigation of the crater on foot, without
mobility aids. If Censorinus presented operational difficulties, Littrow
could be considered as an alternative site for this mission.
- (6) Copernicus (peak).
- This bright crater, 95 km in diameter, is the source of visible rays
of ejected material extending for several hundred kilometers. Its walls
expose a 4-km vertical section of the lunar crust. The floor, some 60 km
across, contains multiple peaks with a maximum height of 800 meters. A
mission to the central peaks would be mainly a sampling mission with the
objective of bringing back material that once lay at considerable depth.
- (7) Marius Hills.
- Marius Hills, a group of domes and cones near the center of Oceanus
Procellarum west-northwest of the crater Marius, are part of a ridge
system stretching some 1,900 km through Oceanus Procellarum. The variety
of features in this area and their similarity to terrestrial volcanic
structures strongly suggests intensive and prolonged volcanic activity.
- (8) Tycho (rim).
- Tycho, like Censorinus a fresh impact crater, is in the southern
highlands. It is much larger than Censorinus and offers an opportunity
to study many features common to large, fresh impact events, including
associated volcanism. The proposed landing site was near the
Surveyor VII spacecraft, offering the option of returning
some Surveyor parts. In that area are several generations of flows, a
pond or pool, ejected blocks (probably from Tycho), and other ejecta
features and structures.
- (9) Rima Prinz I,
- Rima Prinz I, in the Harbinger Mountains northeast of the Marius
Hills, is a double sinuous rille - a small meandering rille enclosed
within a larger sinuous rille. The origin of the rilles is of great
interest because they resemble channels carved by a flowing fluid. A
landing near the mouth of Rima Prinz I, selected because of the
freshness of its details, would allow examination of the lower part of
the eroded valley, sampling the materials and studying the exposed
structures. An alternative, Schroter's V alley , displays similar
characteristics but appears older than Rima Prinz I.
- (10) Descartes.
- The area of the southern highlands north of the crater Descartes and
west of Mare Nectaris is characterized by hilly, groovy, and furrowed
deposits reminiscent of terrestrial volcanoes. A mission to a region of
intensive and prolonged volcanism within the lunar terrae was considered
most important, from both the geological and geochemical viewpoints. An
alternative to this site was Abulfeda, just to the southwest.
The Apollo Site Selection Board accepted this list for planning purposes
at its meeting on July 10, 1969. As was to be expected, the list
underwent considerable revision during the next three years, both as to
the choice of sites and the order in which they would be explored, as
mission planning became more detailed and operational capability