FIRST AMONG EQUALS : NOTES

 
 
1. Homer E. Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, Early Years of Space Science. NASA SP-4211 (Washington. D.C., 1980), pp. 33-44. Newell was a member of Krause's group at NRL. His book provides a complete history of the formation, membership, and work of the Panel throughout its existence.
 
2. James A. Van Allen, Origins at Magnetospheric Physics (Washington. D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1983), pp. 15-20. Van Allen was a charter member of the Panel and chairman from 1947 through 1958.
 
3. Van Allen, Magnetosphere, p. 17.
 
4. James A. Van Allen to John E. Naugle, March 15, 1989, comments on second draft, NASA History Office.
 
5. Van Allen, Magnetosphere, p. 18.
 
6. Newell, Atmosphere, p. 35.
 
7. Newell, Atmosphere, p. 41.
 
8. Allan A. Needell, Lloyd Berkner, Merle Tuve, and the Federal Role in Radio Astronomy, OSIRIS, 2nd series, 1987, 3: 261-288.
 
9. Newell, Atmosphere, p. 50.
 
10. Newell, Atmosphere, pp. 45,425.
 
11. John W. Townsend, Jr., to John E. Naugle, February 13, 1989, comments on second draft, NASA History Office.
 
12. John A. Simpson to John E. Naugle, March 22, 1989, comments on second draft, NASA History Office.
 
13. Newell, Atmosphere, pp. 87-99.
 
14. John L. Sloop, Liquid Hydrogen as a Propulsion Fuel, 1945-1959, NASA SP-4404 (Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 173-185.
 
15. Robert L. Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1963, NASA SP-4101 (Washington, D.C., 1966), pp. 3-8.
 
16. Minutes of the First Meeting, Technical Panel on Earth Satellite Program, October 20, 1955, National Academy of Sciences (hereafter NAS) Archives, IGY Series. File: Minutes of TPESP
 
17. Minutes, First Meeting of Technical Panel, Attachment 4.
 
18. John A. Simpson to John E. Naugle, March 22, 1989, comments on second draft. NASA History Office
 
19. James A Van Allen, ed., Scientific Uses of Earth Satellites (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1956)
 
20. Minutes of the Second Meeting Technical Panel on Earth Satellite Program. November 21, 1956, NAS Archives. IGY Series. File: Minutes of TPESP
 
21. Minutes of the Third Meeting, Technical Panel on Earth Satellite Program, January 28, 1956, NAS Archives, IGY Series. File: Minutes of TPESp
 
22. Van Allen, Magnetosphere, pp. 41-42.
 
23. Minutes of the First Meeting of the Working Group on Internal Instrumentation, March 2, 1956, NAS Archives, IGY Series. File: Minutes of WGII.
 
24. Minutes of the Fourth Meeting, Technical Panel on Earth Satellite Program, March 8-9, 1955, NAS Archives, IGY Series. File: Minutes of TPESP
 
25. Van Allen, Magnetosphere, p. 42.
 
26. Minutes of the Second Meeting of the Working Group on Internal Instrumentation, June 1, 1956, NAS Archives, IGY Series. File: Minutes of WGII.
 
27. Van Allen, Magnetosphere, p. 42.
 
28. "Soviet Embassy Guests Hear of Satellite from an American as Russians Beam," New York Times, October 5, 1957.
 
29. Newell, Atmosphere, pp. 55-57.
 
30. Van Allen, Magnetosphere, pp. 43-47.
 
31. The Washington Post and Times Herald, November 8, 1957.
 
32. Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 4-8. Rosholt provides an excellent summary of the activities leading to the creation of NASA.
 
33. Newell, Atmosphere, p. 93.
 
34. James A. Van Allen to John E. Naugle, March 15, 1989, comments on second draft. NASA History Office.
 
35. Van Allen, Magnetosphere, p. 55.
 
36. Minutes of the Thirteenth Meeting, Technical Panel for the Earth Satellite Program, October 22, 1957, NAS Archives, IGY Series. File: Minutes of TPESP
 
37. R. Cargill Hall, Lunar Impact, A History of Project Ranger, NASA SP-4210 (Washington, D,C., 1977), pp. 6-10.
 
38. Dr. John A. Simpson to John E. Naugle, March 22, 1989, comments on second draft. NASA History Office.
 
39. Tenth Meeting, Working Group on Internal Instrumentation, May 26, 1958, NAS Archives, IGY Series. File: Minutes of WGII.
 
40. Minutes of the Eighteenth Meeting of the Technical Panel of the Earth Satellite Program, May 27, 1958, NAS Archives, IGY Series. File: Minutes of TPESP
 
41. John A. Simpson to John E. Naugle, March 22, 1989, comments on second draft. NASA History Office
 
42. For a more complete understanding of the forces shaping NASA in the winter of 1957 and 1958, see Robert L. Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1963, NASA SP-4101 (Washington, D.C., 1966); and Walter A. McDougall, The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age (New York: Basic Books, 1986).
 
43. Newell, Atmosphere, pp. 430-432.
 
44. Ken Hechler, Toward the Endless Frontier, History of the Committee on Science and Technology, 1959-1979 (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1980), pp. 1-8.
 
45. Robert L. Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 3-17.
 
46. Homer E. Newell, Atmosphere, pp. 87-99.
 
47. Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 8-12.
 
48. Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 19-34.
 
49. Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 34, 35.
 
50. John L. Sloop, Liquid Hydrogen as a Propulsion Fuel, 1945-1959, NASA SP-4404 (Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 180-185.
 
51. Rosholt, Administrative History, p. 35.
 
52. National Aeronautics and Space Act: Public Law 85-568, 85th Congress, H. R. 12575, July 29, 1958.
 
53. Rosholt, Administrative History, pp 8-17.
 
54. Ibid.
 
55. Ibid.
 
56. Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., James M. Grimwood, Charles C. Alexander, This New Ocean, A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, D.C., 1966), p. 101.
 
57. Space Act.
 
58. Hechler, Frontier, p. 11.
 
59. Sloop, Hydrogen, p. 185.
 
60. Hechler, Frontier, pp. 20, 21.
 
61. Minutes of the Eighteenth Meeting of the Technical Panel of the Earth Satellite Program, May 27, 1958, NAS Archives, IGY Series. File: Minutes of TPESP.
 
62. Lloyd V. Berkner and Hugh Odishaw, eds., Science in Space (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961), p. 429.
 
63. Robert O. Piland to Dr. James Killian, chairman, The President's Science Advisory Committee (PSAC), June 12, 1958. NASA History Office. Piland's memo is the only written record of this seminal meeting the author could find. Robert O. Piland, on detail to PSAC from the Langley Research Center, attended the meeting and reported the results to Killian
 
64. Dr. Detlev W. Bronk to Lloyd V. Berkner, June 26, 1958, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File Administration.
 
65. First Meeting of the Space Science Board, June 27, 1958, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Meetings.
 
66. Charles M. Atkins, NASA and the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences (unpublished draft in the files of the NASA History Office). This document contains copies of NASA/SSB correspondence and much information on the relations between the Board and NASA in the early years of the space program. It contains a copy of the telegram sent by the Board.
 
67. Kinsey Anderson to John E. Naugle, March 29, 1989, comments on second draft. NASA History Office.
 
68. Odishaw to Dryden, July 24, 1958, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Recommendations for Experiments.
 
69. Porter to Berkner, July 18, 1958, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Recommendations for Experiments.
 
70. John A. Simpson to John E. Naugle, March 22, 1989, comments on second draft. NASA History Office.
 
71. Minutes of the First Meeting of the Committee on Physics of Fields and Particles in Space, October 14, 1958, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Meetings.
 
72. Simpson to members of the Committee on Physics of Fields and Particles in Space, September 19, 1958, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Meetings.
 
73. Goldberg to members of the Optical and Radio Astronomy Committee of the Space Science Board, September 26, 1958, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Meetings.
 
74. Minutes of the First Meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee on Optical and Radio Astronomy, October 6, 1958, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Meetings.
 
75. Memorandum Report, December 1, 1958, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Recommendations for Space Experiments.
 
76. Hechler, Frontier, pp. 11-13.
 
77. Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 40. 41.
 
78. Rosholt, Administrative History, p. 41.
 
79. Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 4-50, 335.
 
80. Newell, Atmosphere, pp. 101-104.
 
81. Sloop, Hydrogen, pp. 180-185. Sloop presents an excellent description of Silverstein, his strengths and weaknesses, and mode of operation.
 
82. Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 3 -44
 
83. Sloop, Hydrogen, pp. 180-185.
 
84. Newell, Atmosphere, p. 102.
 
85. John F Clark to John E. Naugle, March 22, 1989, comments on second draft. NASA History Office.
 
86. Newell, Atmosphere, pp. 204,205.
 
87. Minutes of the Third Meeting of the Space Science Board, October 24-25, 1958, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Meetings.

88. Scientific Research in Space, 1958, Draft II, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. There is no record as to who wrote this draft or when it was written. Odishaw probably drafted it for consideration by the Board at the third meeting. The Board never published this version of the document. A much modified version, which describes quite different roles for NASA and the Board was published in Science ("Research in Space," Vol. 130, No. 3369, July 24, 1959).

 
89. Homer E. Newell Jr., Conference Report, Space Science Board Meeting, October 24-25, 1958, NASA History Office.
 
90. Ibid.
 
91. Ibid.
 
92. Minutes of Third Meeting of Space Once Board.
 
93. Newell, Conference Report, October 24-25.
 
94. Homer E. Newell, Jr., Memorandum for Record, October 29, 1958, NASA History Office, Homer E. Newell files, Box 6, File 162.
 
95. Silverstein to Glennan, Proposed NASA Policy on Space Flight Experiments, December 12, 1958, NASA History Office.
 
96. Minutes of the Administrator's Staff Meeting, December 15, 1958, NASA History Office.
 
97. NASA Policy on Space Flight Experiments, December 12, 1958.
 
98. Glennan to Odishaw, December 33, 1958, NASA History Office.
 
99. Clayton R. Koppes, JPL and the African Space Program: A History of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1982), pp. 94-112.
 
100. Rosholt, Administrative History, p. 48. Fig. 3-3.
 
101. John A. Simpson to John E. Naugle, comments on second draft, April 3, 1989, NASA History Office.
 
102. Townsend to Newell, February 6, 1959, NASA Archives, Newell Files, Box 6, File 162.
 
103. Townsend, February 6, 1959.
 
104. Newell, Atmosphere, p. 204
 
105. Richard Witkin, "Missile Blown up at Launching," New York Times, September 17, 1959.
 
106. Hanson W. Baldwin, "Russia's Moon Shot Again Demonstrates Its Lead in Space Race," New York Times, September 20, 1959.
 
107. John W. Finney, "U.S. Space Program Far Behind Soviet's," New York Times, October 10, 1959.
 
108. William Hines, "U.S. Out of Space Race For at Least 2 Years," Washington Star, November 29, 1959.
 
109. Hall, Project Ranger, p. 13. Hall's book provides a history and bibliography of NASA's lunar program.
 
110. James MacNees, "House Group Planning Wide Hearings Next Session, Brooks Says," Baltimore Sun, October 29, 1959.
 
111. John Van Camp, "Leadership of World is involved, He Says," Baltimore Sun, December 18,1959.
 
112. Hall, Project Ranger, pp. 46-80.
 
113. N. F Ness, C. S. Scearce, and J. B. Seek, "Initial Results of the IMP-1 Magnetic Field Experiment," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 69 (1964), pp. 3531-3569
 
114. Hugh Odishaw, Memorandum Report, December 1, 1958, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: SSB Reports.
 
115. Frank B. McDonald to John E. Naugle, 10 March 1989, comments on second draft, NASA History OffIce.
 
116. William R. Corliss, Scientific Satellites, NASA SP-133, (Washington, D.C., 1967), pp. 725, 726.
 
117. Minutes of the Firs Meeting, Committee on Physics of Fields and Particles in Space, October 14, 15, 1958, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Meetings.
 
118. Odishaw, Memorandum Report, December 1, 1958.
 
119. Corliss, Satellites, pp. 765-767.
 
120. Corliss, Satellites, pp. 723.
 
121. Odishaw, Memorandum Report, December 1, 1958.
 
122. John F. Clark to John E. Naugle, 22 March 1989, comments on second draft, NASA History Office.
 
123. Newell to Shilling, Newell to Clark, October 10, 1959, NASA History Office, Newell Files: Box 6, File 173.
 
124. Newell's Dairies, October 20, 1959, NASA History Office.
 
125. Hall, Project Ranger, p. 18.

126. Space Science Board, "Research to Space," Science, Vol. 130, July 24, 1959, pp. 3-10.

 
127. Ten-Year Space Science Program, Odishaw to members, Space Science Board and Committees, July 30, 1959, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Science Programs.
 
128. Dryden to Cornell, October 20,1958, NASA History Office.
 
129. Berkner to Kistiakowsky, November 13, 1959, Transmittal Letter, Report to the President's Scientific Advisory Committee, November, 1959, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Report to PSAC.
 
130. Odishaw to SSB Committee Chairmen and Members, February 5, 1960, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Memoranda, SSB-139.
 
131. Report to the President's Scientific Advisory Committee, November 1959, NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Report to PSAC.
 
132. Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 107-116.
 
133. Horner to Pickering, December 16, 1959, NASA History Office, Newell Files: Box 6, File 163.
 
134. Pickering to Silverstein, December 17, 1959, NASA History Office, Newell Files, Box 6, File 163.
 
135. Silverstein to Pickering, December 21, 1959, NASA History Office, Newell Files, Box 6, File 163.
 
136. Dr. Homer E. Newell, Memorandum for the file, December 30, 1959, NASA History Office, Newell Files, Box 6, File 163.
 
137. John A. Simpson to John E. Naugle, April 3, 1989, comments on second draft. NASA History Office.
 
138. Silverstein to Pickering, January 26, 1960, NASA History Office, Newell Files, Box 6, File 163. This letter is also interesting because it illustrates the way NASA Headquarters operated in 1960. Cortright, as the newly designated assistant director for Lunar and Planetary Programs, prepared the letter and Newell, the newly designated deputy to Silverstein, signed it for Silverstein.
 
139. Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 340, 341.
 
140. Newell to Stoller, Approval of LRL Experiment, February 9, 1960. In this memo Newell directs Stoller to prepare a memorandum to Silverstein requesting his approval of the experiment. There is no mention of the Steering Committee in this memo.
 
141. Newell to Cortright, Meeting of Steering Committee, February 11, 1960. NASA History Office. Newell calls a meeting of the Steering Committee to consider a "John Winckler Proposal." This is the first mention of the Steering Committee in NASA correspondence.
 
142. John F. Clark to John E. Naugle, March 23, 1989, comments on second draft, NASA History Office.
 
143. Establishment and Conduct of Space Sciences Program- Selection of Scientific Experiments, TMI 37-1-1, April 15, 1960, NASA History Office.
 
144. Minutes of the Space Science Steering Committee, Meeting No. 1, February 16, 1960, NASA History Office.
 
145. Minutes of the Space Science Steering Committee, Meeting No. 2, March 4, 1960, NASA History Office.
 
146. Minutes of the Space Science Steering Committee, Meeting No. 4, March 16, 1960. NASA History Office.
 
147. Ibid.
 
148. Pickering to Newell, March 22, 1960, NASA History Office, Newell Files, Box 6, File 163.
 
149. Minutes of the Space Science Steering Committee, Meeting No. 5, March 21, 1960. NASA History Office.
 
150. Minutes of the Space Science Steering Committee, Meeting No. 8, April 4, 1960. NASA History Office.
 
151. Minutes of the Space Science Steering Committee, Meeting No. 44, November 28, 1960. NASA History Office.
 
152. Minutes of the Space Science Steering Committee, Meeting No. 45, December 5, 1960. NASA History Office.
 
153. Minutes of the Space Science Steering Committee, Meeting No. 9, April 11, 1960. NASA History Office.
 
154. Newell, Memorandum for the Files, April 13, 1960, NASA History Office, Newell Files, Box 6, File 175.
 
155. Naugle to Newell (via Clark and Stoller), Formation of the Fields and Particles Subcommittee, April 1, 1960. Minutes of the Particles and Fields Subcommittee, NASA History Office.
 
156. Minutes of the Particles and Fields Subcommittee, Meeting No. 1, May 3, 1960. NASA History Office.
 
157. Minutes of the Particles and Fields Subcommittee, Meeting No, 2, May 19, 1960. NASA History Office.
 
158. Hall, Project Ranger, pp. 74-77.
 
159. Minutes of the Particles and Fields Subcommittee, Meeting No. 3, July 11-12, 1960. NASA History Office
 
160. Naugle to Newell, July 22, 1960, and Minutes of the Particles and Fields Subcommittee, Meeting No 3. July 11, 1960. NASA History Office.
 
161. Minutes of the Particles and Fields Subcommittee, Meeting No. 6, May 25, 1961. NASA History Office
 
162. Minutes of the Particles and Fields Subcommittee, Meeting No. 7, October 4, 1961. NASA History Office.
 
163. Minutes of the Particles and Fields Subcommittee, Meeting No. 10, June 7, 1962. NASA History Office.
 
164. Minutes of the Particles and Fields Subcommittee, Meeting No. 1-63, September 6, 7, 1962. NASA History Office.
 
165. Minutes of the Particles and Fields Subcommittee, April 30, 1983, Minutes of the Space Science Steering Committee, June 17, 1963, July 22, 1963. NASA History Office.
 
166. Newell to Dryden, February 18, 1960. NASA History Office, Newell Files, Box 6, File 179.
 
167. Berkner to Kistiakowsky, November 13, 1959.
 
168. Pearman to Odishaw, et al., February 3, 1961. NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series, File: Physics of Fields and Particles in Space.
 
169. Rosholt, Administrative History, p. 344.
 
170. NASA Management Manual Instruction 37-1-1A, NASA History Office.
 
171. Newell, Atmosphere, pp. 223-237.
 
172. Dryden to Berkner, October 25, 1961. NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: NASA Reorganization.
 
173. Berkner to Members of the Space Science Board, November 3, 1961. NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Reorganization.
 
174. Berkner to Bronk, January 5, 1962. NAS Archives, Space Science Board Series. File: Reorganization.
 
175. James A. Van Allen to John E. Naugle, March 15, 1989, comments on second draft, NASA History Office.
 
176. Opportunities for Participation in Space Flight Investigations, NHB 8030.1, Issued by the Office of Space Science and Applications, July 1965. NASA History Office.
 
177. Newell, Atmosphere, pp. 216-219.
 
178. F. B. McDonald to John E. Naugle comments on second draft, March 10, 1989, NASA History Office.
 
179. "NASA Announces Earth Observation System Investigations," NASA News Release 89-15, February 8, 1989, NASA History Office.
 
180. Space Science Board, Space Science in the Twenty-First Century, Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015, (Washington D. C.: National Academy Press, 1988).
 
181. National Commission on Space, Pioneering the Space Frontier (New York: Bantam Books, 1986).
 
182. Sally K. Ride, Leadership and Americas Future in Space, A Report to the NASA Administrator, 1987. NASA History Office.
 
183. White House Press Release, July 20, 1989.
 

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