LIQUID HYDROGEN AS A PROPULSION FUEL,1945-1959
 
 
- [iii-vi] Table of Contents -
 
 
 
 
FOREWORD.
 
PREFACE.
 
1. INTRODUCTION.
 
 

PART 1: 1945-1950

 
 
2. AIR FORCE RESEARCH ON HYDROGEN.
The Cryogenics Laboratory at Ohio State University Hydrogen for Aircraft and Rockets.
Hydrogen-Air.
Hydrogen-Oxygen Rocket.
Rocket-Engine Cooling.
Pumping Liquid Hydrogen.
Hydrogen and Fluorine.
Significance.
 
3. HYDROGEN-OXYGEN FOR A NAVY SATELLITE.
Origins of Navy Interest in Satellites and Hydrogen.
Aerojet Propellant Research, 1944-1945.
Aerojet's First Series of Experiments, 1945-1946.
The Hall Committee.
JPL Study.
Attitudes towards Missiles and Satellites.
The Air Force's Interest in Satellites.
World Circling Spaceships.
North American Aviation Study.
Fading of Satellite Proposals.
Aerojet and Martin Design Studies.
Aerojet's Second Series of Experiments, 1946-1947.
Switch in Emphasis from Military to Science.
The Canright Report.
Aerojet's Third Series of Experiments, 1947-1949.
Supply of Liquid Hydrogen.
Turbopump Development, 1947-1949.
Thrust Chamber Experiments, 1947-1949.
JPL Experiments with Hydrogen-Oxygen, 1948-1949.
Fading Interest in Hydrogen-Oxygen.
 
SUMMARY, PART I.
 
 

PART II : 1950-1957

 
 
 
4. HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY FROM THERMONUCLEAR RESEARCH.
Johnston's New Career.
National Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory.
Mobile Liquid Hydrogen Equipment, 1952-1954.
Cryogenic Information Exchange.
Summary.
 
5. NACA RESEARCH ON HIGH-ENERGY PROPELLANTS.
Conference on Propellant Selection.
NACA Rocket Subcommittee.
Research Conference on Supersonic Missiles.
Boost from the Subcommittee.
Plans for Rocket Facilities.
Switch from Air-Breathing to Rocket Engines.
First Attempt to Use Liquid Hydrogen.
Second Attempt to Use Liquid Hydrogen.
NACA Reconsiders Missiles.
Advanced Propulsion Concepts.
High-Energy Propellant Facility.
Thrust Chamber Design and Fabrication.
Space Becomes an Acceptable Word.
Emphasis on Hydrogen.
First Regeneratively-Cooled Hydrogen-Fluorine Rocket.
Significance.
 
6. NACA RESEARCH ON HYDROGEN FOR HIGH-ALTITUDE AIRCRAFT.
New Interest in Hydrogen.
Silverstein-Hall Report.
Bee Project.
Flight Propulsion Conference.
Air-Breathing Engines for High-Speed Flight.
Mach 4 Configurations and Missions.
Summary.
 
7. NEW INITIATIVES IN HIGH-ALTITUDE AIRCRAFT.
Origins of Very- High-Altitude Aircraft at Wright Field.
Rae's Rex I Proposal.
Other Engines and Hydrogen Proposals.
Air Force Evaluation of Rex I.
Other Reactions to Rite's Proposal.
WADC Response to ARDC Directive.
High-Level Air Force Interest in Rex.
Long Summer of Negotiations.
Shift from Subsonic to Supersonic Aircraft.
Garrett Loses the Fight.
What Went Wrong.
Other Interests in Hydrogen.
Summary.
 
8. SUNTAN.
Air Force Moves Fast.
Lockheed CL-400.
Fort Robertson at the Skunk Works.
Hydrogen Tanks and Systems.
Is Hydrogen a Practical Fuel?.
Suntan at United Aircraft.
Shamrock.
The Model 304 Engine.
Engine Tests.
Baby Bear, Mama Bear, and Papa Bear.
Suntan Fades.
Suntan Technology and Equipment I.
 
SUMMARY, PART II.
 
 

PART III : 1958-1959

 
 
9. THE EARLY U.S. SPACE PROGRAM.
The Navy's Vanguard.
The Army's Redstone and Jupiter Vehicles.
The Air Force and the Ballistic Vehicle Build-Up.
Competition for the Space Role.
Consolidation of Military Space Projects.
NACA Takes the Initiative.
 
10. EARLY HIGH-ENERGY UPPER STAGES.
Legacy of Suntan.
Origins of Centaur.
NASA Plans, ARPA Acts.
Lewis Hydrogen Rocket Experiments, 1958-1959.
Transfer of Centaur.
Summary.
 
11. LARGE ENGINES AND VEHICLES, 1958.
Early Air Force Interest in Large Engines and Vehicles.
Transfer of Large Engine to NASA.
The Army's Bid to Develop Large Launch Vehicles.
NACA Working Group on Launch Vehicles.
ARPA Initiates First Large Launch Vehicle.
Summary.
 
12. SATURN, 1959.
First National Space Vehicle Plan.
Saturn Runs into Trouble.
Transfer of Saturn and ABMA to NASA.
The Gathering Storm over Saturn Configurations.
Saturn Vehicle Team.
Saturn Development Plan.
 
SUMMARY, PART III.

APPENDIXES
 
A. HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY THROUGH WORLD WAR II.

A-1.

Hydrogen through the Nineteenth Century Gaseous Hydrogen.

A-2.

Rocket Pioneers.

A-3.

Hydrogen Technology, 1900-1945.

A-4.

Hydrogen as a Rocket Fuel.

B. PROPULSION PRIMER, PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS, AND UNITS.
The Propulsion Principle.
Propulsive Efficiency.
Propulsion System Comparisons.
Gas Turbine Engines.
Ramjet.
Rocket.
Rocket Performance Parameters and Units.
 
 
SOURCE NOTES: chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and appendixes A-2, A-3 and A-4.
 
BIBLIOGRAPHY.
 
AUTHOR.
 

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Sloop, John L.
Liquid hydrogen as a propulsion fuel, 1945-1959.
(The NASA history series) (NASA SP; 4404)
Bibliography: p.
Includes index.
1. Rockets (Aeronautics)- Fuel. 2. Hydrogen as fuel. 1. Title. II. Series: United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The NASA history series. 111. Series: United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA SP 4404.
TI-785.S58 629.47'522 77-26960

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